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1.
Euro Surveill ; 25(12)2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234121

RESUMO

Adjusting for delay from confirmation to death, we estimated case and infection fatality ratios (CFR, IFR) for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the Diamond Princess ship as 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-6.7) and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.38-3.6), respectively. Comparing deaths on board with expected deaths based on naive CFR estimates from China, we estimated CFR and IFR in China to be 1.2% (95% CI: 0.3-2.7) and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-1.3), respectively.

2.
Euro Surveill ; 25(5)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046816

RESUMO

We evaluated effectiveness of thermal passenger screening for 2019-nCoV infection at airport exit and entry to inform public health decision-making. In our baseline scenario, we estimated that 46% (95% confidence interval: 36 to 58) of infected travellers would not be detected, depending on incubation period, sensitivity of exit and entry screening, and proportion of asymptomatic cases. Airport screening is unlikely to detect a sufficient proportion of 2019-nCoV infected travellers to avoid entry of infected travellers.


Assuntos
Viagem Aérea , Temperatura Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Febre/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública
3.
Vaccine ; 38(2): 202-211, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for pneumococcal disease. Little is known about whether social contact frequency and intensity are associated with pneumococcal carriage. In Fiji, indigenous iTaukei have higher prevalence of pneumococcal carriage compared with Fijians of Indian Descent (FID). We hypothesised that contact differences may contribute to ethnic differences in pneumococcal carriage prevalence and density. METHODS: In 2015, young infants (5-8 weeks), toddlers (12-23 months), children (2-6 years), and caregivers from Suva and surrounding areas, participated in a cross-sectional survey (n = 2014), three years post pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Demographic and contact data, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. Pneumococci were detected, and quantified using quantitative real-time PCR, with molecular serotyping by microarray. Associations between ethnicity, contact, and pneumococcal carriage and density were estimated using multivariable generalised estimating equation regression models. RESULTS: iTaukei participants had larger household sizes, higher pneumococcal carriage rates, more contacts, and more frequent contacts of longer duration, compared with FID. The odds of vaccine-type carriage increased by 28% (95% CI 8-53%) P < 0.01 in association with physical contact with 7-14 year old children. iTaukei ethnicity was associated with vaccine-type carriage (aOR) 1.73; 95% CI 1.06-2.82, P = 0.03) and non-vaccine type carriage (aOR 5.98; 95% CI 4.47-8.00, P < 0.01). Ethnicity and contact were not associated with pneumococcal density. CONCLUSIONS: iTaukei had greater frequency and intensity of contact compared with FID. Physical contact was associated with pneumococcal carriage. Observed differences in pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage prevalence between iTaukei and FID were not explained by differences in social contact patterns by ethnicity.

4.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 165, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815190

RESUMO

Background: Dengvaxia was used in the Philippines to vaccinate 9-10-year-old school children, living in areas highly endemic for dengue. After about 830,000 had received at least 1 of 3 recommended doses, risks of enhanced disease in dengue-naïve vaccinees were reported. Methods: We used Phase 3 trial data to derive the proportions of cases of hospitalised and severe dengue that might have been prevented by the Philippines vaccination programme and, among those cases that may occur in vaccinees, what proportions are likely to arise in those who were seropositive or seronegative for dengue at the time of first vaccination and what proportion in the latter group may be enhanced disease attributable to the vaccine. Results: Assuming about 15% of vaccinees were dengue naïve at vaccination and the effects of the vaccine are independent of the number of doses received, we estimate that, in the 5 years following vaccination, the number of cases of severe disease in the vaccinated population will be reduced by about 70%. Among vaccinees who do develop severe disease, about half the cases will be due to vaccine breakthrough in seropositive vaccinees, and about a quarter will be excess cases in seronegative vaccinees that will have occurred as a consequence of vaccination. Conclusions: Overall, the Philippine dengue vaccination programme will likely prevent a substantial number of severe dengue cases and, among those that do occur, the majority are likely to be breakthrough disease in seropositive vaccinees and a minority attributable to the excess risk of enhanced disease in seronegative vaccinees.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15141, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641189

RESUMO

East Asia is as a principal hotspot for emerging zoonotic infections. Understanding the likely pathways for their emergence and spread requires knowledge on human-human and human-animal contacts, but such studies are rare. We used self-completed and interviewer-completed contact diaries to quantify patterns of these contacts for 965 individuals in 2017/2018 in a high-income densely-populated area of China, Shanghai City. Interviewer-completed diaries recorded more social contacts (19.3 vs. 18.0) and longer social contact duration (35.0 vs. 29.1 hours) than self-reporting. Strong age-assortativity was observed in all age groups especially among young participants (aged 7-20) and middle aged participants (25-55 years). 17.7% of participants reported touching animals (15.3% (pets), 0.0% (poultry) and 0.1% (livestock)). Human-human contact was very frequent but contact with animals (especially poultry) was rare although associated with frequent human-human contact. Hence, this densely populated area is more likely to act as an accelerator for human-human spread but less likely to be at the source of a zoonosis outbreak. We also propose that telephone interview at the end of reporting day is a potential improvement of the design of future contact surveys.

7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642729

RESUMO

In Hong Kong, universal varicella vaccination was introduced in July 2014 with a two-dose schedule but the vaccines had been available in the private market since 1996. With data from varicella notification and surveys on immunization coverage, we used the screening method to estimate dose-specific varicella vaccine effectiveness (VE) among preschool children in Hong Kong before universal vaccination. We estimated the VE of one- and two-dose varicella vaccination against all notified varicella as 69.4% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 69.5-71.2) and 93.4% (95% CI 91.7-94.7), respectively. We found that VE did not decrease with time since receipt. Varicella vaccine was more effective against complications (85.4% [95% CI 48.8-95.8] for one dose and 100% [95% CI -Inf to 100] for two doses) and against hospital admission (75.2% [95% CI 53.4-86.8] for one dose and 93.1% [95% CI 47.1-99.1] for two doses). Lower protection of one-dose varicella vaccine resulted in breakthrough varicella. Under universal vaccination, second-dose varicella vaccine (given as combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine) was first scheduled for children when they reach primary one (about 6 years of age) and was recently advanced to 18 months of age. Shortening the interval between the first dose and second dose of varicella vaccination should reduce breakthrough varicella and outbreaks in preschool.

8.
Vaccine ; 37(45): 6787-6792, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562004

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human commensal that causes a sizeable part of the overall childhood mortality in low income settings. Populations affected by humanitarian crises are at especially high risk, because a multitude of risk factors that are enhanced during crises increase pneumococcal transmission and disease severity. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) provide effective protection and have been introduced into the majority of routine childhood immunisation programmes globally, though several barriers have hitherto limited their uptake during humanitarian crises. When PCV coverage cannot be sustained during crises or when PCV has not been part of routine programmes, mass vaccination campaigns offer a quick acting and programmatically feasible bridging solution until services can be restored. However, we currently face a paucity of evidence on which to base the structure of such campaigns. We believe that, now that PCV can be procured at a substantially reduced price through the Humanitarian Mechanism, this lack of information is a remaining hurdle to PCV use in humanitarian crises. Considering the difficulties in conducting research in crises, we propose an evidence generation pathway consisting of primary data collection in combination with mathematical modelling followed by quasi-experimental evaluation of a PCV intervention, which can inform on optimal vaccination strategies that consider age targeting, dosing regimens and impact duration.

9.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 172, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes reduce dengue virus transmission, and city-wide releases in Yogyakarta city, Indonesia, are showing promising entomological results. Accurate estimates of the burden of dengue, its spatial distribution and the potential impact of Wolbachia are critical in guiding funder and government decisions on its future wider use. METHODS: Here, we combine multiple modelling methods for burden estimation to predict national case burden disaggregated by severity and map the distribution of burden across the country using three separate data sources. An ensemble of transmission models then predicts the estimated reduction in dengue transmission following a nationwide roll-out of wMel Wolbachia. RESULTS: We estimate that 7.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.8-17.7 million) symptomatic dengue cases occurred in Indonesia in 2015 and were associated with 332,865 (UI 94,175-754,203) lost disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The majority of dengue's burden was due to non-severe cases that did not seek treatment or were challenging to diagnose in outpatient settings leading to substantial underreporting. Estimated burden was highly concentrated in a small number of large cities with 90% of dengue cases occurring in 15.3% of land area. Implementing a nationwide Wolbachia population replacement programme was estimated to avert 86.2% (UI 36.2-99.9%) of cases over a long-term average. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest interventions targeted to the highest burden cities can have a disproportionate impact on dengue burden. Area-wide interventions, such as Wolbachia, that are deployed based on the area covered could protect people more efficiently than individual-based interventions, such as vaccines, in such dense environments.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Wolbachia , Animais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Vírus da Dengue , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia
10.
J R Soc Interface ; 16(157): 20190234, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431184

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends pre-screening for past infection prior to administration of the only licensed dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV. Using a threshold modelling analysis, we identify settings where this guidance prohibits positive net-benefits, and are thus unfavourable. Generally, however, our model shows test-then-vaccinate strategies can improve CYD-TDV economic viability: effective testing reduces unnecessary vaccination costs while increasing health benefits. With sufficiently low testing cost, those trends outweigh additional screening costs, expanding the range of settings with positive net-benefits. This work highlights two aspects for further analysis of test-then-vaccinate strategies. We found that starting routine testing at younger ages could increase benefits; if real tests are shown to sufficiently address safety concerns, the manufacturer, regulators and WHO should revisit guidance restricting use to 9-years-and-older recipients. We also found that repeat testing could improve return-on-investment (ROI), despite increasing intervention costs. Thus, more detailed analyses should address questions on repeat testing and testing periodicity, in addition to real test sensitivity and specificity. Our results follow from a mathematical model relating ROI to epidemiology, intervention strategy, and costs for testing, vaccination and dengue infections. We applied this model to a range of strategies, costs and epidemiological settings pertinent to CYD-TDV. However, general trends may not apply locally, so we provide our model and analyses as an R package available via CRAN, denvax. To apply to their setting, decision-makers need only local estimates of age-specific seroprevalence and costs for secondary infections.

11.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 163, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing popularity of multi-model comparison studies and their ability to inform policy recommendations, clear guidance on how to conduct multi-model comparisons is not available. Herein, we present guidelines to provide a structured approach to comparisons of multiple models of interventions against infectious diseases. The primary target audience for these guidelines are researchers carrying out model comparison studies and policy-makers using model comparison studies to inform policy decisions. METHODS: The consensus process used for the development of the guidelines included a systematic review of existing model comparison studies on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination, a 2-day meeting and guideline development workshop during which mathematical modellers from different disease areas critically discussed and debated the guideline content and wording, and several rounds of comments on sequential versions of the guidelines by all authors. RESULTS: The guidelines provide principles for multi-model comparisons, with specific practice statements on what modellers should do for six domains. The guidelines provide explanation and elaboration of the principles and practice statements as well as some examples to illustrate these. The principles are (1) the policy and research question - the model comparison should address a relevant, clearly defined policy question; (2) model identification and selection - the identification and selection of models for inclusion in the model comparison should be transparent and minimise selection bias; (3) harmonisation - standardisation of input data and outputs should be determined by the research question and value of the effort needed for this step; (4) exploring variability - between- and within-model variability and uncertainty should be explored; (5) presenting and pooling results - results should be presented in an appropriate way to support decision-making; and (6) interpretation - results should be interpreted to inform the policy question. CONCLUSION: These guidelines should help researchers plan, conduct and report model comparisons of infectious diseases and related interventions in a systematic and structured manner for the purpose of supporting health policy decisions. Adherence to these guidelines will contribute to greater consistency and objectivity in the approach and methods used in multi-model comparisons, and as such improve the quality of modelled evidence for policy.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Política de Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos
12.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 129, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year, 90,000 people may die from melioidosis. Vaccine candidates have not proceeded past animal studies, partly due to uncertainty around the potential market size. This study aims to estimate the potential impact, cost-effectiveness and market size for melioidosis vaccines. METHODS: Age-structured decision tree models with country-specific inputs were used to estimate net costs and health benefits of vaccination, with health measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Four target groups of people living in endemic regions were considered: (i) people aged over 45 years with chronic renal disease, (ii) people aged over 45 years with diabetes, (iii) people aged over 45 years with diabetes and/or chronic renal disease, (iv) everyone aged over 45 years. Melioidosis risk was estimated using Bayesian evidence synthesis of 12 observational studies. In the base case, vaccines were assumed to have 80% efficacy, to have 5-year mean protective duration and to cost USD10.20-338.20 per vaccine. RESULTS: Vaccination could be cost-effective (with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio below GDP per capita) in 61/83 countries/territories with local melioidosis transmission. In these 61 countries/territories, vaccination could avert 68,000 lost QALYs, 8300 cases and 4400 deaths per vaccinated age cohort, at an incremental cost of USD59.6 million. Strategy (ii) was optimal in most regions. The vaccine market may be worth USD268 million per year at its threshold cost-effective price in each country/territory. CONCLUSIONS: There is a viable melioidosis vaccine market, with cost-effective vaccine strategies in most countries/territories with local transmission.


Assuntos
Melioidose/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melioidose/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168485

RESUMO

Background : Infant contact information (skin-to-skin contact between infants and others) is important to understand Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission patterns. A few studies have investigated infant contact patterns by asking the mother/guardian to record all contacts a child makes in one day. However, this approach does not capture contact behaviour in day-care. Our study describes the frequency and nature of physical contacts of infants in day-care to understand infant infection risk in day-care in Nha Trang, central Vietnam. Methods : This cross-sectional study enrolled infants aged less than 12 months, attending 10 randomly selected day-care centres in Nha Trang. Physical contacts of each infant for one day at the day-care centre were observed and recorded. The mean number of contacts of infants and its factors were assessed using negative binomial regression. Results : In total 14 infants, aged 6 to 11 months, were enrolled, and a total of 96 contacts were observed. The mean number of contacts an infant made in one day was 6.9. Infants who walked independently (age-adjusted rate ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.68) and those cared for in a larger group (1.99, 1.42-2.79) had more contacts at day-care. About 50% of infants made contact with at least one person from a commune different from the infant's, and 50% made contact with at least one other infant at day-care. Conclusion : This study found that day-care attendance may be one factor that increases contact rates of infants in Nha Trang and diversifies them in terms of age and geographical spread. In this study, day-care attendance not only increased contact rates beyond those usually experienced by young children cared at home but specifically increased the contact rates with other children and adults from other communes. Day-care may play a key role in the transmission of respiratory pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae to infants.

14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(7): 717-727, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The duration of protection offered by rotavirus vaccines varies across the world, and this variation is important to understanding and predicting the effects of the vaccines. There is now a large body of evidence on the efficacy of live oral rotavirus vaccines in different settings, but these data have never been synthesised to obtain robust estimates of efficacy by duration of follow-up. Our aim is to estimate the efficacy of live oral rotavirus vaccines at each point during follow-up and by mortality stratum. METHODS: In our meta-regression study, we identified all randomised controlled trials of rotavirus vaccines published until April 4, 2018, using the results of a Cochrane systematic review, and cross checked these studies against those identified by another systematic review. We excluded trials that were based on special populations, trials without an infant schedule, and trials without clear reporting of numbers of enrolled infants and events in different periods of follow-up. For all reported periods of follow-up, we extracted the mean duration of follow-up (time since administration of the final dose of rotavirus vaccination), the number of enrolled infants, and case counts for rotavirus-positive severe gastroenteritis in both non-vaccinated and vaccinated groups. We used a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson meta-regression model to estimate the pooled cumulative vaccine efficacy (VE) and its waning with time for three mortality strata. We then converted these VE estimates into instantaneous VE (iVE). FINDINGS: In settings with low mortality (15 observations), iVE pooled for infant schedules of Rotarix and RotaTeq was 98% (95% credibility interval 93-100) 2 weeks following the final dose of vaccination and 94% (87-98) after 12 months. In medium-mortality settings (11 observations), equivalent estimates were 82% (74-92) after 2 weeks and 77% (67-84) after 12 months. In settings with high mortality (24 observations), there were five different vaccines with observation points for infant schedules. The pooled iVE was 66% (48-81) after 2 weeks of follow-up and 44% (27-59) after 12 months. INTERPRETATION: Rotavirus vaccine efficacy is lower and wanes more rapidly in high-mortality settings than in low-mortality settings, but the earlier peak age of disease in high-mortality settings means that live oral rotavirus vaccines are still likely to provide substantial benefit. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(5): 465-466, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034385
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(5): e644-e654, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2009, Gavi, the World Bank, and donors launched the pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment, which helped countries access more affordable pneumococcal vaccines. As many low-income countries begin to reach the threshold at which countries transition from Gavi support to self-financing (3-year average gross national income per capita of US$1580), they will need to consider whether to continue pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use at full cost or to discontinue PCV in their childhood immunisation programmes. Using Kenya as a case study, we assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness of continuing PCV use. METHODS: In this modelling and cost-effectiveness study, we fitted a dynamic compartmental model of pneumococcal carriage to annual carriage prevalence surveys and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence in Kilifi, Kenya. We predicted disease incidence and related mortality for either continuing PCV use beyond 2022, the start of Kenya's transition from Gavi support, or its discontinuation. We calculated the costs per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and associated 95% prediction intervals (PI). FINDINGS: We predicted that if PCV use is discontinued in Kenya in 2022, overall IPD incidence will increase from 8·5 per 100 000 in 2022, to 16·2 per 100 000 per year in 2032. Continuing vaccination would prevent 14 329 (95% PI 6130-25 256) deaths and 101 513 (4386-196 674) disease cases during that time. Continuing PCV after 2022 will require an estimated additional US$15·8 million annually compared with discontinuing vaccination. We predicted that the incremental cost per DALY averted of continuing PCV would be $153 (95% PI 70-411) in 2032. INTERPRETATION: Continuing PCV use is essential to sustain its health gains. Based on the Kenyan GDP per capita of $1445, and in comparison to other vaccines, continued PCV use at full costs is cost-effective (on the basis of the assumption that any reduction in disease will translate to a reduction in mortality). Although affordability is likely to be a concern, our findings support an expansion of the vaccine budget in Kenya. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(3): 440-449, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742105

RESUMO

The spread of antibiotic resistance, a major threat to human health, is poorly understood. Simple population-level models of bacterial transmission predict that above a certain rate of antibiotic consumption in a population, resistant bacteria should completely eliminate non-resistant strains, while below this threshold they should be unable to persist at all. This prediction stands at odds with empirical evidence showing that resistant and non-resistant strains coexist stably over a wide range of antibiotic consumption rates. Not knowing what drives this long-term coexistence is a barrier to developing evidence-based strategies for managing the spread of resistance. Here, we argue that competition between resistant and sensitive pathogens within individual hosts gives resistant pathogens a relative fitness benefit when they are rare, promoting coexistence between strains at the population level. To test this hypothesis, we embed mechanistically explicit within-host dynamics in a structurally neutral pathogen transmission model. Doing so allows us to reproduce patterns of resistance observed in the opportunistic pathogens Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae across European countries and to identify factors that may shape resistance evolution in bacteria by modulating the intensity and outcomes of within-host competition.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/fisiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Interações Microbianas , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Evolução Biológica , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia , Simbiose
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(1): e31-e38, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195995

RESUMO

The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization advises WHO on global policies for vaccines. In April, 2016, SAGE issued recommendations on the use of the first licenced dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV. In November, 2017, a retrospective analysis of clinical trial data, stratifying participants according to their dengue serostatus before the first vaccine dose, showed that although in high seroprevalence settings the vaccine provides overall population benefit, there was an excess risk of severe dengue in seronegative vaccinees. SAGE's working group on dengue vaccines met to discuss the new data and mainly considered two vaccination strategies: vaccination of populations with dengue seroprevalence rates above 80% or screening of individuals before vaccination, and vaccinating only seropositive individuals. We report on the deliberations that informed the recommendation of the pre-vaccination screening strategy, in April, 2018. Important research and implementation questions remain for CYD-TDV, including the development of a highly sensitive and specific rapid diagnostic test to determine serostatus, simplified immunisation schedules, and assessment of the need for booster doses.

20.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(1): e58-e67, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) has substantially reduced disease burden due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. However, PCVs are among the most expensive vaccines, hindering their introduction in some settings and threatening sustainability in others. We aimed to assess the effect and cost-effectiveness of introduction of 13-valent PCV (PCV13) vaccination globally. METHODS: We assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of PCV13 introduction by integrating two models: an ecological model (a parsimonious, mechanistic model validated with data from post-seven-valent PCV introduction in 13 high-income settings) to predict the effect of PCV on childhood invasive pneumococcal disease, and a decision-tree model to predict a range of clinical presentations and economic outcomes under vaccination and no-vaccination strategies. The models followed 30 birth cohorts up to age 5 years in 180 countries from 2015 to 2045. One-way scenario and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were done to explore model uncertainties. FINDINGS: We estimate that global PCV13 use could prevent 0·399 million child deaths (95% credible interval 0·208 million to 0·711 million) and 54·6 million disease episodes (51·8 million to 58·1 million) annually. Global vaccine costs (in 2015 international dollars) of $15·5 billion could be partially offset by health-care savings of $3·19 billion (2·62 billion to 3·92 billion) and societal cost savings of $2·64 billion (2·13 billion to 3·28 billion). PCV13 use is probably cost-effective in all six UN regions. The 71 countries eligible for support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, account for 83% of PCV13-preventable deaths but only 18% of global vaccination costs. The expected cost of PCV vaccination globally is around $16 billion per year. INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight the value of Gavi's support for PCV introduction in low-income countries and of efforts to improve the affordability of PCVs in countries not eligible for, or transitioning from, Gavi support. FUNDING: World Health Organization; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/economia , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Teóricos , Vacinas Conjugadas
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