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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(25): 2440-2450, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the national obesity epidemic has been well documented, less is known about obesity at the U.S. state level. Current estimates are based on body measures reported by persons themselves that underestimate the prevalence of obesity, especially severe obesity. METHODS: We developed methods to correct for self-reporting bias and to estimate state-specific and demographic subgroup-specific trends and projections of the prevalence of categories of body-mass index (BMI). BMI data reported by 6,264,226 adults (18 years of age or older) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey (1993-1994 and 1999-2016) were obtained and corrected for quantile-specific self-reporting bias with the use of measured data from 57,131 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We fitted multinomial regressions for each state and subgroup to estimate the prevalence of four BMI categories from 1990 through 2030: underweight or normal weight (BMI [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], <25), overweight (25 to <30), moderate obesity (30 to <35), and severe obesity (≥35). We evaluated the accuracy of our approach using data from 1990 through 2010 to predict 2016 outcomes. RESULTS: The findings from our approach suggest with high predictive accuracy that by 2030 nearly 1 in 2 adults will have obesity (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 47.7 to 50.1), and the prevalence will be higher than 50% in 29 states and not below 35% in any state. Nearly 1 in 4 adults is projected to have severe obesity by 2030 (24.2%; 95% CI, 22.9 to 25.5), and the prevalence will be higher than 25% in 25 states. We predict that, nationally, severe obesity is likely to become the most common BMI category among women (27.6%; 95% CI, 26.1 to 29.2), non-Hispanic black adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 29.9 to 33.4), and low-income adults (31.7%; 95% CI, 30.2 to 33.2). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the prevalence of adult obesity and severe obesity will continue to increase nationwide, with large disparities across states and demographic subgroups. (Funded by the JPB Foundation.).


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Obesidade Mórbida/etnologia , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Prev Med Rep ; 15: 100940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367511

RESUMO

Many children are not sufficiently physically active. This study uses a quasi-experimental design to evaluate whether participation in a before-school physical activity program called Build Our Kids' Success (BOKS) increases physical activity. Participants (n = 426) were students in Fall, 2016 enrolled in BOKS programming and matched non-BOKS control students from the same grades (Kindergarten-6) and schools in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Analyses conducted in 2017 examined differences between children in BOKS versus controls in total daily steps, minutes of moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), vigorous (VPA), and total physical activity (TPA) assessed via Fitbit Charge HR™ monitors. Additional analyses compared physical activity on program days and non-program days. Students (mean age = 8.6 y; 47% female, 58% White, Non-Hispanic) wore monitors an average of 21.7 h/day on 3.2 days during the school week. Compared with controls, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1147, 95% confidence interval (CI): 583-1712, P < 0.001), MVPA minutes (13.4, 95% CI: 6.6-20.3, P < 0.001), and VPA minutes (4.0, 95% CI: 1.2-6.7, P = 0.005). Across all school days, BOKS participants accumulated more total steps than controls (716, 95% CI: 228-1204, P = 0.004). Compared to days without BOKS programming, on BOKS days, BOKS participants accumulated more steps (1153; 95% CI: 841-1464, P < 0.001) and daily minutes of MVPA (8.8, 95% CI: 5.3-12.2, P < 0.001), VPA (3.0, 95% CI: 1.6-4.5, P < 0.001), and TPA (20.8, 95% CI: 13.6-28.1, P < 0.001). BOKS programming promotes engagement in additional accumulated steps during the school week and physical activity on days that students participate. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03403816, available at: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03403816?term=NCT03403816&rank=1.

3.
Obes Rev ; 20(9): 1262-1286, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250960

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to identify promising strategies for improving drinking-water access and consumption among children aged 0 to 5 years. MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, ERIC, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched in this review. Studies included peer-reviewed, full-text studies from high-income countries, published in English between January 1, 2000, and January 12, 2018, that evaluated interventions to increase water access or consumption in children aged 0 to 5 years. Twenty-five studies met inclusion criteria; 19 used an effective intervention strategy to increase water access or water consumption. Three studies addressed both water access and consumption. Frequently used strategies included policy and practice changes, increasing water access and convenience, and education, training, or social support for caregivers. Studies were of fair methodological quality (average score: 18.8 of 26) for randomized studies and of moderate quality (5.1 of 9) for non-randomized studies. To date, few high-quality studies with objectively measured outcomes have clearly demonstrated strategies that may influence water intake and consumption among young children aged 0 to 5 years.

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