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1.
Blood ; 135(1): 41-55, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697823

RESUMO

To study the mechanisms of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 103 diagnosis-relapse-germline trios and ultra-deep sequencing of 208 serial samples in 16 patients. Relapse-specific somatic alterations were enriched in 12 genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, TP53, NT5C2, FPGS, CREBBP, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, WHSC1, PRPS1, and PRPS2) involved in drug response. Their prevalence was 17% in very early relapse (<9 months from diagnosis), 65% in early relapse (9-36 months), and 32% in late relapse (>36 months) groups. Convergent evolution, in which multiple subclones harbor mutations in the same drug resistance gene, was observed in 6 relapses and confirmed by single-cell sequencing in 1 case. Mathematical modeling and mutational signature analysis indicated that early relapse resistance acquisition was frequently a 2-step process in which a persistent clone survived initial therapy and later acquired bona fide resistance mutations during therapy. In contrast, very early relapses arose from preexisting resistant clone(s). Two novel relapse-specific mutational signatures, one of which was caused by thiopurine treatment based on in vitro drug exposure experiments, were identified in early and late relapses but were absent from 2540 pan-cancer diagnosis samples and 129 non-ALL relapses. The novel signatures were detected in 27% of relapsed ALLs and were responsible for 46% of acquired resistance mutations in NT5C2, PRPS1, NR3C1, and TP53. These results suggest that chemotherapy-induced drug resistance mutations facilitate a subset of pediatric ALL relapses.

2.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853540

RESUMO

Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition contributes to inter- and intra-individual genetic variation and occasionally can lead to human genetic disorders. Various strategies have been developed to identify human-specific LINE-1 (L1Hs) insertions from short-read whole genome sequencing (WGS) data; however, they have limitations in detecting insertions in complex repetitive genomic regions. Here, we developed a computational tool (PALMER) and used it to identify 203 non-reference L1Hs insertions in the NA12878 benchmark genome. Using PacBio long-read sequencing data, we identified L1Hs insertions that were absent in previous short-read studies (90/203). Approximately 81% (73/90) of the L1Hs insertions reside within endogenous LINE-1 sequences in the reference assembly and the analysis of unique breakpoint junction sequences revealed 63% (57/90) of these L1Hs insertions could be genotyped in 1000 Genomes Project sequences. Moreover, we observed that amplification biases encountered in single-cell WGS experiments led to a wide variation in L1Hs insertion detection rates between four individual NA12878 cells; under-amplification limited detection to 32% (65/203) of insertions, whereas over-amplification increased false positive calls. In sum, these data indicate that L1Hs insertions are often missed using standard short-read sequencing approaches and long-read sequencing approaches can significantly improve the detection of L1Hs insertions present in individual genomes.

3.
Cell ; 177(4): 837-851.e28, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955886

RESUMO

L1 retrotransposon-derived sequences comprise approximately 17% of the human genome. Darwinian selective pressures alter L1 genomic distributions during evolution, confounding the ability to determine initial L1 integration preferences. Here, we generated high-confidence datasets of greater than 88,000 engineered L1 insertions in human cell lines that act as proxies for cells that accommodate retrotransposition in vivo. Comparing these insertions to a null model, in which L1 endonuclease activity is the sole determinant dictating L1 integration preferences, demonstrated that L1 insertions are not significantly enriched in genes, transcribed regions, or open chromatin. By comparison, we provide compelling evidence that the L1 endonuclease disproportionately cleaves predominant lagging strand DNA replication templates, while lagging strand 3'-hydroxyl groups may prime endonuclease-independent L1 retrotransposition in a Fanconi anemia cell line. Thus, acquisition of an endonuclease domain, in conjunction with the ability to integrate into replicating DNA, allowed L1 to become an autonomous, interspersed retrotransposon.

4.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 50, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequencing errors are key confounding factors for detecting low-frequency genetic variants that are important for cancer molecular diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance using deep next-generation sequencing (NGS). However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of errors introduced at various steps of a conventional NGS workflow, such as sample handling, library preparation, PCR enrichment, and sequencing. In this study, we use current NGS technology to systematically investigate these questions. RESULTS: By evaluating read-specific error distributions, we discover that the substitution error rate can be computationally suppressed to 10-5 to 10-4, which is 10- to 100-fold lower than generally considered achievable (10-3) in the current literature. We then quantify substitution errors attributable to sample handling, library preparation, enrichment PCR, and sequencing by using multiple deep sequencing datasets. We find that error rates differ by nucleotide substitution types, ranging from 10-5 for A>C/T>G, C>A/G>T, and C>G/G>C changes to 10-4 for A>G/T>C changes. Furthermore, C>T/G>A errors exhibit strong sequence context dependency, sample-specific effects dominate elevated C>A/G>T errors, and target-enrichment PCR led to ~ 6-fold increase of overall error rate. We also find that more than 70% of hotspot variants can be detected at 0.1 ~ 0.01% frequency with the current NGS technology by applying in silico error suppression. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first comprehensive analysis of sequencing error sources in conventional NGS workflows. The error profiles revealed by our study highlight new directions for further improving NGS analysis accuracy both experimentally and computationally, ultimately enhancing the precision of deep sequencing.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Neoplasias/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Software , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Mutação , Controle de Qualidade
5.
Science ; 356(6336)2017 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28450582

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex genetic architecture. Human genetic population-based studies have identified numerous heritable sequence and structural genomic variants associated with susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease. However, these germline variants do not fully account for disease risk. During brain development, progenitor cells undergo billions of cell divisions to generate the ~80 billion neurons in the brain. The failure to accurately repair DNA damage arising during replication, transcription, and cellular metabolism amid this dramatic cellular expansion can lead to somatic mutations. Somatic mutations that alter subsets of neuronal transcriptomes and proteomes can, in turn, affect cell proliferation and survival and lead to neurodevelopmental disorders. The long life span of individual neurons and the direct relationship between neural circuits and behavior suggest that somatic mutations in small populations of neurons can significantly affect individual neurodevelopment. The Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network has been founded to study somatic mosaicism both in neurotypical human brains and in the context of complex neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Mosaicismo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Divisão Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Replicação do DNA , Genoma Humano , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Humanos , Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1400: 339-55, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26895063

RESUMO

Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons encode two proteins (ORF1p and ORF2p) that are required for retrotransposition. The L1 element amplification protocol (LEAP) assays the ability of L1 ORF2p to reverse transcribe L1 RNA in vitro. Ultracentrifugation or immunoprecipitation is used to isolate L1 ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) complexes from cultured human cells transfected with an engineered L1 expression construct. The isolated RNPs are incubated with an oligonucleotide that contains a unique sequence at its 5' end and a thymidine-rich sequence at its 3' end. The addition of dNTPs to the reaction allows L1 ORF2p bound to L1 RNA to generate L1 cDNA. The resultant L1 cDNAs then are amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products are visualized by gel electrophoresis. Sequencing the resultant PCR products then allows product verification. The LEAP assay has been instrumental in determining how mutations in L1 ORF1p and ORF2p affect L1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Furthermore, the LEAP assay has revealed that the L1 ORF2p RT can extend a DNA primer with mismatched 3' terminal bases when it is annealed to an L1 RNA template. As the LINE-1 biology field gravitates toward studying cellular proteins that regulate LINE-1, molecular genetic and biochemical approaches such as LEAP, in conjunction with the LINE-1-cultured cell retrotransposition assay, are essential to dissect the molecular mechanism of L1 retrotransposition.


Assuntos
Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação/métodos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/envenenamento , Ultracentrifugação/métodos
7.
Mob DNA ; 5: 26, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117500

RESUMO

The Mobile Genetic Elements and Genome Evolution conference was hosted by Keystone Symposia in Santa Fe, NM USA, 9 March through 14 March 2014. The goal of this conference was to bring together scientists from around the world who study transposable elements in diverse organisms and researchers who study the impact these elements have on genome evolution. The meeting included over 200 scientists who participated through poster presentations, short talks selected from abstracts, and invited speakers. The talks were organized into eight sessions and two workshops. The topics varied from diverse mechanisms of mobilization to the evolution of genomes and their defense strategies against transposable elements.

8.
J Bacteriol ; 194(22): 6056-65, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22961847

RESUMO

Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotroph that obtains energy by oxidizing ammonia in the presence of oxygen and fixes CO(2) via the Benson-Calvin cycle. Despite its environmental and evolutionary importance, very little is known about the regulation and metabolism of glycogen, a source of carbon and energy storage. Here, we cloned and heterologously expressed the genes coding for two major putative enzymes of the glycogen synthetic pathway in N. europaea, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and glycogen synthase. In other bacteria, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase catalyzes the regulatory step of the synthetic pathway and glycogen synthase elongates the polymer. In starch synthesis in plants, homologous enzymes play similar roles. We purified to homogeneity the recombinant ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from N. europaea and characterized its kinetic, regulatory, and oligomeric properties. The enzyme was allosterically activated by pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and phosphoenolpyruvate and inhibited by AMP. It had a broad thermal and pH stability and used different divalent metal ions as cofactors. Depending on the cofactor, the enzyme was able to accept different nucleotides and sugar phosphates as alternative substrates. However, characterization of the recombinant glycogen synthase showed that only ADP-Glc elongates the polysaccharide, indicating that ATP and glucose-1-phosphate are the physiological substrates of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. The distinctive properties with respect to selectivity for substrates and activators of the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were in good agreement with the metabolic routes operating in N. europaea, indicating an evolutionary adaptation. These unique properties place the enzyme in a category of its own within the family, highlighting the unique regulation in these organisms.


Assuntos
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Nitrosomonas europaea/enzimologia , Nitrosomonas europaea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Crescimento Quimioautotrófico , Clonagem Molecular , Estabilidade Enzimática , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Glucose-1-Fosfato Adenililtransferase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Metais/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
9.
In Silico Biol ; 8(5-6): 531-43, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19374136

RESUMO

SIRE1 is a 2000-copy member of the Ty1/copia retroelement family found in the soybean genome and is closely related to sireviruses found in the genomes of other legumes. Although these elements closely resemble typical plant members of the Ty1/copia family, they are unusual in that they possess an envelope-like coding region immediately downstream of the reverse transcriptase gene. Despite its copy number, very few members of the SIRE1 family are currently present in publicly available genomic assemblies or draft contigs. However, fragments of family members are well-represented as BAC-ends in the GenBank Genome Survey Sequence database. This database was queried using the 5' and 3' ends of SIRE1 in order to catalog sequences into which SIRE1 members have integrated. Seven hundred and eighty-one unique SIRE1 insertions were identified and the majority of insertion sites constituted other repetitive elements, including Class I and Class II transposable elements and satellite DNAs. Ninety-four insertions were in single- or low-copy number sequences and three of these were homologous to characterized protein-coding genes. Examination of the ten bases flanking either side of SIRE1 revealed no clear consensus sequence, but the the distributions of A, C, G, and T at most of the positions were biased with strong statistical significance.


Assuntos
DNA Intergênico/genética , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Retroelementos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Glicina/genética , Glicina/metabolismo , Família Multigênica/genética
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