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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 348: 1-8, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902504

RESUMO

A large proportion of patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is found to have ischemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA). Based on current evidence, these patients are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, even though they have no obstructive CAD. Importantly, INOCA is associated with recurrent clinical presentations with chest pain, impaired functional capacity, reduced health-related quality of life, and high healthcare costs. Underlying coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD), through endothelium-dependent and independent mechanisms contribute to these adverse outcomes in INOCA. While non-invasive and invasive diagnostic testing has typically focused on identification of obstructive CAD in symptomatic patients, functional testing to detect coronary epicardial and microvascular dysfunction should be considered in those with INOCA who have persistent angina. Current diagnostic methods to clarify functional abnormalities and treatment strategies for epicardial and/or microvascular dysfunction in INOCA are reviewed.

2.
Am Heart J ; 243: 187-200, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ISCHEMIA-CKD (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease) trial found no advantage to an invasive strategy compared to conservative management in reducing all-cause death or myocardial infarction (D/MI). However, the prognostic influence of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden and ischemia severity remains unknown in this population. We compared the relative impact of CAD extent and severity of myocardial ischemia on D/MI in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Participants randomized to invasive management with available data on coronary angiography and stress testing were included. Extent of CAD was defined by the number of major epicardial vessels with ≥50% diameter stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography. Ischemia severity was assessed by site investigators as moderate or severe using trial definitions. The primary endpoint was D/MI. RESULTS: Of the 388 participants, 307 (79.1%) had complete coronary angiography and stress testing data. D/MI occurred in 104/307 participants (33.9%). Extent of CAD was associated with an increased risk of D/MI (P < .001), while ischemia severity was not (P = .249). These relationships persisted following multivariable adjustment. Using 0-vessel disease (VD) as reference, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for 1VD was 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 3.68, P = .073; 2VD: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.12, P = .025; 3VD: HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.06 to 7.76, P < .001. Using moderate ischemia as the reference, the HR for severe ischemia was 0.84, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.30, P = .427. CONCLUSION: Among ISCHEMIA-CKD participants randomized to the invasive strategy, extent of CAD predicted D/MI whereas severity of ischemia did not.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(19): 1919-1929, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736568

RESUMO

Socioeconomic disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes exist among women, particularly those of minority racial or ethnic backgrounds. Barriers to optimal cardiovascular health begin early in life-with inadequate access to effective contraception, postpartum follow-up, and maternity leave-and result in excess rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death in at-risk populations. Contributing factors include reduced access to care, low levels of income and social support, and lack of diversity among cardiology clinicians and within clinical trials. These barriers can be mitigated by optimizing care access via policy change and improving physical access to care in women with geographic or transportation limitations. Addressing structural racism through policy change and bolstering structured community support systems will be key to reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes among women of racial and ethnic minorities. Diversification of the cardiology workforce to more closely represent the patients we serve will be beneficial to all women.

4.
Circulation ; 144(17): 1380-1395, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among patients with diabetes and chronic coronary disease, it is unclear if invasive management improves outcomes when added to medical therapy. METHODS: The ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) trials (ie, ISCHEMIA and ISCHEMIA-Chronic Kidney Disease) randomized chronic coronary disease patients to an invasive (medical therapy + angiography and revascularization if feasible) or a conservative approach (medical therapy alone with revascularization if medical therapy failed). Cohorts were combined after no trial-specific effects were observed. Diabetes was defined by history, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, or use of glucose-lowering medication. The primary outcome was all-cause death or myocardial infarction (MI). Heterogeneity of effect of invasive management on death or MI was evaluated using a Bayesian approach to protect against random high or low estimates of treatment effect for patients with versus without diabetes and for diabetes subgroups of clinical (female sex and insulin use) and anatomic features (coronary artery disease severity or left ventricular function). RESULTS: Of 5900 participants with complete baseline data, the median age was 64 years (interquartile range, 57-70), 24% were female, and the median estimated glomerular filtration was 80 mL·min-1·1.73-2 (interquartile range, 64-95). Among the 2553 (43%) of participants with diabetes, the median percent hemoglobin A1c was 7% (interquartile range, 7-8), and 30% were insulin-treated. Participants with diabetes had a 49% increased hazard of death or MI (hazard ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.31-1.70]; P<0.001). At median 3.1-year follow-up the adjusted event-free survival was 0.54 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.48-0.60) and 0.66 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.61-0.71) for patients with diabetes versus without diabetes, respectively, with a 12% (95% bootstrapped CI, 4%-20%) absolute decrease in event-free survival among participants with diabetes. Female and male patients with insulin-treated diabetes had an adjusted event-free survival of 0.52 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.42-0.56) and 0.49 (95% bootstrapped CI, 0.42-0.56), respectively. There was no difference in death or MI between strategies for patients with diabetes versus without diabetes, or for clinical (female sex or insulin use) or anatomic features (coronary artery disease severity or left ventricular function) of patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite higher risk for death or MI, chronic coronary disease patients with diabetes did not derive incremental benefit from routine invasive management compared with initial medical therapy alone. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.

6.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-10, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407506

RESUMO

Although physical activity (PA) is an important determinant of exercise capacity, the association between these constructs is modest. The authors investigated the associations of self-reported and objectively measured PA with maximal and submaximal tests of exercise capacity. Participants aged ≥40 years (N = 413; 49.6% female) completed a PA questionnaire, wore a uniaxial accelerometer (5.2 ± 1.1 days), and performed maximal (cardiopulmonary exercise test [CPET]) and submaximal (long-distance corridor walk) tests with indirect calorimetry (oxygen consumption, V˙O2). Linear regression models were fitted to assess the variation in exercise capacity explained (partial eta squared, η2) by PA variables. Accelerometer-measured vigorous (η2 = 22% female; η2 = 16% male) and total PA (η2 = 17% female; η2 = 13% male) explained the most variance in CPET V˙O2 (p < .001). All η2 values were lower for long-distance corridor walk V˙O2 (η2 ≤ 11%). Age contributed more to CPET V˙O2 than any PA variable in males (η2 = 32%), but not in females (η2 = 19%). Vigorous and total PA play important roles in CPET V˙O2 in mid to late life.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237410

RESUMO

Although music is predominantly utilized for religious, enjoyment or entertainment purposes, it is gradually emerging as a promising non-pharmacological intervention for improving health outcomes in both healthy and diseased populations, especially in those with cardiovascular diseases. As such, music of various genres and types has been postulated to possess features that stimulate or inhibit the autonomic nervous system, which leads to variable effects on cardiovascular function. However, music intervention has not been adequately explored as a cardiovascular therapeutic modality due to the lack of extensive studies with quality methodology. Thus, the aim of this systematic review is to explore the available literature on the effect of music on the cardiovascular system, discuss the limitations of current research, and suggest future directions in this field.

8.
Circulation ; 144(13): 1008-1023, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) is common and has an adverse prognosis. We set out to describe the natural history of symptoms and ischemia in INOCA. METHODS: CIAO-ISCHEMIA (Changes in Ischemia and Angina over One Year in ISCHEMIA Trial Screen Failures With INOCA) was an international cohort study conducted from 2014 to 2019 involving angina assessments (Seattle Angina Questionnaire) and stress echocardiograms 1 year apart. This was an ancillary study that included patients with a history of angina who were not randomly assigned in the ISCHEMIA trial. Stress-induced wall motion abnormalities were determined by an echocardiographic core laboratory blinded to symptoms, coronary artery disease status, and test timing. Medical therapy was at the discretion of treating physicians. The primary outcome was the correlation between the changes in the Seattle Angina Questionnaire angina frequency score and changes in echocardiographic ischemia. We also analyzed predictors of 1-year changes in both angina and ischemia, and we compared CIAO participants with ISCHEMIA participants with obstructive coronary artery disease who had stress echocardiography before enrollment, as CIAO participants did. RESULTS: INOCA participants in CIAO were more often female (66% of 208 versus 26% of 865 ISCHEMIA participants with obstructive coronary artery disease, P<0.001), but the magnitude of ischemia was similar (median 4 ischemic segments [interquartile range, 3-5] both groups). Ischemia and angina were not significantly correlated at enrollment in CIAO (P=0.46) or ISCHEMIA stress echocardiography participants (P=0.35). At 1 year, the stress echocardiogram was normal in half of CIAO participants, and 23% had moderate or severe ischemia (≥3 ischemic segments). Angina improved in 43% and worsened in 14%. Change in ischemia over 1 year was not significantly correlated with change in angina (ρ=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in ischemia and angina were common in INOCA but not correlated. Our INOCA cohort had a degree of inducible wall motion abnormalities similar to concurrently enrolled ISCHEMIA participants with obstructive coronary artery disease. Our results highlight the complex nature of INOCA pathophysiology and the multifactorial nature of angina. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02347215.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(4): 348-361, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease frequently undergo preemptive revascularization before kidney transplant listing. OBJECTIVES: In this post hoc analysis from ISCHEMIA-CKD (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness of Medical and Invasive Approaches-Chronic Kidney Disease), we compared outcomes of patients not listed versus those listed according to management strategy. METHODS: In the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial (n = 777), 194 patients (25%) with chronic coronary syndromes and at least moderate ischemia were listed for transplant. The primary (all-cause mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction) and secondary (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or stroke) outcomes were analyzed using Cox multivariable modeling. Heterogeneity of randomized treatment effect between listed versus not listed groups was assessed. RESULTS: Compared with those not listed, listed patients were younger (60 years vs 65 years), were less likely to be of Asian race (15% vs 29%), were more likely to be on dialysis (83% vs 44%), had fewer anginal symptoms, and were more likely to have coronary angiography and coronary revascularization irrespective of treatment assignment. Among patients assigned to an invasive strategy versus conservative strategy, the adjusted hazard ratios for the primary outcome were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-1.54) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.78-1.37) for those listed and not listed, respectively (pinteraction= 0.68). Adjusted hazard ratios for secondary outcomes were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.55-1.46) in listed and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.89-1.53) in those not listed (pinteraction = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: In ISCHEMIA-CKD, an invasive strategy in kidney transplant candidates did not improve outcomes compared with conservative management. These data do not support routine coronary angiography or revascularization in patients with advanced CKD and chronic coronary syndromes listed for transplant. (ISCHEMIA-Chronic Kidney Disease Trial [ISCHEMIA-CKD]; NCT01985360).

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(12): 1487-1499, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have different analytic characteristics. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to quantify differences between assays for common analytical benchmarks and to determine whether they may result in differences in the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: The authors included patients with suspected ACS enrolled in the ROMICAT (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography) I and II trials, with blood samples taken at emergency department presentation (ROMICAT-I and -II) or at 2 and 4 h thereafter (ROMICAT-II). hs-cTn concentrations were measured using 3 assays (Roche Diagnostics, Elecsys 2010 platform; Abbott Diagnostics, ARCHITECT i2000SR; Siemens Diagnostics, HsVista). Per blood sample, we determined concordance across analytic benchmarks (99th percentile). Per-patient, the authors determined concordance of management recommendations (rule-out/observe/rule-in) per the 0/2-h algorithm, and their association with diagnostic test findings (coronary artery stenosis >50% on coronary computed tomography angiography or inducible ischemia on perfusion imaging) and ACS. RESULTS: Among 1,027 samples from 624 patients (52.8 ± 10.0 years; 39.4% women), samples were classified as 99th percentile (7.2% vs. 6.0% vs. 6.2%) by Roche, Abbott, and Siemens, respectively. A total of 37.4% (n = 384 of 1,027) of blood samples were classified into the same analytical benchmark category, with low concordance across benchmarks (99th percentile 43.6%). Serial samples were available in 242 patients (40.1% women; mean age: 52.8 ± 8.0 years). The concordance of management recommendations across assays was 74.8% (n = 181 of 242) considering serial hs-cTn measurements. Of patients who were recommended to discharge, 19.6% to 21.1% had positive diagnostic test findings and 2.8% to 4.3% had ACS at presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers should be aware that there are significant differences between hs-cTn assays in stratifying individual samples and patients with intermediate likelihood of ACS according to analytical benchmarks that may result in different management recommendations. (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography [ROMICAT]; NCT00990262) (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(9): 1211-1221, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) with spironolactone is associated with lower risk of heart failure hospitalization (HFH) but increased risk of worsening renal function (WRF). The prognostic implications of spironolactone-associated WRF in HFpEF patients are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between WRF, spironolactone treatment, and clinical outcomes in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: In 1,767 patients randomized to spironolactone or placebo in the TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial)-Americas study, we examined the incidence of WRF (doubling of serum creatinine) by treatment assignment. Associations between incident WRF and subsequent risk for the primary study endpoint of cardiovascular (CV) death, HFH, or aborted cardiac arrest and key secondary outcomes, including CV death, HFH, and all-cause mortality according to treatment assignment, were examined in time-updated Cox proportional hazards models with an interaction term. RESULTS: WRF developed in 260 (14.7%) patients with higher rates in those assigned to spironolactone compared to placebo (17.8% vs. 11.6%; odds ratio: 1.66; 95% confidence interval: 1.27 to 2.17; p < 0.001). Regardless of treatment, incident WRF was associated with increased risk for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio: 2.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.52 to 2.72; p < 0.001) after multivariable adjustment. Although there was no statistical interaction between treatment assignment and WRF regarding the primary endpoint (interaction p = 0.11), spironolactone-associated WRF was associated with lower risk of CV death (interaction p = 0.003) and all-cause mortality (interaction p = 0.001) compared with placebo-associated WRF. CONCLUSIONS: Among HFpEF patients enrolled in TOPCAT-Americas, spironolactone increased risk of WRF compared with placebo. Rates of CV death were lower with spironolactone in both patients with and without WRF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
12.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 40(6): 350-355, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074849

RESUMO

Although both cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) are recommended by clinical practice guidelines and covered by most insurers, they remain severely underutilized. To address this problem, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), in collaboration with the National Institute on Aging (NIA), developed Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) in late 2017 to support phase II clinical trials to increase the uptake of CR and PR in traditional and community settings. The objectives of these FOAs were to (1) test strategies that will lead to increased use of CR and PR in the US population who are eligible based on clinical guidelines; (2) test strategies to reduce disparities in the use of CR and PR based on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status; and (3) test whether increased use of CR and PR, whether by traditional center-based or new models, is accompanied by improvements in relevant clinical and patient-centered outcomes, including exercise capacity, cardiovascular and pulmonary risk factors, and quality of life. Five NHLBI grants and a single NIA grant were funded in the summer of 2018 for this CR/PR collaborative initiative. A brief description of the research to be developed in each grant is provided.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
13.
Am Heart J ; 224: 65-76, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether androgen deficiency among men increases the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events or is merely a disease marker remains a subject of intense scientific interest. OBJECTIVES: Among male subjects in the AIM-HIGH Trial with metabolic syndrome and low baseline levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol who were randomized to niacin or placebo plus simvastatin, we examined the relationship between low baseline testosterone (T) concentrations and subsequent CV outcomes during a mean 3-year follow-up. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of men with available baseline plasma T concentrations, we examined the relationship between clinical/demographic characteristics and T concentrations both as a continuous and dichotomous variable (<300 ng/dL ["low T"] vs. ≥300 ng/dL ["normal T"]) on rates of pre-specified CV outcomes, using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Among 2118 male participants in whom T concentrations were measured, 643 (30%) had low T and 1475 had normal T concentrations at baseline. The low T group had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, elevated body mass index, metabolic syndrome, higher blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and triglyceride levels, but lower levels of both low-density lipoprotein and HDL-cholesterol, and a lower rate of prior myocardial infarction (MI). Men with low T had a higher risk of the primary composite outcome of coronary heart disease (CHD) death, MI, stroke, hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, or coronary or cerebral revascularization (20.1%) compared with the normal T group (15.2%); final adjusted HR 1.23, P = .07, and a higher risk of the CHD death, MI, and stroke composite endpoint (11.8% vs. 8.2%; final adjusted HR 1.37, P = .04), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this post hoc analysis, there was an association between low baseline testosterone concentrations and increased risk of subsequent CV events in androgen-deficient men with established CV disease and metabolic syndrome, particularly for the composite secondary endpoint of CHD death, MI, and stroke. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: In this AIM-HIGH Trial post hoc analysis of 2118 men with metabolic syndrome and low HDL-cholesterol with available baseline plasma testosterone (T) samples, 643 males (30%) had low T (mean: 229 ng/dL) and 1475 (70%) had normal T (mean: 444 ng/dL) concentrations. The "low T" group had a 24% higher risk of the primary 5-component endpoint (20.1%) compared with the normal T group (15.2%); final adjusted HR 1.23, P = .07). There was also a 31% higher risk of the secondary composite endpoint: coronary heart disease death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (11.8% vs. 8.2%, final adjusted HR 1.37, P = .04) in the low vs. normal T group, respectively.


Assuntos
Androgênios/deficiência , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Medição de Risco/métodos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androgênios/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 382(17): 1619-1628, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the ISCHEMIA-CKD trial, the primary analysis showed no significant difference in the risk of death or myocardial infarction with initial angiography and revascularization plus guideline-based medical therapy (invasive strategy) as compared with guideline-based medical therapy alone (conservative strategy) in participants with stable ischemic heart disease, moderate or severe ischemia, and advanced chronic kidney disease (an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <30 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 or receipt of dialysis). A secondary objective of the trial was to assess angina-related health status. METHODS: We assessed health status with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) before randomization and at 1.5, 3, and 6 months and every 6 months thereafter. The primary outcome of this analysis was the SAQ Summary score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating less frequent angina and better function and quality of life). Mixed-effects cumulative probability models within a Bayesian framework were used to estimate the treatment effect with the invasive strategy. RESULTS: Health status was assessed in 705 of 777 participants. Nearly half the participants (49%) had had no angina during the month before randomization. At 3 months, the estimated mean difference between the invasive-strategy group and the conservative-strategy group in the SAQ Summary score was 2.1 points (95% credible interval, -0.4 to 4.6), a result that favored the invasive strategy. The mean difference in score at 3 months was largest among participants with daily or weekly angina at baseline (10.1 points; 95% credible interval, 0.0 to 19.9), smaller among those with monthly angina at baseline (2.2 points; 95% credible interval, -2.0 to 6.2), and nearly absent among those without angina at baseline (0.6 points; 95% credible interval, -1.9 to 3.3). By 6 months, the between-group difference in the overall trial population was attenuated (0.5 points; 95% credible interval, -2.2 to 3.4). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with stable ischemic heart disease, moderate or severe ischemia, and advanced chronic kidney disease did not have substantial or sustained benefits with regard to angina-related health status with an initially invasive strategy as compared with a conservative strategy. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ISCHEMIA-CKD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01985360.).


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Nível de Saúde , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
N Engl J Med ; 382(17): 1608-1618, 2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical trials that have assessed the effect of revascularization in patients with stable coronary disease have routinely excluded those with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: We randomly assigned 777 patients with advanced kidney disease and moderate or severe ischemia on stress testing to be treated with an initial invasive strategy consisting of coronary angiography and revascularization (if appropriate) added to medical therapy or an initial conservative strategy consisting of medical therapy alone and angiography reserved for those in whom medical therapy had failed. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. A key secondary outcome was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or resuscitated cardiac arrest. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 2.2 years, a primary outcome event had occurred in 123 patients in the invasive-strategy group and in 129 patients in the conservative-strategy group (estimated 3-year event rate, 36.4% vs. 36.7%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.29; P = 0.95). Results for the key secondary outcome were similar (38.5% vs. 39.7%; hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.29). The invasive strategy was associated with a higher incidence of stroke than the conservative strategy (hazard ratio, 3.76; 95% CI, 1.52 to 9.32; P = 0.004) and with a higher incidence of death or initiation of dialysis (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.11; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with stable coronary disease, advanced chronic kidney disease, and moderate or severe ischemia, we did not find evidence that an initial invasive strategy, as compared with an initial conservative strategy, reduced the risk of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ISCHEMIA-CKD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01985360.).


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 304: 101-108, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959407

RESUMO

The syndrome of heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is now recognized to account for up to half of HF cases and is the dominant form of HF in older adults, especially women. Multiple factors conspire in this predilection of HFpEF for older women. This review will discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of HFpEF with emphasis on the similarities and differences in cardiovascular aging changes, and the differential impact of comorbidities in women versus men. Responses to pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions are also reviewed. We conclude by suggesting future directions for both prevention and treatment of this common and highly morbid cardiovascular disorder.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Previsões , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico
18.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 14(1): 44-54, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized trials have shown favorable clinical outcomes for coronary CT angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our goal was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of coronary CTA as compared to alternative management strategies for ACP patients over lifetime. METHODS: Markov microsimulation model was developed to compare cost-effectiveness of competitive strategies for ACP patients: 1) coronary CTA, 2) standard of care (SOC), 3) AHA/ACC Guidelines, and 4) expedited emergency department (ED) discharge protocol with outpatient testing. ROMICAT-II trial was used to populate the model with low to intermediate risk of ACS patient data, whereas diagnostic test-, treatment effect-, morbidity/mortality-, quality of life- and cost data were obtained from the literature. We predicted test utilization, costs, 1-, 3-, 10-year and over lifetime cardiovascular morbidity/mortality for each strategy. We determined quality adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Observed outcomes in ROMICAT-II were used to validate the short-term model. RESULTS: Estimated short-term outcomes accurately reflected observed outcomes in ROMICAT-II as coronary CTA was associated with higher costs ($4,490 vs. $2,513-$4,144) and revascularization rates (5.2% vs. 2.6%-3.7%) compared to alternative strategies. Over lifetime, coronary CTA dominated SOC and ACC/AHA Guidelines and was cost-effective compared to expedited ED protocol ($49,428/QALY). This was driven by lower cardiovascular mortality (coronary CTA vs. expedited discharge: 3-year: 1.04% vs. 1.10-1.17; 10-year: 5.06% vs. 5.21-5.36%; respectively). CONCLUSION: Coronary CTA in patients with suspected ACS renders affordable long-term health benefits as compared to alternative strategies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/economia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/economia , Angiografia Coronária/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(2): 92-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845364

RESUMO

Cardiovascular aging is a complex process of adaptive structural and functional changes over time. With advancing age, the arterial tree thickens and decreases in compliance, resulting in increased pulse wave velocity, systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular afterload. In response to these arterial changes, the myocardium remodels to maintain systolic function and diastolic filling. These adaptive mechanisms are not necessarily pathologic but increase the susceptibility for myocardial ischemia and heart failure in the presence of common age-associated comorbidities. This article reviews the pathophysiology of cardiovascular aging and discusses therapeutic interventions that may ameliorate these processes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Rigidez Vascular , Função Ventricular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(11): e006002, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factor control is the cornerstone of managing stable ischemic heart disease but is often not achieved. Predictors of risk factor control in a randomized clinical trial have not been described. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ISCHEMIA trial (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches) randomized individuals with at least moderate inducible ischemia and obstructive coronary artery disease to an initial invasive or conservative strategy in addition to optimal medical therapy. The primary aim of this analysis was to determine predictors of meeting trial goals for LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, goal <70 mg/dL) or systolic blood pressure (SBP, goal <140 mm Hg) at 1 year post-randomization. We included all randomized participants in the ISCHEMIA trial with baseline and 1-year LDL-C and SBP values by January 28, 2019. Among the 3984 ISCHEMIA participants (78% of 5179 randomized) with available data, 35% were at goal for LDL-C, and 65% were at goal for SBP at baseline. At 1 year, the percent at goal increased to 52% for LDL-C and 75% for SBP. Adjusted odds of 1-year LDL-C goal attainment were greater with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.11 [95% CI, 1.03-1.20] per 10 years), lower baseline LDL-C (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.17-1.22] per 10 mg/dL), high-intensity statin use (OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.12-1.51]), nonwhite race (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.07-1.63]), and North American enrollment compared with other regions (OR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.06-1.66]). Women were less likely than men to achieve 1-year LDL-C goal (OR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.58-0.80]). Adjusted odds of 1-year SBP goal attainment were greater with lower baseline SBP (OR, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.22-1.33] per 10 mm Hg) and with North American enrollment (OR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.04-1.76]). CONCLUSIONS: In ISCHEMIA, older age, male sex, high-intensity statin use, lower baseline LDL-C, and North American location predicted 1-year LDL-C goal attainment, whereas lower baseline SBP and North American location predicted 1-year SBP goal attainment. Future studies should examine the effects of sex disparities, international practice patterns, and provider behavior on risk factor control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Protocolos Clínicos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/mortalidade , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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