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1.
Adv Mater ; : e2002812, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614510

RESUMO

2D hybrid halide perovskites with the formula (A')2 (A)n -1 Pbn I3 n +1 have remarkable stability and promising efficiency in photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices, yet fundamental understanding of film formation, key to optimizing these devices, is lacking. Here, in situ grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) is used to monitor film formation during spin-coating. This elucidates the general film formation mechanism of 2D halide perovskites during one-step spin-coating. There are three stages of film formation: sol-gel, oriented 3D, and 2D. Three precursor phases form during the sol-gel stage and transform to perovskite, first giving a highly oriented 3D-like phase at the air/liquid interface followed by subsequent nucleations forming slightly less oriented 2D perovskite. Furthermore, heating before crystallization leads to fewer nucleations and faster removal of the precursors, improving orientation. This outlines the primary causes of phase distribution and perpendicular orientation in 2D perovskite films and paves the way for rationally designed film fabrication techniques.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657123

RESUMO

Large singlet exciton diffusion lengths are a hallmark of high performance in organic based devices such as photovoltaics, chemical sensors, and photodetectors. In this study, exciton dynamics of a two-dimensional covalent organic framework, COF-5, is investigated using ultrafast spectroscopic techniques. Following photoexcitation, the COF-5 exciton decays via three pathways: 1) excimer formation (4 ± 2 ps), 2) excimer relaxation (160 ± 40 ps), and 3) excimer decay (>3 ns). Excita-tion fluence-dependent transient absorption studies suggest that COF-5 has a relatively large diffusion coefficient (0.08 cm2/s). Furthermore, exciton-exciton annihilation processes are characterized as a function of COF-5 crystallite domain size in four different samples, which reveal domain-size dependent exciton diffusion kinetics. These results reveal that exciton diffusion in COF-5 is constrained by its crystalline domain size. These insights indicate the outstanding promise of delocalized excitonic processes available in 2D COFs, which motivate their continued design and implementation into optoelectronic devices.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872540

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are highly modular porous crystalline polymers that are of interest for applications such as charge-storage devices, nanofiltration membranes, and optoelectronic devices. COFs are typically synthesized as microcrystalline powders, which limits their performance in these applications, and their limited solubility precludes large-scale processing into more useful morphologies and devices. We report a general, scalable method to exfoliate two-dimensional imine-linked COF powders by temporarily protonating their linkages. The resulting suspensions were cast into continuous crystalline COF films up to 10 cm in diameter, with thicknesses ranging from 50 nm to 20 µm depending on the suspension composition, concentration, and casting protocol. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the film fabrication process proceeds through a partial depolymerization/repolymerization mechanism, providing mechanically robust films that can be easily separated from their substrates.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(50): 19728-19735, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743009

RESUMO

The synthesis of periodic two-dimensional (2D) polymers and characterization of their optoelectronic behaviors are challenges at the forefront of polymer chemistry and materials science. Recently, we showed that layered 2D polymers known as 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) can be synthesized as single crystals by preparing COF particles as colloidal suspensions. Here we expand this approach from the condensation of boronic acids and catechols to the dehydrative trimerization of polyboronic acids. The resulting boroxine-linked colloids are the next class of 2D COFs to be obtained as single-crystalline particles, as demonstrated here for four 2D COFs and one 3D COF. Colloidal stabilization enables detailed structural analysis by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Solution fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the COF crystallites are highly emissive compared to their respective monomer solutions. Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy indicated that the origin of this enhanced emission can be attributed to through-space communication of chromophores between COF sheets. These observations will motivate the development of colloidal COF systems as a platform to organize functional aromatic systems into precise and predictable assemblies with emergent properties.

5.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(16): 6473-6478, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964670

RESUMO

Carbene polymerization provides polyolefins that cannot be readily prepared from olefin monomers; however, controlled and living carbene polymerization has been a long-standing challenge. Here we report a new class of initiators, (π-allyl)palladium carboxylate dimers, which polymerize ethyl diazoacetate, a carbene precursor in a controlled and quasi-living manner, with nearly quantitative yields, degrees of polymerization >100, molecular weight dispersities 1.2-1.4, and well-defined, diversifiable chain ends. This method also provides block copolycarbenes that undergo microphase segregation. Experimental and theoretical mechanistic analysis supports a new dinuclear mechanism for this process.

6.
Chem Sci ; 10(13): 3796-3801, 2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996969

RESUMO

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) consist of monomers arranged in predictable structures with emergent properties. However, improved crystallinity, porosity, and solution processability remain major challenges. To this end, colloidal COF nanoparticles are useful for mechanistic studies of nucleation and growth and enable advanced spectroscopy and solution processing of thin films. Here we present a general approach to synthesize imine-linked 2D COF nanoparticles and control their size by favoring imine polymerization while preventing the nucleation of new particles. The method yields uniform, crystalline, and high-surface-area particles and is applicable to several imine-linked COFs. In situ X-ray scattering experiments reveal the nucleation of amorphous polymers, which crystallize via imine exchange processes during and after particle growth, consistent with previous mechanistic studies of imine-linked COF powders. The separation of particle formation and growth processes offers control of particle size and may enable further improvements in crystallinity in the future.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 504, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700706

RESUMO

Significant interest exists in lead trihalides that present the perovskite structure owing to their demonstrated potential in photovoltaic, lasing, and display applications. These materials are also notable for their unusual phase behavior often displaying easily accessible phase transitions. In this work, time-resolved X-ray diffraction, performed on perovskite cesium lead bromide nanocrystals, maps the lattice response to controlled excitation fluence. These nanocrystals undergo a reversible, photoinduced orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transition which is discernible at fluences greater than 0.34 mJ cm-2 through the loss of orthorhombic features and shifting of high-symmetry peaks. This transition recovers on the timescale of 510 ± 100 ps. A reversible crystalline-to-amorphous transition, observable through loss of Bragg diffraction intensity, occurs at higher fluences (greater than 2.5 mJ cm-2). These results demonstrate that light-driven phase transitions occur in perovskite materials, which will impact optoelectronic applications and enable the manipulation of non-equilibrium phase characteristics of the broad perovskite material class.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(36): 8883-8888, 2018 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131427

RESUMO

One-dimensional nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes and actin filaments rely on strong and directional interactions to stabilize their high aspect ratio shapes. This requirement has precluded making isolated, long, thin organic nanotubes by stacking molecular macrocycles, as their noncovalent stacking interactions are generally too weak. Here we report high aspect ratio (>103), lyotropic nanotubes of stacked, macrocyclic, iminium salts, which are formed by protonation of the corresponding imine-linked macrocycles. Iminium ion formation establishes cohesive interactions that, in organic solvent (tetrahydrofuran), are two orders of magnitude stronger than the neutral macrocycles, as explained by physical arguments and demonstrated by molecular dynamics simulations. Nanotube formation stabilizes the iminium ions, which otherwise rapidly hydrolyze, and is reversed and restored upon addition of bases and acids. Acids generated by irradiating a photoacid generator or sonicating chlorinated solvents also induced nanotube assembly, allowing these nanostructures to be coupled to diverse stimuli, and, once assembled, they can be fixed permanently by cross-linking their pendant alkenes. As large macrocyclic chromonic liquid crystals, these iminium salts are easily accessible through a modular design and provide a means to rationally synthesize structures that mimic the morphology and rheology of carbon nanotubes and biological tubules.

9.
Science ; 361(6397): 52-57, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930093

RESUMO

Polymerization of monomers into periodic two-dimensional networks provides structurally precise, layered macromolecular sheets that exhibit desirable mechanical, optoelectronic, and molecular transport properties. Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2D COFs) offer broad monomer scope but are generally isolated as powders comprising aggregated nanometer-scale crystallites. We found that 2D COF formation could be controlled using a two-step procedure in which monomers are added slowly to preformed nanoparticle seeds. The resulting 2D COFs are isolated as single-crystalline, micrometer-sized particles. Transient absorption spectroscopy of the dispersed COF nanoparticles revealed improvement in signal quality by two to three orders of magnitude relative to polycrystalline powder samples, and suggests exciton diffusion over longer length scales than those obtained through previous approaches. These findings should enable a broad exploration of synthetic 2D polymer structures and properties.

10.
Chemistry ; 24(16): 3989-3993, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388270

RESUMO

Macrocycles based on directional bonding and dynamic covalent bond exchange can be designed with specific pore shapes, sizes, and functionality. These systems retain many of the design criteria and desirable aspects of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) but are more easily processed. Here we access discrete hexagonal imine-linked macrocycles by condensing a truncated analogue of 1,3,5-tris(4-aminophenyl)benzene (TAPB) with terephthaldehyde (PDA). The monomers first condense into polymers but eventually convert into hexagonal macrocycles in high yield. The high selectivity for hexagonal macrocycles is enforced by their aggregation and crystallization into layered structures with more sluggish imine exchange. Their formation and exchange processes provide new insight into how imine-linked 2D COF simultaneously polymerize and crystallize. Solutions of these assembled macrocycles were cast into oriented, crystalline films, expanding the potential routes to 2D materials.

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