Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 59
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753882

RESUMO

The goals of the current study were to determine whether topological organization of brain structural networks is altered in youth with bipolar disorder, whether such alterations predict treatment outcomes, and whether they are normalized by treatment. Youth with bipolar disorder were randomized to double-blind treatment with quetiapine or lithium and assessed weekly. High-resolution MRI images were collected from children and adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a mixed or manic episode (n = 100) and healthy youth (n = 63). Brain networks were constructed based on the similarity of morphological features across regions and analyzed using graph theory approaches. We tested for pretreatment anatomical differences between bipolar and healthy youth and for changes in neuroanatomic network metrics following treatment in the youth with bipolar disorder. Youth with bipolar disorder showed significantly increased clustering coefficient (Cp) (p = 0.009) and characteristic path length (Lp) (p = 0.04) at baseline, and altered nodal centralities in insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor area. Cp, Lp, and nodal centrality of the insula exhibited normalization in patients following treatment. Changes in these neuroanatomic parameters were correlated with improvement in manic symptoms but did not differ between the two drug therapies. Baseline structural network matrices significantly differentiated medication responders and non-responders with 80% accuracy. These findings demonstrate that both global and nodal structural network features are altered in early course bipolar disorder, and that pretreatment alterations in neuroanatomic features predicted treatment outcome and were reduced by treatment. Similar connectome normalization with lithium and quetiapine suggests that the connectome changes are a downstream effect of both therapies that is related to their clinical efficacy.

2.
Psychiatry Res ; 294: 113516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160217

RESUMO

Over 2.3 million people in the United States live with bipolar disorder. Sixty percent of those with a bipolar disorder diagnosis attempt suicide at least once in their lifetime and up to 19% die by suicide. However, the neurobiology of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder remains unclear. We studied the gray matter volume (GMV) of 81 participants with a bipolar-I diagnosis (age-range: 14-34 years old) and 40 healthy participants (age-range 14.7-32 years old) to compare their neuroanatomy and histories of suicide attempt. In the bipolar group, 42 were manic with ages ranging from 14-30.6 years, and 39 were depressed with ages ranging from 14-34.3 years). Twenty three bipolar participants had a suicide attempt history, and 58 had no suicide attempt history. All participants completed behavioral/diagnostic assessments and MRI. We focused on a predefined frontolimbic circuitry in bipolar disorder versus controls to first identify diagnostic GMV correlates and to specifically identify GMV correlates for suicide attempt history. We found reduced GMV in bipolar diagnosis versus controls in the subgenual cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Our observed regional GMV reductions were associated with histories of suicide attempts and measures of individual variations in current suicidal ideation at the time of scanning.

3.
J Neurotrauma ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115345

RESUMO

This pilot study explores the possibility of predicting post-concussion symptom recovery at one week post-injury using only objective diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data inputs to a novel artificial intelligence (AI) system composed of Genetic Fuzzy Trees (GFT). Forty-three adolescents age 11 to 16 years with either mild traumatic brain injury or traumatic orthopedic injury were enrolled on presentation to the emergency department. Participants received a DTI scan three days post-injury, and their symptoms were assessed by the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at 6 h and one week post-injury. The GFT system was trained using one-week total PCSS scores, 48 volumetric magnetic resonance imaging inputs, and 192 DTI inputs per participant over 225 training runs. Each training run contained a randomly selected 80% of the total sample followed by a 20% validation run. Over a different randomly selected sample distribution, GFT was also compared with six common classification methods. The cascading GFT structure controlled an effectively infinite solution space that classified participants as recovered or not recovered significantly better than chance. It demonstrated 100% and 62% classification accuracy in training and validation, respectively, better than any of the six comparison methods. Recovery sensitivity and specificity were 59% and 65% in the GFT validation set, respectively. These results provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of a GFT system to make clinical predictions of trauma symptom recovery using objective brain measures. Although clinical and research applications will necessitate additional optimization of the system, these results highlight the future promise of AI in acute care.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Altered activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, as well as subcortical and amygdala projection sites, was previously reported during a first manic episode in youth with bipolar disorder and observed to be associated with treatment response. To extend these findings, we investigated functional connectivity among these regions in first-episode manic participants who remitted after 8 weeks of treatment compared to those who did not. METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar disorder (60% female) during their first manic episode were recruited and received 8 weeks of treatment. Twenty-one remitted following treatment. Participants completed fMRI scans, at baseline and following 8 weeks of treatment, while performing a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distractors. A healthy comparison group (n = 41) received fMRI evaluations at the same intervals. Differences in functional connectivity of the amygdala and caudate with the rostral anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices at baseline (and changes in functional connectivity following treatment) were modeled between groups. RESULTS: At baseline, non-remitters showed an increase in positive connectivity between right anterior cingulate and caudate and a loss of negative connectivity between right anterior cingulate and amygdala, compared to healthy participants. Individuals who remitted following treatment showed an increase in negative connectivity between amygdala and left anterior cingulate 8 weeks following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence of alterations in anterior cingulate amygdala and caudate functional connectivity in bipolar disorder non-remitters during a first manic episode and changes in anterior cingulate functional connectivity associated with remission suggesting targets to predict treatment response. Registered at ClinicalTrials.Gov; Functional and Neurochemical Brain Changes in First-episode Bipolar Mania. NCT00609193. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00609193?term=strakowskirank=1.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008167

RESUMO

Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders, but strategies to predict mood episodes are unavailable. In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline 1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr) levels were calculated. SVM with a linear kernel was adopted to classify converters and non-converters based on their baseline metabolites. SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters across all regions for Cho (accuracy = 76.0%), but not for other metabolites. Considering all metabolites within each region, SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters for left VLPFC (accuracy = 76.5%), but not for right VLPFC or ACC. The combined mI, PCr + Cr, and Cho from left VLPFC achieved the highest accuracy differentiating converters from non-converters (79.0%). Our findings from this exploratory study suggested that 1H-MRS levels of mI, Cho, and PCr + Cr from left VLPFC might be useful to predict the development of first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring using machine learning. Future studies that prospectively examine and validate these metabolites as predictors of mood episodes in high-risk individuals are necessary.

6.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 286: 53-59, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903953

RESUMO

We examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) treatment on ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) and striatal brain activation in binge eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that participants with BED have an abnormal brain response to palatable food cues, and that VPFC and striatal regions would respond to such cues after LDX treatment. Twenty women with moderate to severe BED consented to a 12-week, open-label trial of LDX with fMRI before and after treatment. Twenty obese women without BED served as healthy controls and received one fMRI. LDX was started at 30 mg/d with a target of 70 mg/d at week 12. At baseline, women with BED showed greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), striatum, and globus pallidus to food pictures and brain activation to food pictures predicted clinical outcome at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of LDX treatment, BED women showed significant reductions in globus pallidus activation. Reductions in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and thalamus activation specifically correlated with binge eating and obsessive-compulsive symptom reductions, respectively. Results suggest that BED is characterized by an abnormally large VPFC-subcortical brain response to palatable foods that LDX treatment helps modify. Moreover, VPFC-subcortical activation at baseline is a potential biomarker of LDX response.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Affect Disord ; 234: 14-19, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. RESULTS: Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 29(4): 227-234A, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients with anxiety disorders, existing symptom inventories are either not freely available or require extensive time and effort to administer. We sought to evaluate a brief self-report scale-the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7)-in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and the GAD-7 were administered to youth with GAD (confirmed by structured interview). Relationships between the measures were assessed, and sensitivity and specificity was determined with regard to a global symptom severity measure (Clinical Global Impression-Severity). RESULTS: In adolescents with GAD (N = 40; mean age, 14.8 ± 2.8), PARS and GAD-7 scores strongly correlated (R = 0.65, P ≤ .001) and a main effect for symptom severity was observed (P ≤ .001). GAD-7 scores ≥11 and ≥17 represented the optimum specificity and sensitivity for detecting moderate and severe anxiety, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The PARS and GAD-7 similarly reflect symptom severity. The GAD-7 is associated with acceptable specificity and sensitivity for detecting clinically significant anxiety symptoms. GAD-7 scores may be used to assess anxiety symptoms and to differentiate between mild and moderate GAD in adolescents, and may be more efficient than the PARS.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Bipolar Disord ; 19(4): 259-272, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individualized treatment for bipolar disorder based on neuroimaging treatment targets remains elusive. To address this shortcoming, we developed a linguistic machine learning system based on a cascading genetic fuzzy tree (GFT) design called the LITHium Intelligent Agent (LITHIA). Using multiple objectively defined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) inputs, we tested whether LITHIA could accurately predict the lithium response in participants with first-episode bipolar mania. METHODS: We identified 20 subjects with first-episode bipolar mania who received an adequate trial of lithium over 8 weeks and both fMRI and 1 H-MRS scans at baseline pre-treatment. We trained LITHIA using 18 1 H-MRS and 90 fMRI inputs over four training runs to classify treatment response and predict symptom reductions. Each training run contained a randomly selected 80% of the total sample and was followed by a 20% validation run. Over a different randomly selected distribution of the sample, we then compared LITHIA to eight common classification methods. RESULTS: LITHIA demonstrated nearly perfect classification accuracy and was able to predict post-treatment symptom reductions at 8 weeks with at least 88% accuracy in training and 80% accuracy in validation. Moreover, LITHIA exceeded the predictive capacity of the eight comparator methods and showed little tendency towards overfitting. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided proof-of-concept that a novel GFT is capable of providing control to a multidimensional bioinformatics problem-namely, prediction of the lithium response-in a pilot data set. Future work on this, and similar machine learning systems, could help assign psychiatric treatments more efficiently, thereby optimizing outcomes and limiting unnecessary treatment.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais , Transtorno Bipolar , Resistência a Medicamentos , Compostos de Lítio , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaníacos/administração & dosagem , Antimaníacos/efeitos adversos , Inteligência Artificial , Sintomas Comportamentais/diagnóstico , Sintomas Comportamentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Compostos de Lítio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Lítio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
10.
Bipolar Disord ; 18(6): 490-501, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27647671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that, with treatment, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) regional brain activation in first-episode mania would normalize - i.e., that differences from healthy subjects would diminish over time, and would be associated with clinical remission status, potentially identifying neuroanatomic treatment response markers. METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder were recruited during their first manic episode, pseudo-randomized to open-label lithium or quetiapine, and followed for 8 weeks. fMRI scans were obtained at baseline and then after 1 and 8 weeks of treatment, while participants performed a continuous performance task with emotional distracters. Healthy participants received fMRI scans at these same intervals. Specific region-of-interest (ROI) activations within prefrontal emotional networks were assessed as potential measures of treatment response. RESULTS: ROI data were reduced using exploratory factor analysis, which identified five factors that were organizationally consistent with functional anatomic models of human emotion modulation. Half of the participants with bipolar disorder achieved remission by Week 8 and were contrasted with the other half that did not. Analyses demonstrated that, in the bipolar disorder group in general, treatment led to decreases in activation across brain regions toward healthy subject values. However, differences in activation changes were observed between subjects with bipolar disorder who did or did not achieve remission in subcortical and amygdala factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for potential neuroanatomic treatment response markers in first-episode bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Transtorno Bipolar , Lítio/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Emoções/fisiologia , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Exp Neuropsychol ; 37(6): 563-70, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous research has shown that performance on cognitive tasks administered in the scanner can be altered by the scanner environment. There are no previous studies that have investigated the impact of scanner noise using a well-validated measure of affective change. The goal of this study was to determine whether performance on an affective attentional task or emotional response to the task would change in the presence of distracting acoustic noise, such as that encountered in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment. METHOD: Thirty-four young adults with no self-reported history of neurologic disorder or mental illness completed three blocks of the affective Posner task outside of the scanner. The task was meant to induce frustration through monetary contingencies and rigged feedback. Participants completed a Self-Assessment Manikin at the end of each block to rate their mood, arousal level, and sense of dominance. During the task, half of the participants heard noise (recorded from a 4T MRI system), and half heard no noise. RESULTS: The affective Posner task led to significant reductions in mood and increases in arousal in healthy participants. The presence of scanner noise did not impact task performance; however, individuals in the noise group did report significantly poorer mood throughout the task. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study suggest that the acoustic qualities of MRI enhance frustration effects on an affective attentional task and that scanner noise may influence mood during similar functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Neuroimagem Funcional/normas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Neurology ; 84(8): 794-802, 2015 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25632091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of cost, a traditionally "inactive" trait of intervention, as contributor to the response to therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective double-blind study in 12 patients with moderate to severe Parkinson disease and motor fluctuations (mean age 62.4 ± 7.9 years; mean disease duration 11 ± 6 years) who were randomized to a "cheap" or "expensive" subcutaneous "novel injectable dopamine agonist" placebo (normal saline). Patients were crossed over to the alternate arm approximately 4 hours later. Blinded motor assessments in the "practically defined off" state, before and after each intervention, included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor subscale, the Purdue Pegboard Test, and a tapping task. Measurements of brain activity were performed using a feedback-based visual-motor associative learning functional MRI task. Order effect was examined using stratified analysis. RESULTS: Although both placebos improved motor function, benefit was greater when patients were randomized first to expensive placebo, with a magnitude halfway between that of cheap placebo and levodopa. Brain activation was greater upon first-given cheap but not upon first-given expensive placebo or by levodopa. Regardless of order of administration, only cheap placebo increased activation in the left lateral sensorimotor cortex and other regions. CONCLUSION: Expensive placebo significantly improved motor function and decreased brain activation in a direction and magnitude comparable to, albeit less than, levodopa. Perceptions of cost are capable of altering the placebo response in clinical studies. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that perception of cost is capable of influencing motor function and brain activation in Parkinson disease.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Antiparkinsonianos/economia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/economia , Efeito Placebo , Idoso , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Cross-Over , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Dopamina/economia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Bipolar Disord ; 17(4): 444-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25359589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities within portions of the extended limbic network involved in affective regulation and expression contribute to the neuropathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In particular, portions of the prefrontal cortex have been implicated in the appearance of manic symptomatology. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on activation of these regions, however, remains poorly understood. METHODS: Twenty-two patients diagnosed with bipolar mania and 26 healthy subjects participated in a baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during which they performed a continuous performance task with neutral and emotional distractors. Nineteen patients with bipolar disorder were treated for eight weeks with quetiapine monotherapy and then rescanned. Regional activity in response to emotional stimuli was compared between healthy and manic subjects at baseline; and in the subjects with bipolar disorder between baseline and eight-week scans. RESULTS: At baseline, functional activity did not differ between subjects with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects in any region examined. After eight weeks of treatment, subjects with bipolar disorder showed a significant decrease in ratings on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (p < 0.001), and increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (p = 0.002); there was a significant association between increased right OFC activity and YMRS improvement (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with suggestions that mania involves a loss of emotional modulatory activity in the prefrontal cortex--restoration of the relatively greater elevation in prefrontal activity widely observed in euthymic patients is associated with clinical improvement. It is not clear, however, whether changes are related to quetiapine treatment or represent a non-specific marker of affective change.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Bipolar Disord ; 16(7): 703-12, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24990479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. RESULTS: During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions, with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Oxigênio/sangue , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bipolar Disord ; 16(8): 846-56, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25039396

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Specific demographic and illness characteristics have been identified as predictors of overall morbidity and treatment course among individuals with bipolar disorder. However, the role of specific cognitive limitations on disease severity and treatment response is unclear. The present study evaluated whether impulsiveness during acute mania was a significant predictor of achieving euthymia within one year following psychiatric hospitalization. METHODS: Participants were 94 adult inpatients (60 manic) with bipolar I disorder. Baseline symptom severity was assessed using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale. Impulsivity was measured with the Stop Signal Task, Degraded Stimulus Continuous Performance Task, Delayed Response Task, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11. RESULTS: Individual predictors of time to reach euthymia included fewer depressive symptoms and better impulse control at baseline, later age at illness onset, shorter illness duration, and the absence of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Self-reported impulsivity was a significant independent predictor of time to euthymia, even after accounting for relevant clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Better trait impulse control may be associated with better treatment responsiveness among adults with bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/mortalidade , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 53(7): 771-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24954826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) are more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUDs) than adolescents without psychiatric disorders; however, to our knowledge, specific risk factors underlying this relationship have not been prospectively examined. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of developing SUDs after a first manic episode. METHOD: Participants aged 12 to 20 years and hospitalized with their first manic episode associated with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) were recruited as part of the University of Cincinnati First-Episode Mania Study and prospectively evaluated for patterns of substance use. Follow-up ranged between 17 and 283 weeks (mean = 113 weeks, SD = 71.9 weeks). Demographic and clinical variables were compared between adolescents with and without SUDs. RESULTS: Of the 103 adolescents with BD, 49 (48%) either had a SUD at baseline or developed one during follow-up. Of the 71 participants who did not have a SUD at study entry, 17 (24%) developed one during follow-up (median = 40 weeks). Later onset of BD, manic (versus mixed) mood episode, and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders were associated with an increased risk of developing a SUD in univariate analyses. Adolescents treated with psychostimulant treatment before their first manic episode were significantly less likely to develop a SUD independent of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms were the strongest predictors of SUD development. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm high rates of SUD in adolescents with BD. In addition, our findings identify potential risk factors associated with SUDs in adolescents with BD. These data are preliminary in nature and should be explored further in future studies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Comorbidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Bipolar Disord ; 15(3): 264-71, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23528067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine conflict monitoring and conflict-driven adaptation in individuals at familial risk for developing bipolar disorder. METHODS: We recruited 24 adolescents who had a parent with bipolar disorder and 23 adolescents with healthy parents. Participants completed an arrow version of the Eriksen Flanker Task that included trials with three levels of conflict: neutral, congruent, and incongruent flanks. Differences in performance were explored based upon the level of conflict in the current and previous trials. RESULTS: Individuals at risk for developing bipolar disorder performed more slowly than youth with healthy parents in all trials. Analyses evaluating sequential effects revealed that at-risk subjects responded more slowly than youth of healthy parents for all trial types when preceded by an incongruent trial, for incongruent trials preceded by congruent trials, and for neutral and congruent trials when preceded by neutral trials. In contrast to the comparison group, at-risk adolescents failed to display a response time advantage for incongruent trials preceded by an incongruent trial. When removing subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), differences between groups in response time fell below significant level, but a difference in sequence modulation remained significant. Subjects at risk for bipolar disorder also displayed greater intra-subject response time variability for incongruent and congruent trials compared with the comparison adolescents. No differences in response accuracy were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder displayed specific deficits in cognitive flexibility, which might be useful as a potential marker related to the development of bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Bipolar Disord ; 14(7): 735-42, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23020714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a high prevalence of smoking among individuals with bipolar disorder, yet there have been few efforts to identify potential contributing factors as a means of improving prevention and treatment approaches. The goal of this study was to examine the association between impulsivity and the initiation or maintenance of smoking in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Participants comprised 97 adolescents and adults, ages 16-50, with bipolar I disorder who were experiencing a mixed or manic episode at the time of study enrollment. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) as a self-report indicator of trait impulsivity, and the Logan Stop-Signal Task (SST), Delayed Reward Task (DRT), and Degraded Stimulus Continuous Performance Task (DSCPT) as behavioral measures of impulsivity. RESULTS: Current smokers (34%) and former smokers (23%) generally reported higher trait impulsivity on the BIS-11 than never smokers (43%), with minimal evidence for differences among the two ever-smoking groups. No differences in impulsivity by smoking status emerged on the behavioral measures. CONCLUSIONS: Trait impulsivity is associated with the initiation, but not necessarily the maintenance, of cigarette smoking in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder. Our findings provide no evidence that smoking is associated with impulsive responding on cognitive tasks during a symptomatic period during which impulsivity is elevated.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 60(23): 5736-42, 2012 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22468945

RESUMO

Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Prospectivos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...