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1.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107648, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532588

RESUMO

AIMS: Cathepsin D (CTSD) and L (CTSL) are lysosomal proteases which degrade and detoxify advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins which are predictive of the development of diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to quantify cathepsin levels in urine from patients with type 2 diabetes and to relate these to the amount of urinary free AGEs at baseline and with kidney function after four years of follow-up in this closed cohort study. METHODS: We established and validated a LC MS/MS method for the quantification of CTSD and CTSL in urine. Patients with type 2 diabetes were screened for diabetic kidney disease and 141 patients were seen at baseline and after four years. CTSD and CTSL and free AGEs were quantified in urine by LC MS/MS at baseline in these patients. RESULTS: The detection limit of CTSD and CTSL in urine was 2.4 ng/l and 19.1 ng/l, respectively. CTSD (p < 0.0001, r = 0.555) and CTSL (p < 0.0001, r = 0.608) correlated positively with albuminuria at time of recruitment. In addition levels of the proteases but not albuminuria correlated with urinary levels of the major cross-linking AGE glucosepane (CTSD: p = 0.012, r = 0.225; CTSL: p < 0.001, r = 0.376). A strong non-linear association between CTSD (r = 0.568), CTSL (r = 0.588) and change in albuminuria over four years was present. High levels of CTSL (p = 0.007, beta = -0.366) were associated with an improvement of albuminuria after four years. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive LC MS/MS assay for the quantification of CTSD and CTSL in urine was established. High CTSL baseline levels were associated with an improvement in albuminuria at follow-up. An increased excretion and thus detoxification of the free form of the pathogenic cross-linking AGE glucosepane could explain the positive predictive value of high CTSL levels on albuminuria.

2.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1928): 20200713, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517612

RESUMO

Serotonin is a biogenic monoamine conserved across phyla that is implicated in diverse physiological and behavioural functions. On examining the expression of the rate-limiting enzymes in serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylases (TPHs), in the teleost medaka (Oryzias latipes), we found that males have much higher levels of tph1 expression as compared with females. This robust sexual dimorphism was found to probably result from the direct stimulation of tph1 transcription by androgen/androgen receptor binding to canonical bipartite androgen-responsive elements in its proximal promoter region. Our results further revealed that tph1 expression occurs exclusively in pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc)-expressing cells and that the resulting serotonin and its derivative melatonin inhibit the expression of the pituitary hormone genes, fshb, sl and tshb. This suggests that serotonin and/or melatonin synthesized in pomc-expressing cells act in a paracrine manner to suppress pituitary hormone levels. Consistent with these findings and the male-biased expression of tph1, the expression levels of fshb, sl and tshb were all higher in females than in males. Taken together, the male bias in tph1 expression and consequent serotonin/melatonin production presumably contribute to sex differences in the expression of pituitary hormones and ultimately in the physiological functions mediated by them.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7593, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371885

RESUMO

In light of the limited treatment options of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) available, suitable animal models are essential to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic targets. In vivo evaluation with current techniques, however, often provides only restricted information about disease evolution. In the study of patients with DPN, magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has been introduced as an innovative diagnostic tool detecting characteristic lesions within peripheral nerves. We developed a novel multicontrast ultra high field MRN strategy to examine major peripheral nerve segments in diabetic mice non-invasively. It was first validated in a cross-platform approach on human nerve tissue and then applied to the popular streptozotocin(STZ)-induced mouse model of DPN. In the absence of gross morphologic alterations, a distinct MR-signature within the sciatic nerve was observed mirroring subtle changes of the nerves' fibre composition and ultrastructure, potentially indicating early re-arrangements of DPN. Interestingly, these signal alterations differed from previously reported typical nerve lesions of patients with DPN. The capacity of our approach to non-invasively assess sciatic nerve tissue structure and function within a given mouse model provides a powerful tool for direct translational comparison to human disease hallmarks not only in diabetes but also in other peripheral neuropathic conditions.

7.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(4): e09271, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187826

RESUMO

The role of the endothelium is not just limited to acting as an inert barrier for facilitating blood transport. Endothelial cells (ECs), through expression of a repertoire of angiocrine molecules, regulate metabolic demands in an organ-specific manner. Insulin flux across the endothelium to muscle cells is a rate-limiting process influencing insulin-mediated lowering of blood glucose. Here, we demonstrate that Notch signaling in ECs regulates insulin transport to muscle. Notch signaling activity was higher in ECs isolated from obese mice compared to non-obese. Sustained Notch signaling in ECs lowered insulin sensitivity and increased blood glucose levels. On the contrary, EC-specific inhibition of Notch signaling increased insulin sensitivity and improved glucose tolerance and glucose uptake in muscle in a high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance model. This was associated with increased transcription of Cav1, Cav2, and Cavin1, higher number of caveolae in ECs, and insulin uptake rates, as well as increased microvessel density. These data imply that Notch signaling in the endothelium actively controls insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis and may therefore represent a therapeutic target for diabetes.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 295(19): 6330-6343, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198181

RESUMO

The plasmas of diabetic or uremic patients and of those receiving peritoneal dialysis treatment have increased levels of the glucose-derived dicarbonyl metabolites like methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO), and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG). The elevated dicarbonyl levels can contribute to the development of painful neuropathies. Here, we used stimulated immunoreactive Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (iCGRP) release as a measure of nociceptor activation, and we found that each dicarbonyl metabolite induces a concentration-, TRPA1-, and Ca2+-dependent iCGRP release. MGO, GO, and 3-DG were about equally potent in the millimolar range. We hypothesized that another dicarbonyl, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE), which is present in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions after heat sterilization, activates nociceptors. We also showed that at body temperatures 3,4-DGE is formed from 3-DG and that concentrations of 3,4-DGE in the micromolar range effectively induced iCGRP release from isolated murine skin. In a novel preparation of the isolated parietal peritoneum PD fluid or 3,4-DGE alone, at concentrations found in PD solutions, stimulated iCGRP release. We also tested whether inflammatory tissue conditions synergize with dicarbonyls to induce iCGRP release from isolated skin. Application of MGO together with bradykinin or prostaglandin E2 resulted in an overadditive effect on iCGRP release, whereas MGO applied at a pH of 5.2 resulted in reduced release, probably due to an MGO-mediated inhibition of transient receptor potential (TRP) V1 receptors. These results indicate that several reactive dicarbonyls activate nociceptors and potentiate inflammatory mediators. Our findings underline the roles of dicarbonyls and TRPA1 receptors in causing pain during diabetes or renal disease.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(1): 31-40, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tocilizumab compared to those treated with the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor etanercept. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial enrolled patients with active seropositive RA (n = 3,080) who had an inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and who had at least 1 cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive open-label tocilizumab at 8 mg/kg/month or etanercept at 50 mg/week. All patients were followed up for a mean of 3.2 years. The primary end point was comparison of time to first occurrence of MACE. The trial was powered to exclude a relative hazard ratio for MACE of 1.8 or higher in the tocilizumab group compared to the etanercept group. RESULTS: By week 4 of treatment, the serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were a median 11.1%, 5.7%, and 13.6% higher, respectively, in patients receiving tocilizumab compared to those receiving etanercept (each P < 0.001). During follow-up, 83 MACE occurred in the tocilizumab group compared to 78 MACE in the etanercept group. The estimated hazard ratio for occurrence of MACE in the tocilizumab group relative to the etanercept group was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.43). Results were similar in sensitivity analyses and in the on-treatment population analysis. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the tocilizumab group, including serious infection and gastrointestinal perforation. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial, which provide insights into the CV safety of tocilizumab as compared to etanercept, ruled out a risk for occurrence of MACE of 1.43 or higher in patients treated with tocilizumab. This result should be interpreted in the context of the clinical efficacy and non-CV safety of tocilizumab.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4532-4547, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675424

RESUMO

Purpose: In the retina, growth hormone (GH) promotes axonal growth, synaptic restoration, and protective actions against excitotoxicity. Notch signaling pathway is critical for neural development and participates in the retinal neuroregenerative process. We investigated the interaction of GH with Notch signaling pathway during its neuroprotective effect against excitotoxic damage in the chicken retina. Methods: Kainate (KA) was used as excitotoxic agent and changes in the mRNA expression of several signaling markers were determined by qPCR. Also, changes in phosphorylation and immunoreactivity were determined by Western blotting. Histology and immunohistochemistry were performed for morphometric analysis. Overexpression of GH was performed in the quail neuroretinal-derived immortalized cell line (QNR/D) cell line. Exogenous GH was administered to retinal primary cell cultures to study the activation of signaling pathways. Results: KA disrupted the retinal cytoarchitecture and induced significant cell loss in several retinal layers, but the coaddition of GH effectively prevented these adverse effects. We showed that GH upregulates the Notch signaling pathway during neuroprotection leading to phosphorylation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways through downregulation of PTEN. In contrast, cotreatment of GH with the Notch signaling inhibitor, DAPT, prevented its neuroprotective effect against KA. We identified binding sites in Notch1 and Notch2 genes for STAT5. Also, GH prevented Müller cell transdifferentiation and downregulated Sox2, FGF2, and PCNA after cotreatment with KA. Additionally, GH modified TNF receptors immunoreactivity suggesting anti-inflammatory actions. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the neuroprotective effects of GH against KA injury in the retina are mediated through the regulation of Notch signaling. Additionally, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects were observed.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/toxicidade , Hormônio do Crescimento/uso terapêutico , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Vetores Genéticos , Injeções Intravítreas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Retina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transfecção
12.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536600

RESUMO

Asprosin is a counter-regulatory hormone to insulin which plays a role in fasting. It may therefore also play a role in hypoglycaemia unawareness, which has been subsequently examined in this pilot study. Intravenous glucose tolerance test was used to induce controlled hyperglycemia whereas a hyperinsulinemic clamp test was used to induce a controlled hypoglycaemia in 15 patients with diabetes type 1, with and without hypoglycaemia unawareness. Changes in asprosin plasma levels did not differ between patients with and without hypoglycaemia unawareness. However, nine patients with insulin resistance as well as higher liver stiffness values and low-density lipoprotein but lower high-density lipoprotein levels did not show the expected increase in asprosin plasma levels during hypoglycemia. Therefore, insulin resistance and alterations in liver structure, most likely early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, seem to be relevant in type 1 diabetes and do not only lead to elevated plasma levels of asprosin, but also to a blunted asprosin response in hypoglycemia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Hipoglicemia/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Projetos Piloto
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13074, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506549

RESUMO

Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia has previously been shown to impact on male sub-/infertility, however, still little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the present study we have addressed three major biochemical pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia induced organ damage (the advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation pathway, the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C pathway (PKC), and the polyol pathway) in both testis and epididymis of the Ins2Akita mouse model of Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Hyperglycemia activated both the PKC and the polyol pathway in a significant and progressive manner within the testis, but not within the epididymis. While the AGE receptor was ubiquitiously expressed in the testis, concentrations of precursor methylglyoxal and AGE carboxymethyllysine were increased in both epididymis and testis in diabetic mice. However, AGEs did not activate intracellular pathways of ERK1, ERK2, Rela, Nrf-2, IkBkB, NFkB except CDC42, Akt1. In conclusion, two of the major pathways of hyperglycemia-induced organ damage were clearly activated within the testis of T1DM mice. This provides therapeutical opportunities in the treatment of diabetic male reproductive dysfunction.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509934

RESUMO

In addition to its role as an endocrine messenger, growth hormone (GH) also acts as a neurotrophic factor in the central nervous system (CNS), whose effects are involved in neuroprotection, axonal growth, and synaptogenic modulation. An increasing amount of clinical evidence shows a beneficial effect of GH treatment in patients with brain trauma, stroke, spinal cord injury, impaired cognitive function, and neurodegenerative processes. In response to injury, Müller cells transdifferentiate into neural progenitors and proliferate, which constitutes an early regenerative process in the chicken retina. In this work, we studied the long-term protective effect of GH after causing severe excitotoxic damage in the retina. Thus, an acute neural injury was induced via the intravitreal injection of kainic acid (KA, 20 µg), which was followed by chronic administration of GH (10 injections [300 ng] over 21 days). Damage provoked a severe disruption of several retinal layers. However, in KA-damaged retinas treated with GH, we observed a significant restoration of the inner plexiform layer (IPL, 2.4-fold) and inner nuclear layer (INL, 1.5-fold) thickness and a general improvement of the retinal structure. In addition, we also observed an increase in the expression of several genes involved in important regenerative pathways, including: synaptogenic markers (DLG1, NRXN1, GAP43); glutamate receptor subunits (NR1 and GRIK4); pro-survival factors (BDNF, Bcl-2 and TNF-R2); and Notch signaling proteins (Notch1 and Hes5). Interestingly, Müller cell transdifferentiation markers (Sox2 and FGF2) were upregulated by this long-term chronic GH treatment. These results are consistent with a significant increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells observed in the KA-damaged retina, which was induced by GH administration. Our data suggest that GH is able to facilitate the early proliferative response of the injured retina and enhance the regeneration of neurite interconnections.


Assuntos
Hormônio do Crescimento/farmacologia , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurogênese/genética , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Receptor Notch1/genética , Regeneração/genética , Regeneração/fisiologia , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética
15.
JCI Insight ; 4(12)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217350

RESUMO

The increased formation of methylglyoxal (MG) under hyperglycemia is associated with the development of microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus; however, the effects of elevated MG levels in vivo are poorly understood. In zebrafish, a transient knockdown of glyoxalase 1, the main MG detoxifying system, led to the elevation of endogenous MG levels and blood vessel alterations. To evaluate effects of a permanent knockout of glyoxalase 1 in vivo, glo1-/- zebrafish mutants were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. In addition, a diet-induced-obesity zebrafish model was used to analyze glo1-/- zebrafish under high nutrient intake. Glo1-/- zebrafish survived until adulthood without growth deficit and showed increased tissue MG concentrations. Impaired glucose tolerance developed in adult glo1-/- zebrafish and was indicated by increased postprandial blood glucose levels and postprandial S6 kinase activation. Challenged by an overfeeding period, fasting blood glucose levels in glo1-/- zebrafish were increased which translated into retinal blood vessel alterations. Thus, the data have identified a defective MG detoxification as a metabolic prerequisite and glyoxalase 1 alterations as a genetic susceptibility to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus under high nutrition intake.

16.
Pain ; 160(11): 2497-2507, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219946

RESUMO

The endogenous metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) accumulates in diabetic patients with neuropathic pain. Methylglyoxal could be a mediator of diabetes-induced neuropathic pain through TRPA1 activation and sensitization of the voltage-gated sodium channel subtype 1.8. In this study, we tested the algogenic and sensitizing effect of MG in healthy human subjects using intracutaneous microinjections. The involvement of C fibers was assessed through selective A-fiber nerve block, axon-reflex-erythema, and through single nerve fiber recordings in humans (microneurography). Involvement of the transduction channels TRPA1 and TRPV1 in MG-induced pain sensation was investigated with specific ion channel blockers. We showed for the first time in healthy humans that MG induces pain, axon-reflex-erythema, and long-lasting hyperalgesia through the activation of C nociceptors. Predominantly, the subclass of mechano-insensitive C fibers is activated by MG. A fibers contribute only negligibly to the burning pain sensation. Selective pharmacological blockade of TRPA1 or TRPV1 showed that TRPA1 is crucially involved in MG-induced chemical pain sensation and heat hyperalgesia. In conclusion, the actions of MG through TRPA1 activation on predominantly mechano-insensitive C fibers might be involved in spontaneously perceived pain in diabetic neuropathy and hyperalgesia as well as allodynia.

17.
Circulation ; 140(7): 580-594, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, diabetes mellitus and heart failure represent frequent comorbidities with high socioeconomic impact and steadily growing incidence, calling for a better understanding of how diabetic metabolism promotes cardiac dysfunction. Paradoxically, some glucose-lowering drugs have been shown to worsen heart failure, raising the question of how glucose mediates protective versus detrimental cardiac signaling. Here, we identified a histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) subdomain as a molecular checkpoint of adaptive and maladaptive signaling in the diabetic heart. METHODS: A conditional HDAC4 allele was used to delete HDAC4 specifically in cardiomyocytes (HDAC4-knockout). Mice were subjected to diabetes mellitus either by streptozotocin injections (type 1 diabetes mellitus model) or by crossing into mice carrying a leptin receptor mutation (db/db; type 2 diabetes mellitus model) and monitored for remodeling and cardiac function. Effects of glucose and the posttranslational modification by ß-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on HDAC4 were investigated in vivo and in vitro by biochemical and cellular assays. RESULTS: We show that the cardio-protective N-terminal proteolytic fragment of HDAC4 is enhanced in vivo in patients with diabetes mellitus and mouse models, as well as in vitro under high-glucose and high-O-GlcNAc conditions. HDAC4-knockout mice develop heart failure in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas wild-type mice do not develop clear signs of heart failure, indicating that HDAC4 protects the diabetic heart. Reexpression of the N-terminal fragment of HDAC4 prevents HDAC4-dependent diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mechanistically, the posttranslational modification of HDAC4 at serine (Ser)-642 by O-GlcNAcylation is an essential step for production of the N-terminal fragment of HDAC4, which was attenuated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-632. Preventing O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-642 not only entirely precluded production of the N-terminal fragment of HDAC4 but also promoted Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-632, pointing to a mutual posttranslational modification cross talk of (cardio-detrimental) phosphorylation at Ser-632 and (cardio-protective) O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-642. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that O-GlcNAcylation of HDAC4 at Ser-642 is cardio-protective in diabetes mellitus and counteracts pathological Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signaling. We introduce a molecular model explaining how diabetic metabolism possesses important cardio-protective features besides its known detrimental effects. A deeper understanding of the here-described posttranslational modification cross talk may lay the groundwork for the development of specific therapeutic concepts to treat heart failure in the context of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serina/metabolismo
19.
Circ Res ; 125(3): 282-294, 2019 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213138

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Fluid shear stress (FSS) maintains NOS-3 (endothelial NO synthase) expression. Homozygosity for the C variant of the T-786C single-nucleotide polymorphism of the NOS3 gene, which solely exists in humans, renders the gene less sensitive to FSS, resulting in a reduced endothelial cell (EC) capacity to generate NO. Decreased bioavailability of NO in the arterial vessel wall facilitates atherosclerosis. Consequently, individuals homozygous for the C variant have an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). OBJECTIVE: At least 2 compensatory mechanisms seem to minimize the deleterious effects of this single-nucleotide polymorphism in affected individuals, one of which is characterized herein. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human genotyped umbilical vein ECs and THP-1 monocytes were used to investigate the role of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) in vitro. Its concentration in plasma samples from genotyped patients with CHD and age-matched CHD-free controls was determined using quantitative ultraperformance LC-MS/MS. Exposure of human ECs to FSS effectively reduced monocyte transmigration particularly through monolayers of CC-genotype ECs. Primarily in CC-genotype ECs, FSS elicited a marked rise in COX (cyclooxygenase)-2 and L-PGDS (lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase) expression, which appeared to be NO sensitive, and provoked a significant release of 15d-PGJ2 over baseline. Exogenous 15d-PGJ2 significantly reduced monocyte transmigration and exerted a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect on the transmigrated monocytes by downregulating, for example, transcription of the IL (interleukin)-1ß gene (IL1B). Reporter gene analyses verified that this effect is due to binding of Nrf2 (nuclear factor [erythroid-derived 2]-like 2) to 2 AREs (antioxidant response elements) in the proximal IL1B promoter. In patients with CHD, 15d-PGJ2 plasma levels were significantly upregulated compared with age-matched CHD-free controls, suggesting that this powerful anti-inflammatory prostanoid is part of an endogenous defence mechanism to counteract CHD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a reduced capacity to form NO, CC-genotype ECs maintain a robust anti-inflammatory phenotype through an enhanced FSS-dependent release of 15d-PGJ2.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prostaglandina D2/análogos & derivados , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Indução Enzimática , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hemorreologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamação , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/biossíntese , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Lipocalinas/biossíntese , Lipocalinas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Prostaglandina D2/biossíntese , Prostaglandina D2/sangue , Prostaglandina D2/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Células THP-1
20.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(22): 4551-4568, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073745

RESUMO

The gene CNDP1 was associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Its enzyme carnosinase 1 (CN1) primarily hydrolyzes the histidine-containing dipeptide carnosine but other organ and metabolic functions are mainly unknown. In our study we generated CNDP1 knockout zebrafish, which showed strongly decreased CN1 activity and increased intracellular carnosine levels. Vasculature and kidneys of CNDP1-/- zebrafish were not affected, except for a transient glomerular alteration. Amino acid profiling showed a decrease of certain amino acids in CNDP1-/- zebrafish, suggesting a specific function for CN1 in the amino acid metabolisms. Indeed, we identified a CN1 activity for Ala-His and Ser-His. Under diabetic conditions increased carnosine levels in CNDP1-/- embryos could not protect from respective organ alterations. Although, weight gain through overfeeding was restrained by CNDP1 loss. Together, zebrafish exhibits CN1 functions, while CNDP1 knockout alters the amino acid metabolism, attenuates weight gain but cannot protect organs from diabetic complications.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Dipeptidases/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Carnosina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Rim/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
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