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1.
Thromb Res ; 179: 64-68, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082751

RESUMO

AIMS: Despite widespread use of dual antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction, there remains a residual risk of morbidity and mortality. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors have been found to inhibit platelet aggregation through the Glycoprotein VI collagen-mediated pathway. The Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor, Ibrutinib is used in the management of haematological malignancies and another Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor, ONO-4059 (also known as tirabrutinib), is in clinical development. This is an observational study to evaluate the effects of Ibrutinib and ONO-4059 on platelet aggregation after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty patients with a confirmed diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were enrolled and blood samples obtained within 48 h of hospital admission. All patients were on dual antiplatelet therapy; aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor). Blood samples were treated ex vivo with increasing concentrations of Ibrutinib (0, 0.5, 1, 2 µM) and ONO-4059 (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1 µM). Platelet aggregation was measured in response to collagen using a Multiplate analyser to estimate the area under the curve, with lower values indicating lower platelet aggregation. The median age was 63 years and 80% were male. The median area under the curve values for Ibrutinib concentrations 0 (control), 0.5, 1 and 2 µM were 18.5, 8 (P = 0.0004), 4.5 (P < 0.0001) and 2 (P < 0.0001) units and for ONO-4059 concentrations 0 (control), 0.2, 0.5 and1µM, median area under the curve values were 13, 12 (P = 0.7), 6.5 (P = 0.0001) and 5.5 (P = 0.0004 compared to control). CONCLUSION: The Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors, Ibrutinib and ONO-4059, show further inhibition of platelet aggregation in blood samples from patients with acute myocardial infarction, receiving dual antiplatelet therapy in a dose dependent manner. These results provide a rationale for Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase inhibitors to be tested as a potential new antiplatelet strategy for acute myocardial infarction.

2.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 72, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction for patients with suspected coronary artery disease is complex due to the common occurrence of prior cardiovascular disease and extensive risk modification in primary care. Numerous markers have the potential to predict prognosis and guide management, but we currently lack robust 'real-world' evidence for their use. METHODS: Prospective, multicentre observational study of consecutive patients referred for elective coronary angiography. Clinicians were blinded to all risk assessments, consisting of conventional factors, radial artery pulse wave analysis, 5-minute heart rate variability, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Blinded, independent adjudication was performed for all-cause mortality and the composite of death, myocardial infarction or stroke, analysed with Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-two patients were assessed with median age 66 years and 21% prior revascularization. Median baseline left ventricular ejection fraction was 64%, and 62% had ≥ 50% stenosis on angiography. During 5.0 years median follow-up, 30% underwent percutaneous and 16% surgical revascularization. In multivariate analysis, only age and BNP were independently associated with outcomes. The adjusted hazard ratio per log unit increase in BNP was 2.15 for mortality (95% CI 1.45-3.19; p = 0.0001) and 1.27 for composite events (1.04-1.54; p = 0.018). Patients with baseline BNP > 100 pg/mL had substantially higher mortality and composite events (20.9% and 32.2%) than those with BNP ≤ 100 pg/mL (5.6% and 15.5%). BNP improved both classification and discrimination of outcomes (p ≤ 0.003), regardless of left ventricular systolic function. Conversely, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, pulse wave analysis and heart rate variability were unrelated to prognosis at 5 years after risk modification and treatment of coronary disease. CONCLUSIONS: Conventional risk factors and other markers of arterial compliance, inflammation and autonomic function have limited value for prediction of outcomes in risk-modified patients assessed for coronary disease. BNP can independently identify patients with subtle impairment of cardiac function that might benefit from more intensive management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00403351 Registered on 22 November 2006.

3.
Heart ; 105(16): 1237-1243, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries (BITA) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) may improve survival compared with CABG using single internal thoracic arteries (SITA). We assessed the long-term costs of BITA compared with SITA. METHODS: Between June 2004 and December 2007, 3102 patients from 28 hospitals in seven countries were randomised to CABG surgery using BITA (n=1548) or SITA (n=1554). Detailed resource use data were collected from the initial hospital episode and annually up to 5 years. The associated costs of this resource use were assessed from a UK perspective with 5 year totals calculated for each trial arm and pre-selected patient subgroups. RESULTS: Total costs increased by approximately £1000 annually in each arm, with no significant annual difference between trial arms. Cumulative costs per patient at 5-year follow-up remained significantly higher in the BITA group (£18 629) compared with the SITA group (£17 480; mean cost difference £1149, 95% CI £330 to £1968, p=0.006) due to the higher costs of the initial procedure. There were no significant differences between the trial arms in the cost associated with healthcare contacts, medication use or serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Higher index costs for BITA were still present at 5-year follow-up mainly driven by the higher initial cost with no subsequent difference emerging between 1 year and 5 years of follow-up. The overall cost-effectiveness of the two procedures, to be assessed at the primary endpoint of the 10-year follow-up, will depend on composite differences in costs and quality-adjusted survival. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN46552265.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 380(5): 437-446, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple arterial grafts may result in longer survival than single arterial grafts after coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We evaluated the use of bilateral internal-thoracic-artery grafts for CABG. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients scheduled for CABG to undergo bilateral or single internal-thoracic-artery grafting. Additional arterial or vein grafts were used as indicated. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 10 years. The composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or stroke was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 1548 patients were randomly assigned to undergo bilateral internal-thoracic-artery grafting (the bilateral-graft group) and 1554 to undergo single internal-thoracic-artery grafting (the single-graft group). In the bilateral-graft group, 13.9% of the patients received only a single internal-thoracic-artery graft, and in the single-graft group, 21.8% of the patients also received a radial-artery graft. Vital status was not known for 2.3% of the patients at 10 years. In the intention-to-treat analysis at 10 years, there were 315 deaths (20.3% of the patients) in the bilateral-graft group and 329 deaths (21.2%) in the single-graft group (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 1.12; P=0.62). Regarding the composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, there were 385 patients (24.9%) with an event in the bilateral-graft group and 425 patients (27.3%) with an event in the single-graft group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.03). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who were scheduled for CABG and had been randomly assigned to undergo bilateral or single internal-thoracic-artery grafting, there was no significant between-group difference in the rate of death from any cause at 10 years in the intention-to-treat analysis. Further studies are needed to determine whether multiple arterial grafts provide better outcomes than a single internal-thoracic-artery graft. (Funded by the British Heath Foundation and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN46552265 .).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Artéria Torácica Interna/transplante , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
N Engl J Med ; 379(10): 924-933, 2018 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) improves diagnostic certainty in the assessment of patients with stable chest pain, its effect on 5-year clinical outcomes is unknown. METHODS: In an open-label, multicenter, parallel-group trial, we randomly assigned 4146 patients with stable chest pain who had been referred to a cardiology clinic for evaluation to standard care plus CTA (2073 patients) or to standard care alone (2073 patients). Investigations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were assessed over 3 to 7 years of follow-up. The primary end point was death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years. RESULTS: The median duration of follow-up was 4.8 years, which yielded 20,254 patient-years of follow-up. The 5-year rate of the primary end point was lower in the CTA group than in the standard-care group (2.3% [48 patients] vs. 3.9% [81 patients]; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.84; P=0.004). Although the rates of invasive coronary angiography and coronary revascularization were higher in the CTA group than in the standard-care group in the first few months of follow-up, overall rates were similar at 5 years: invasive coronary angiography was performed in 491 patients in the CTA group and in 502 patients in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.13), and coronary revascularization was performed in 279 patients in the CTA group and in 267 in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.27). However, more preventive therapies were initiated in patients in the CTA group (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.65), as were more antianginal therapies (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.54). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of cardiovascular or noncardiovascular deaths or deaths from any cause. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, the use of CTA in addition to standard care in patients with stable chest pain resulted in a significantly lower rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 5 years than standard care alone, without resulting in a significantly higher rate of coronary angiography or coronary revascularization. (Funded by the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office and others; SCOT-HEART ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149590 .).


Assuntos
Dor no Peito/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Dor no Peito/terapia , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco
7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(4): 386-398, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are used for coronary revascularization in patients with multivessel and left main coronary artery disease. Stroke is among the most feared complications of revascularization. Due to its infrequency, studies with large numbers of patients are required to detect differences in stroke rates between CABG and PCI. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare rates of stroke after CABG and PCI and the impact of procedural stroke on long-term mortality. METHODS: We performed a collaborative individual patient-data pooled analysis of 11 randomized clinical trials comparing CABG with PCI using stents; ERACI II (Argentine Randomized Study: Coronary Angioplasty With Stenting Versus Coronary Bypass Surgery in Patients With Multiple Vessel Disease) (n = 450), ARTS (Arterial Revascularization Therapy Study) (n = 1,205), MASS II (Medicine, Angioplasty, or Surgery Study) (n = 408), SoS (Stent or Surgery) trial (n = 988), SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial (n = 1,800), PRECOMBAT (Bypass Surgery Versus Angioplasty Using Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients With Left Main Coronary Artery Disease) trial (n = 600), FREEDOM (Comparison of Two Treatments for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease in Individuals With Diabetes) trial (n = 1,900), VA CARDS (Coronary Artery Revascularization in Diabetes) (n = 198), BEST (Bypass Surgery Versus Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation for Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease) (n = 880), NOBLE (Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis) trial (n = 1,184), and EXCEL (Evaluation of Xience Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for Effectiveness of Left Main Revascularization) trial (n = 1,905). The 30-day and 5-year stroke rates were compared between CABG and PCI using a random effects Cox proportional hazards model, stratified by trial. The impact of stroke on 5-year mortality was explored. RESULTS: The analysis included 11,518 patients randomly assigned to PCI (n = 5,753) or CABG (n = 5,765) with a mean follow-up of 3.8 ± 1.4 years during which a total of 293 strokes occurred. At 30 days, the rate of stroke was 0.4% after PCI and 1.1% after CABG (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.53; p < 0.001). At 5-year follow-up, stroke remained significantly lower after PCI than after CABG (2.6% vs. 3.2%; HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.97; p = 0.027). Rates of stroke between 31 days and 5 years were comparable: 2.2% after PCI versus 2.1% after CABG (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.38; p = 0.72). No significant interactions between treatment and baseline clinical or angiographic variables for the 5-year rate of stroke were present, except for diabetic patients (PCI: 2.6% vs. CABG: 4.9%) and nondiabetic patients (PCI: 2.6% vs. CABG: 2.4%) (p for interaction = 0.004). Patients who experienced a stroke within 30 days of the procedure had significantly higher 5-year mortality versus those without a stroke, both after PCI (45.7% vs. 11.1%, p < 0.001) and CABG (41.5% vs. 8.9%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This individual patient-data pooled analysis demonstrates that 5-year stroke rates are significantly lower after PCI compared with CABG, driven by a reduced risk of stroke in the 30-day post-procedural period but a similar risk of stroke between 31 days and 5 years. The greater risk of stroke after CABG compared with PCI was confined to patients with multivessel disease and diabetes. Five-year mortality was markedly higher for patients experiencing a stroke within 30 days after revascularization.

8.
Heart ; 104(22): 1843-1849, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two recent randomised trials studied the benefit of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) irrespective or in absence of heart failure. The studies were both undersized to assess hard clinical endpoints. A pooled analysis was preplanned by the steering committees. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified meta-analysis of patient-level data of patients with STEMI recruited in two multicentre superiority trials, randomised within 72 hours after symptom onset. Patients were allocated (1:1) to two MRA regimens: (1) an intravenous bolus of potassium canrenoate (200 mg) followed by oral spironolactone (25 mg once daily) versus standard therapy or (2) oral eplerenone (25-50 mg) versus placebo. The primary and key secondary outcomes, all-cause death and the composite of all-cause death or resuscitated sudden death, respectively, were assessed in the intention-to-treat population using a Cox model stratified on the study identifier. RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive (n=1118) or not the MRA regimen (n=1123). After a median follow-up time of 188 days, the primary and secondary outcomes occurred in 5 (0.4%) and 17 (1.5%) patients (adjusted HR (adjHR) 0.31, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.86, p=0.03) and 6 (0.5%) and 22 (2%) patients (adjHR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.65, p=0.004) in the MRA and control groups, respectively. There were also trends towards lower rates of cardiovascular death (p=0.06) and ventricular fibrillation (p=0.08) in the MRA group. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that compared with standard therapy, MRA regimens are associated with a reduction of death and death or resuscitated sudden death in STEMI.

9.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(6): 2346-2355.e6, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Arterial Revascularization Trial has been designed to answer the question whether the use of bilateral internal thoracic arteries can improve 10-year outcomes when compared with single internal thoracic arteries. In the Arterial Revascularization Trial, a significant proportion of patients initially allocated to bilateral internal thoracic arteries received other conduit strategies. We sought to investigate the incidence and clinical implication of bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion in the Arterial Revascularization Trial. METHODS: Among patients enrolled in the Arterial Revascularization Trial (n = 3102), we excluded those allocated to single internal thoracic arteries (n = 1554), those who did not undergo surgery (n = 16), and those who underwent operation but withdrew after randomization (n = 7). Propensity score matching was used to compare converted versus nonconverted bilateral internal thoracic artery groups. RESULTS: A total of 1525 patients were operated with the intention to receive bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting. Of those, 233 (15.3%) were converted to other conduit selection strategies. Incidence of conversion largely varied across 131 participating surgeons (from 0% to 100%). The most common reason for bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion was the evidence of at least 1 internal thoracic artery that was not suitable, which was reported in 77 cases. Patients with intraoperative bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion received a lower number of grafts (2.95 ± 0.84 vs 3.21 ± 0.74; P < .001). However, the hospital mortality rate was comparable to that of those who did not require bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion (0% vs 1.6%; P = .1), as well as the incidence of major complications. At 5 years, we found a nonsignificant excess of deaths (11.9% vs 8.4%; P = .1) and major adverse events (17.1% 13.2%; P = .1) mainly driven by an excess of revascularization in patients requiring conversion. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of intraoperative bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion is not infrequent. Bilateral internal thoracic artery graft conversion is not associated with increased operative morbidity, but its effect on late outcomes remains uncertain.

10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(5)2018 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is still uncertainty about the safety of aprotinin for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The ART (Arterial Revascularization Trial) was designed to compare survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. Many of the ART patients (≈30%) received perioperative aprotinin. We investigated the association between perioperative aprotinin administration and short-term (in-hospital) and long-term outcomes by performing a post hoc analysis of the ART. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among patients enrolled in the ART (n=3102) from 2004 to 2007, we excluded those who did not undergo surgery (n=18) and those with no information about use of perioperative aprotinin (n=9). Finally, 836 of 3076 patients (27%) received aprotinin. Propensity matching was used to select 536 pairs for final comparison. Aprotinin was also associated with an increased risk of hospital mortality (9 [1.7%] versus 1 [0.2%]; odds ratio, 9.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-72.2; P=0.03), intra-aortic balloon pump insertion (37 [6.9%] versus 17 [3.2%]; odds ratio, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.26-4.07; P=0.006), and acute kidney injury (102 [19.0%] versus 76 [14.2%]; odds ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.03-1.97; P=0.03). Aprotinin was not associated with a lower incidence of transfusion (37 [6.9%] versus 28 [5.2%]; odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.23; P=0.25) and reexploration (26 [4.9%] versus 19 [3.5%]; hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.76-2.53; P=0.28). At 5 years, all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the aprotinin group (56 [10.6%] versus 38 [7.3%]; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.0-2.28; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In the present post hoc ART analysis, aprotinin was associated with a significantly increased risk of early and late mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN46552265.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 11(2): e004227, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We determined whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I can improve the estimation of the pretest probability for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with suspected stable angina. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prespecified substudy of the SCOT-HEART trial (Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart), plasma cardiac troponin was measured using a high-sensitivity single-molecule counting assay in 943 adults with suspected stable angina who had undergone coronary computed tomographic angiography. Rates of obstructive CAD were compared with the pretest probability determined by the CAD Consortium risk model with and without cardiac troponin concentrations. External validation was undertaken in an independent study population from Denmark comprising 487 patients with suspected stable angina. Higher cardiac troponin concentrations were associated with obstructive CAD with a 5-fold increase across quintiles (9%-48%; P<0.001) independent of known cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.46 per doubling of troponin). Cardiac troponin concentrations improved the discrimination and calibration of the CAD Consortium model for identifying obstructive CAD (C statistic, 0.788-0.800; P=0.004; χ2=16.8 [P=0.032] to 14.3 [P=0.074]). The updated model also improved classification of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pretest probability risk categories (net reclassification improvement, 0.062; 95% confidence interval, 0.035-0.089). The revised model achieved similar improvements in discrimination and calibration when applied in the external validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration is an independent predictor of obstructive CAD in patients with suspected stable angina. Use of this test may improve the selection of patients for further investigation and treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01149590.

12.
Lancet ; 391(10124): 939-948, 2018 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous randomised trials have compared coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with coronary artery disease. However, no studies have been powered to detect a difference in mortality between the revascularisation strategies. METHODS: We did a systematic review up to July 19, 2017, to identify randomised clinical trials comparing CABG with PCI using stents. Eligible studies included patients with multivessel or left main coronary artery disease who did not present with acute myocardial infarction, did PCI with stents (bare-metal or drug-eluting), and had more than 1 year of follow-up for all-cause mortality. In a collaborative, pooled analysis of individual patient data from the identified trials, we estimated all-cause mortality up to 5 years using Kaplan-Meier analyses and compared PCI with CABG using a random-effects Cox proportional-hazards model stratified by trial. Consistency of treatment effect was explored in subgroup analyses, with subgroups defined according to baseline clinical and anatomical characteristics. FINDINGS: We included 11 randomised trials involving 11 518 patients selected by heart teams who were assigned to PCI (n=5753) or to CABG (n=5765). 976 patients died over a mean follow-up of 3·8 years (SD 1·4). Mean Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score was 26·0 (SD 9·5), with 1798 (22·1%) of 8138 patients having a SYNTAX score of 33 or higher. 5 year all-cause mortality was 11·2% after PCI and 9·2% after CABG (hazard ratio [HR] 1·20, 95% CI 1·06-1·37; p=0·0038). 5 year all-cause mortality was significantly different between the interventions in patients with multivessel disease (11·5% after PCI vs 8·9% after CABG; HR 1·28, 95% CI 1·09-1·49; p=0·0019), including in those with diabetes (15·5% vs 10·0%; 1·48, 1·19-1·84; p=0·0004), but not in those without diabetes (8·7% vs 8·0%; 1·08, 0·86-1·36; p=0·49). SYNTAX score had a significant effect on the difference between the interventions in multivessel disease. 5 year all-cause mortality was similar between the interventions in patients with left main disease (10·7% after PCI vs 10·5% after CABG; 1·07, 0·87-1·33; p=0·52), regardless of diabetes status and SYNTAX score. INTERPRETATION: CABG had a mortality benefit over PCI in patients with multivessel disease, particularly those with diabetes and higher coronary complexity. No benefit for CABG over PCI was seen in patients with left main disease. Longer follow-up is needed to better define mortality differences between the revascularisation strategies. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Stents , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 155(4): 1545-1553.e7, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass continue to be controversial because some studies have reported increased adverse event rates with off-pump coronary artery bypass when compared with on-pump coronary artery bypass. The Arterial Revascularization Trial compared survival after bilateral versus single internal thoracic artery grafting. The choice of off-pump coronary artery bypass versus on-pump coronary artery bypass was based on the surgeon's discretion. We performed a post hoc analysis of the Arterial Revascularization Trial to compare 5-year outcomes with 2 strategies. METHODS: Among 3102 patients enrolled in the Arterial Revascularization Trial, we selected 1260 patients who underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass versus 1700 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass with cardioplegic arrest for the present comparison. Primary outcomes were 5-year mortality and incidence of major cardiac and cerebrovascular events, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, and revascularization after index procedure. Propensity score matching selected 1260 pairs for final comparison. Stratified Cox models were used for treatment effect estimate. RESULTS: Hospital mortality was comparable between off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups (12 [1.0%] vs 15 [1.2%]; P = .7). Conversion rate to on-pump during off-pump coronary artery bypass was 29 of 1260 (2.3%). When compared with off-pump coronary artery bypass not converted, off-pump coronary artery bypass converted to on-pump presented a remarkably higher hospital mortality (10.3% vs 0.7%; P < .001). At 5 years, the mortality rate was 110 (8.9%) versus 102 (8.3%) in the off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups, respectively, with no significant difference (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.52; P = .35). Incidence of major cardiac and cerebrovascular events was 175 (14.3) versus 169 (13.8) in the off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass groups, respectively, with no significant difference (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.31; P = .65). CONCLUSIONS: The present post hoc Arterial Revascularization Trial analysis supports the hypothesis that both off-pump coronary artery bypass and on-pump coronary artery bypass are equally effective and safe.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(1): 105, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301619
15.
Heart ; 104(3): 207-214, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic benefits of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) using the 2016 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for the assessment of suspected stable angina. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial of 4146 participants with suspected angina randomised to CTCA. Patients were dichotomised into NICE guideline-defined possible angina and non-anginal presentations. Primary (diagnostic) endpoint was diagnostic certainty of angina at 6 weeks and prognostic endpoint comprised fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS: In 3770 eligible participants, CTCA increased diagnostic certainty more in those with possible angina (relative risk (RR) 2.22 (95% CI 1.91 to 2.60), p<0.001) than those with non-anginal symptoms (RR 1.30 (1.11 to 1.53), p=0.002; pinteraction <0.001). In the possible angina cohort, CTCA did not change rates of invasive angiography (p=0.481) but markedly reduced rates of normal coronary angiography (HR 0.32 (0.19 to 0.52), p<0.001). In the non-anginal cohort, rates of invasive angiography increased (HR 1.82 (1.13 to 2.92), p=0.014) without reducing rates of normal coronary angiography (HR 0.78 (0.30 to 2.05), p=0.622). At 3.2 years of follow-up, fatal or non-fatal MI was reduced in patients with possible angina (3.2% to 1.9%%; HR 0.58 (0.34 to 0.99), p=0.045) but not in those with non-anginal symptoms (HR 0.65 (0.25 to 1.69), p=0.379). CONCLUSIONS: NICE-guided patient selection maximises the benefits of CTCA on diagnostic certainty, use of invasive coronary angiography and reductions in fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Patients with non-anginal chest pain derive minimal benefit from CTCA and increase the rates of invasive investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01149590;post results.


Assuntos
Angina Estável/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Angina Estável/epidemiologia , Angina Estável/terapia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prognóstico , Escócia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 107(1): 49-59, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aldosterone stimulates cardiac collagen synthesis. Circulating biomarkers of collagen turnover provide a useful tool for the assessment of cardiac remodeling in patients with an acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: The REMINDER trial assessed the effect of eplerenone in patients with an acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) without known heart failure (HF), when initiated within 24 h of symptom onset. The primary outcome was almost totally (>90%) driven by natriuretic peptide (NP) thresholds after 1-month post-MI (it also included a composite of cardiovascular death or re-hospitalization or new onset HF or sustained ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation or LVEF ≤40% after 1-month post-MI). This secondary analysis aims to assess the extracellular matrix marker (ECMM) levels with regards to: (1) patients` characteristics; (2) determinants; (3) and eplerenone effect. RESULTS: Serum levels of ECMM were measured in 526 (52%) of the 1012 patients enrolled in the REMINDER trial. Patients with procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) above the median were older and had worse renal function (p < 0.05). Worse renal function was associated with increased levels of PIIINP (standardized ß ≈ 0.20, p < 0.05). Eplerenone reduced PIIINP when the levels of this biomarker were above the median of 3.9 ng/mL (0.13 ± 1.48 vs. -0.37 ± 1.56 ng/mL, p = 0.008). Higher levels of PIIINP were independently associated with higher proportion of NP above the prespecified thresholds (HR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.16-3.29, p = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: Eplerenone effectively reduces PIIINP levels when baseline values were above the median. Eplerenone may limit ECMM formation in post-MI without HF.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Eplerenona , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Espironolactona/efeitos adversos , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue , Troponina T/sangue
17.
Eur Heart J ; 39(7): 508-579, 2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190377

RESUMO

Aims: The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas has been compiled by the European Heart Agency to document cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics of the 56 ESC member countries. A major aim of this 2017 data presentation has been to compare high-income and middle-income ESC member countries to identify inequalities in disease burden, outcomes, and service provision. Methods and results: The Atlas utilizes a variety of data sources, including the World Health Organization, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and the World Bank to document risk factors, prevalence, and mortality of cardiovascular disease and national economic indicators. It also includes novel ESC-sponsored survey data of health infrastructure and cardiovascular service provision provided by the national societies of the ESC member countries. Data presentation is descriptive with no attempt to attach statistical significance to differences observed in stratified analyses. Important differences were identified between the high-income and middle-income member countries of the ESC with regard to CVD risk factors, disease incidence, and mortality. For both women and men, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was lower in high-income countries (18% and 27%) compared with middle-income countries (24% and 30%). Smoking prevalence in men (not women) was also lower (26% vs. 41%) and together these inequalities are likely to have contributed to the higher CVD mortality in middle-income countries. Declines in CVD mortality have seen cancer becoming a more common cause of death in a number of high-income member countries, but in middle-income countries declines in CVD mortality have been less consistent where CVD remains the leading cause of death. Inequalities in CVD mortality are emphasized by the smaller contribution they make to potential years of life lost in high-income countries compared with middle-income countries both for women (13% vs. 23%) and men (20% vs. 27%). The downward mortality trends for CVD may, however, be threatened by the emerging obesity epidemic that is seeing rates of diabetes increasing across all the ESC member countries. Survey data from the National Cardiac Societies showed that rates of cardiac catheterization and coronary artery bypass surgery, as well as the number of specialist centres required to deliver them, were greatest in the high-income member countries of the ESC. The Atlas confirmed that these ESC member countries, where the facilities for the contemporary treatment of coronary disease were best developed, were often those in which declines in coronary mortality have been most pronounced. Economic resources were not the only driver for delivery of equitable cardiovascular health care, as some middle-income ESC member countries reported rates for interventional procedures and device implantations that matched or exceeded the rates in wealthier member countries. Conclusion: In documenting national CVD statistics, the Atlas provides valuable insights into the inequalities in risk factors, health care delivery, and outcomes of CVD across the ESC member countries. The availability of these data will underpin the ESC's ambitious mission 'to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease' not only in its member countries but also in nation states around the world.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 39(1): 26-35, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040525

RESUMO

Aims: Recent guidelines recommend that patients with heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 40-49% should be managed similar to LVEF ≥ 50%. We investigated the effect of beta-blockers according to LVEF in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Methods and results: Individual patient data meta-analysis of 11 trials, stratified by baseline LVEF and heart rhythm (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT0083244; PROSPERO: CRD42014010012). Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death over 1.3 years median follow-up, with an intention-to-treat analysis. For 14 262 patients in sinus rhythm, median LVEF was 27% (interquartile range 21-33%), including 575 patients with LVEF 40-49% and 244 ≥ 50%. Beta-blockers reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared to placebo in sinus rhythm, an effect that was consistent across LVEF strata, except for those in the small subgroup with LVEF ≥ 50%. For LVEF 40-49%, death occurred in 21/292 [7.2%] randomized to beta-blockers compared to 35/283 [12.4%] with placebo; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-1.03]. Cardiovascular death occurred in 13/292 [4.5%] with beta-blockers and 26/283 [9.2%] with placebo; adjusted HR 0.48 (95% CI 0.24-0.97). Over a median of 1.0 years following randomization (n = 4601), LVEF increased with beta-blockers in all groups in sinus rhythm except LVEF ≥50%. For patients in atrial fibrillation at baseline (n = 3050), beta-blockers increased LVEF when < 50% at baseline, but did not improve prognosis. Conclusion: Beta-blockers improve LVEF and prognosis for patients with heart failure in sinus rhythm with a reduced LVEF. The data are most robust for LVEF < 40%, but similar benefit was observed in the subgroup of patients with LVEF 40-49%.

20.
N Engl J Med ; 377(12): 1119-1131, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28845751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of canakinumab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1ß, involving 10,061 patients with previous myocardial infarction and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level of 2 mg or more per liter. The trial compared three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg, administered subcutaneously every 3 months) with placebo. The primary efficacy end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: At 48 months, the median reduction from baseline in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level was 26 percentage points greater in the group that received the 50-mg dose of canakinumab, 37 percentage points greater in the 150-mg group, and 41 percentage points greater in the 300-mg group than in the placebo group. Canakinumab did not reduce lipid levels from baseline. At a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the incidence rate for the primary end point was 4.50 events per 100 person-years in the placebo group, 4.11 events per 100 person-years in the 50-mg group, 3.86 events per 100 person-years in the 150-mg group, and 3.90 events per 100 person-years in the 300-mg group. The hazard ratios as compared with placebo were as follows: in the 50-mg group, 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.07; P=0.30); in the 150-mg group, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.98; P=0.021); and in the 300-mg group, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P=0.031). The 150-mg dose, but not the other doses, met the prespecified multiplicity-adjusted threshold for statistical significance for the primary end point and the secondary end point that additionally included hospitalization for unstable angina that led to urgent revascularization (hazard ratio vs. placebo, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.95; P=0.005). Canakinumab was associated with a higher incidence of fatal infection than was placebo. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for all canakinumab doses vs. placebo, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.06; P=0.31). CONCLUSIONS: Antiinflammatory therapy targeting the interleukin-1ß innate immunity pathway with canakinumab at a dose of 150 mg every 3 months led to a significantly lower rate of recurrent cardiovascular events than placebo, independent of lipid-level lowering. (Funded by Novartis; CANTOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01327846 .).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Infecção/etiologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
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