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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260146, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total hip and total knee replacement (THR/TKR) are common and effective surgeries to reduce the pain and disability associated with arthritis but are associated with small but significant risks of preventable complications such as surgical site infection (SSI) and venous-thrombo-embolism (VTE). This study aims to determine the degree to which hospital care was compliant with clinical guidelines for the prevention of SSI and VTE after THR/TKR; and whether non-compliant prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of complications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective multi-centre cohort study was undertaken in consenting adults with osteoarthritis undergoing elective primary TKR/THR at one of 19 high-volume Australian public or private hospitals. Data were collected prior to surgery and for one-year post-surgery. Four adjusted logistic regression analyses were undertaken to explore associations between binary non-compliance and the risk of surgical complications: (1) composite (simultaneous) non-compliance with both (VTE and antibiotic) guidelines and composite complications [all-cause mortality, VTE, readmission/reoperation for joint-related reasons (one-year) and non-joint-related reasons (35-days)], (2) VTE non-compliance and VTE outcomes, (3) antibiotic non-compliance and any SSI, and (4) antibiotic non-compliance and deep SSI. Data were analysed for 1875 participants. Guideline non-compliance rates were high: 65% (VTE), 87% (antibiotics) and 95% (composite guideline). Composite non-compliance was not associated with composite complication (12.8% vs 8.3%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41, 95%CI 0.68-3.45, p = 0.40). Non-compliance with VTE guidelines was associated with VTE outcomes (5% vs 2.4%, AOR = 2.83, 95%CI 1.59-5.28,p < 0.001). Non-compliance with antibiotic guidelines was associated with any SSI (14.8% vs 6.1%, AOR = 1.98, 95%CI 1.17-3.62,p = 0.02) but not deep infection (3.7% vs 1.2%,AOR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.85-10.00, p = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: We found high rates of clinical variation and statistically significant associations between non-compliance with VTE and antibiotic guidelines and increased risk of VTE and SSI, respectively. Complications after THR/TKR surgery may be decreased by improving compliance with clinical guidelines.

2.
Water Res ; 204: 117646, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543974

RESUMO

Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is an emerging electric field-driven technology for brackish water desalination involving the removal of charged ions from saline source waters. While the desalination performance of MCDI under different operational modes has been widely investigated, most studies have concentrated on different charging conditions without considering discharging conditions. In this study, we investigate the effects of different discharging conditions on the desalination performance of MCDI electrode. Our study demonstrates that low-current discharge (1.0 mA/cm2) can increase salt removal by 20% and decrease volumetric energy consumption by 40% by improving electrode regeneration and increasing energy recovery, respectively, while high-current discharge (3.0 mA/cm2) can improve productivity by 70% at the expense of electrode regeneration and energy recovery. Whether discharging electrodes at the low current or high current is optimal depends on a trade-off between productivity and energy consumption. We also reveal that stopped flow discharge (85%) can achieve higher water recovery than continuous flow discharge (35-59%). However, stopped flow discharge caused a 20-30% decrease in concentration reduction and a 25-50% increase in molar energy consumption, possibly due to the higher ion concentration in the macropores at the end of discharging step. These results reveal that an optimal discharging operation should be obtained from achieving a balance among productivity, water recovery and energy consumption by varying discharging current and flow rate.


Assuntos
Eletricidade , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Eletrodos , Membranas , Águas Salinas , Cloreto de Sódio
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502027

RESUMO

Monocytes play a key role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) as their influx into the vessel wall is necessary for the development of an atherosclerotic plaque. Monocytes are, however, heterogeneous differentiating from classical monocytes through the intermediate subset to the nonclassical subset. While it is recognized that the percentage of intermediate and nonclassical monocytes are higher in individuals with CVD, accompanying changes in inflammatory markers suggest a functional impact on disease development that goes beyond the increased proportion of these 'inflammatory' monocyte subsets. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that changes in monocyte proportion and function arise in dyslipidemia, with lipid lowering medication having some effect on reversing these changes. This review explores the nature and number of monocyte subsets in CVD addressing what they are, when they arise, the effect of lipid lowering treatment, and the possible implications for plaque development. Understanding these associations will deepen our understanding of the clinical significance of monocytes in CVD.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dislipidemias/complicações , Monócitos , Animais , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação
5.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240793

RESUMO

Optimal treatment of full-thickness skin injuries requires dermal and epidermal replacement. To spare donor dermis, dermal substitutes can be used ahead of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) application. However, this two-stage procedure requires an additional general anaesthetic, often prolongs hospitalisation, and increases outpatient services. Although a few case series have described successful single-stage reconstructions, with application of both STSG and dermal substitute at the index operation, we have little understanding of how the physical characteristics of dermal substitutes affects the success of a single-stage procedure. Here, we evaluated several dermal substitutes to optimise single-stage skin replacement in a preclinical porcine model. A porcine full-thickness excisional wound model was used to evaluate the following dermal substitutes: autologous dermal graft (ADG; thicknesses 0.15-0.60 mm), Integra (0.4-0.8 mm), Alloderm (0.9-1.6 mm), and chitosan-based hydrogel (0.1-0.2 mm). After excision, each wound was treated with either a dermal substitute followed by STSG or STSG alone (control). Endpoints included graft take at postoperative days (PODs) 7 and 14, wound closure at POD 28, and wound contracture from POD 28-120. Graft take was highest in the STSG alone and hydrogel groups at POD 14 (86.9% ± 19.5% and 81.3% ± 12.3%, respectively; P < .001). There were no differences in graft take at POD 7 or in wound closure at POD 28, though highest rates of wound closure were seen in the STSG alone and hydrogel groups (93.6% ± 9.1% and 99.8% ± 0.5%, respectively). ADG-treated wounds demonstrated the least amount of wound contracture at each time point. Increase dermal substitute thickness was associated with worse percent graft take at PODs 14 and 28 (Spearman ρ of -0.50 and -0.45, respectively; P < .001). In this preclinical single-stage skin reconstruction model, thinner ADG and hydrogel dermal substitutes outperformed thicker dermal substitutes. Both substitute thickness and composition affect treatment success. Further preclinical and clinical studies to optimise this treatment modality are warranted.

6.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221570

RESUMO

Background: The most common neuroradiological finding in pediatric nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is subdural hematoma (SDH). Management options for pediatric SDH range from conservative clinical surveillance to craniotomy or decompressive craniectomy. The middle meningeal artery (MMA) indirectly feeds the hematoma; thus, MMA embolization is an alternative or adjunct to current surgical treatments in adults. Herein, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of successful MMA embolization in a pediatric patient as an adjunct to current standard treatment for chronic SDH (cSDH). Case Description: An 18-month-old male with a history of NAT presented at 5 months of age with an acute right parietal skull fracture and bilateral SDH treated with burr hole drainage. He was lost to follow-up until 15 months of age with an increased head circumference and new dysconjugate gaze. Imaging revealed a right-sided cSDH and underwent craniotomy. Six-week follow-up revealed significant improvement in the SDH but cSDH remained at the periphery of the craniotomy's reach. The patient symptoms continued. The right-sided MMA embolization was offered as option to avoid repeat craniotomy. Follow-up CTs at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postprocedure revealed decrease of cSDH size and density. At 8-month follow-up, the patient continued to meet developmental milestones with near resolution of his dysconjugate gaze. Conclusion: This case report details the first successful use of MMA embolization in the treatment of pediatric cSDH as an adjunct to standard treatment. Further investigation of MMA embolization in pediatrics should be made to expand options available for cSDH in this patient population.

7.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(16): 4181-4194, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974088

RESUMO

This work assesses the potential of new water cluster-based ion beams for improving the capabilities of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for in situ lipidomics. The effect of water clusters was compared to carbon dioxide clusters, along with the effect of using pure water clusters compared to mixed water and carbon dioxide clusters. A signal increase was found when using pure water clusters. However, when analyzing cells, a more substantial signal increase was found in positive ion mode when the water clusters also contained carbon dioxide, suggesting that additional reactions are in play. The effects of using a water primary ion beam on a more complex sample were investigated by analyzing brain tissue from an Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model. The results indicate that the ToF-SIMS results are approaching those from MALDI as ToF-SIMS was able to image lyso-phosphocholine (LPC) lipids, a lipid class that for a long time has eluded detection during SIMS analyses. Gangliosides, sulfatides, and cholesterol were also imaged.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Química Encefálica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário
8.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 33(5): e12968, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942392

RESUMO

Gerald Anthony Lincoln died after a short illness on 15 July 2020 at the age of 75 years. Gerald was Emeritus Professor of Biological Timing at Edinburgh University and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. He was an outstanding scientist and naturalist who was a seminal figure in developing our understanding of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying seasonal rhythmicity. This review considers his life and some of his major scientific contributions to our understanding of seasonality, photoperiodism and circannual rhythmicity. It is based on a presentation at the online 2nd annual seasonality symposium (2 October 2020) that was supported financially by the Journal of Neuroendocrinology.

9.
BMJ ; 373: n1159, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952506
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e049093, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Randomised controlled trials conducted using cohorts and routinely collected data, including registries, electronic health records and administrative databases, are increasingly used in healthcare intervention research. A Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement extension for trials conducted using cohorts and routinely collected data (CONSORT-ROUTINE) has been developed with the goal of improving reporting quality. This article describes the processes and methods used to develop the extension and decisions made to arrive at the final checklist. METHODS: The development process involved five stages: (1) identification of the need for a reporting guideline and project launch; (2) conduct of a scoping review to identify possible modifications to CONSORT 2010 checklist items and possible new extension items; (3) a three-round modified Delphi study involving key stakeholders to gather feedback on the checklist; (4) a consensus meeting to finalise items to be included in the extension, followed by stakeholder piloting of the checklist; and (5) publication, dissemination and implementation of the final checklist. RESULTS: 27 items were initially developed and rated in Delphi round 1, 13 items were rated in round 2 and 11 items were rated in round 3. Response rates for the Delphi study were 92 of 125 (74%) invited participants in round 1, 77 of 92 (84%) round 1 completers in round 2 and 62 of 77 (81%) round 2 completers in round 3. Twenty-seven members of the project team representing a variety of stakeholder groups attended the in-person consensus meeting. The final checklist includes five new items and eight modified items. The extension Explanation & Elaboration document further clarifies aspects that are important to report. CONCLUSION: Uptake of CONSORT-ROUTINE and accompanying Explanation & Elaboration document will improve conduct of trials, as well as the transparency and completeness of reporting of trials conducted using cohorts and routinely collected data.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Dados de Saúde Coletados Rotineiramente , Lista de Checagem , Consenso , Técnica Delfos
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 616305, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717107

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia promotes development of the atherosclerotic plaques that characterise cardiovascular disease. Plaque progression requires the influx of monocytes into the vessel wall, but whether dyslipidemia is associated with an increased potential of monocytes to extravasate is largely unknown. Here (using flow cytometry) we examined recruitment marker expression on monocytes from generally healthy individuals who differed in lipid profile. Comparisons were made between monocyte subsets, participants and relative to participants' lipid levels. Monocyte subsets differed significantly in their expression of recruitment markers, with highest expression being on either the classical or non-classical subsets. However, these inter-subset differences were largely overshadowed by considerable inter-participant differences with some participants having higher levels of recruitment markers on all three monocyte subsets. Furthermore, when the expression of one recruitment marker was high, so too was that of most of the other markers, with substantial correlations evident between the markers. The inter-participant differences were explained by lipid levels. Most notably, there was a significant inverse correlation for most markers with ApoA1 levels. Our results indicate that dyslipidemia, in particular low levels of ApoA1, is associated with an increased potential of all monocyte subsets to extravasate, and to do so using a wider repertoire of recruitment markers than currently appreciated.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Biomarcadores , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/sangue , Quimiocinas/sangue , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(2): 445-453, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130974

RESUMO

Changes in the membrane composition of sub-populations of cells can influence different properties with importance to tumour growth, metastasis and treatment efficacy. In this study, we use correlated fluorescence microscopy and ToF-SIMS with C60+ and (CO2)6k+ ion beams to identify and characterise sub-populations of cells based on successful transfection leading to over-expression of CCTδ, a component of the multi-subunit molecular chaperone named chaperonin-containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 (CCT). CCT has been linked to increased cell growth and proliferation and is known to affect cell morphology but corresponding changes in lipid composition of the membrane have not been measured until now. Multivariate analysis of the surface mass spectra from single cells, focused on the intact lipid ions, indicates an enrichment of phosphatidylethanolamine species in the transfected cells. While the lipid changes in this case are driven by the structural changes in the protein cytoskeleton, the consequence of phosphatidylethanolamine enrichment may have additional implications in cancer such as increased membrane fluidity, increased motility and an ability to adapt to a depletion of unsaturated lipids during cancer cell proliferation. This study demonstrates a successful fluorescence microscopy-guided cell by cell membrane lipid analysis with broad application to biological investigation.Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Chaperonas Moleculares/análise , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Ouro , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Íons , Lipídeos/química , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal
14.
Anal Chem ; 92(24): 15811-15817, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259206

RESUMO

In mass spectrometry (MS), a major loss of ions can readily occur during their transfer from atmospheric pressure to a lower pressure, which limits performance. Here, we report an ion funnel that can be used to effectively focus ions at ambient pressure (∼777 Torr) to significantly enhance performance in electrospray ionization (ESI) MS. For seven singly charged test ions (m/z 124-1131), the ambient pressure ion funnel (APIF) is demonstrated to improve ion abundances, sensitivity, and detection limits by up to factors of ∼17, ∼16, and ∼3, respectively, compared to the operation of conventional ESI-MS. Simulated ion trajectories were used to rationalize the enhanced performance of the APIF, which is attributed primarily to using a relatively high RF field amplitude to radially confine ions, a high DC field, and a wide exit ring electrode. The effective focusing of ions at ambient pressures should be beneficial in the future for improving the performance of (i) additional methods that ionize molecules at atmospheric pressure, (ii) ambient pressure ion mobility-based instruments, and (iii) high flow rate liquid chromatography mass spectrometry platforms.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 583242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281777

RESUMO

Peas are an important legume for human and animal consumption and are also being used as green manure or intermediate crops to sustain and improve soil condition. Pea production faces constraints from fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. We investigated the virome of German pea crops over the course of three successive seasons in different regions of pea production to gain an overview of the existing viruses. Pools from 540 plants, randomly selected from symptomatic and asymptomatic peas, and non-crop plants surrounding the pea fields were used for ribosomal RNA-depleted total RNA extraction followed by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and RT-PCR confirmation. Thirty-five different viruses were detected in addition to nine associated nucleic acids. From these viruses, 25 are classified as either new viruses, novel strains or viruses that have not been reported previously from Germany. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 and 2 were the most prevalent viruses detected in the pea crops, followed by pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) and turnip yellows virus which was also found also in the surrounding non-legume weeds. Moreover, a new emaravirus was detected in symptomatic peas in one region for two successive seasons. Most of the identified viruses are known to be aphid transmissible. The results revealed a high virodiversity in the German pea fields that poses new challenges to diagnosticians, researchers, risk assessors and policy makers, as the impact of the new findings are currently unknown.

16.
J Res Pharm Pract ; 9(2): 73-87, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102381

RESUMO

Objective: The objective was to explore if the community pharmacy (CP) stop smoking service (SSS) and emergency hormonal contraception patient group direction (EHC PGD) meet the needs of the English population and are cost-effective. Methods: This research was completed over 2 years. Public health resources provided details of CPs and provision of SSS and EHC PGD. Questionnaires were sent to smoking cessation/sexual health leads in local authorities to obtain information not available elsewhere. Questionnaires inquired about CP payment for provision of SSS and EHC PGD, overhead costs, successful outcomes, and validation methods. Quit rates at 4-weeks, 52-weeks, and lifetime determined SSS effectiveness. The effectiveness of EHC PGD was based on the probability of unintended pregnancy with/without levonorgestrel. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and cost of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained were calculated. Descriptive statistics were determined. A priori of less than 0.05 (P < 0.05) was significant. Findings: SSS provision and uptake did not match local needs (smoking prevalence) even though increased CP SSS provision correlated with increased SSS success. Similarly, the need (based on teenage pregnancy rates) for EHC PGD did not correlate with the rate of CP provision but only with the uptake. Nevertheless, the provision of SSS and EHC PGD from CPs was cost-effective from an NHS perspective. Various assumptions were tested, but in all cases fell well below NICE QALY recommendations for cost-effectiveness. Conclusion: Provision of SSS and EHC PGD from CP does not meet the needs of the population even though the delivery of these services is cost-effective.

17.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 429, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fried's Phenotype Model of Frailty (PMF) postulates that frailty is a syndrome. Features of a syndrome are a heterogeneous population that can be split into at least two classes, those presenting and those not presenting the syndrome. Syndromes are characterized by a specific mixture of signs and symptoms which increase in prevalence, from less to more severe classes. So far, the null hypothesis of homogeneity - signs and symptoms of frailty cannot identify at least two classes - has been tested using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) on the five dichotomized components of PMF (unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slowness, and low physical activity). The aim of this study is to investigate further the construct validity of frailty as a syndrome using the extension offered by Factor Mixture Models (FMM). METHODS: LCA on dichotomized scores and FMM on continuous scores were conducted to test homogeneity on the five PMF components in a sample of 1643 community-dwelling older adults living in Québec, Canada (FRéLE). RESULTS: With dichotomized LCA, three frailty classes were found: robust, prefrail and frail, and the hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected. However, in FMM, frailty was better represented as a continuous variable than as latent heterogeneous classes. Thus, the PMF measurement model of frailty did not meet the features of a syndrome in this study. CONCLUSION: Using the FRéLE cohort, the PMF measurement model validity is questioned. Valid measurement of a syndrome depends on an understanding of its etiological factors and pathophysiological processes, and on a modelling of how the measured components are linked to these processes. Without these features, assessing frailty in a clinical setting may not improve patient health. Research on frailty should address these issues before promoting its use in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Quebeque , Síndrome
19.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 31(10): 2133-2142, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897704

RESUMO

Acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a cardiovascular disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite advances in its prevention and treatment. During acute myocardial ischemia, the lack of oxygen switches the cell metabolism to anaerobic respiration, with lactate accumulation, ATP depletion, Na+ and Ca2+ overload, and inhibition of myocardial contractile function, which drastically modifies the lipid, protein, and small metabolite profile in the myocardium. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides, and proteins in biological tissue sections. In this work, we demonstrate an application of multimodal chemical imaging using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), which provided comprehensive molecular information in situ within the same mouse heart tissue sections with myocardial infarction. MALDI-IMS (at 30 µm per pixel) revealed infarct-associated spatial alterations of several lipid species of sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, lysophospholipids, and cardiolipins along with the acyl carnitines. Further, we performed multimodal MALDI-IMS (IMS3) where dual polarity lipid imaging was combined with subsequent protein MALDI-IMS analysis (at 30 µm per pixel) within the same tissue sections, which revealed accumulations of core histone proteins H4, H2A, and H2B along with post-translational modification products, acetylated H4 and H2A, on the borders of the infarcted region. This methodology allowed us to interpret the lipid and protein molecular pathology of the very same infarcted region in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. Therefore, the presented data highlight the potential of multimodal MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of the same tissue sections as a powerful approach for simultaneous investigation of spatial infarct-associated lipid and protein changes of myocardial infarction.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Proteínas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Miocárdio/química
20.
Biointerphases ; 15(4): 041012, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859133

RESUMO

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy. In fact, it is as common as the sum of all other skin malignancies combined and the incidence is rising. In this focused and histology-guided study, tissue from a patient diagnosed with aggressive BCC was analyzed by imaging mass spectrometry in order to probe the chemistry of the complex tumor environment. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry using a (CO2)6 k + gas cluster ion beam allowed a wide range of lipid species to be detected. Their distributions were then imaged in the tissue that contained small tumor islands that were histologically classified as more/less aggressive. Maximum autocorrelation factor (MAF) analysis highlighted chemical differences between the tumors and the surrounding stroma. A closer inspection of the distribution of individual ions, selected based on the MAF loadings, showed heterogeneity in signal between different microtumors, suggesting the potential of chemically grading the aggressiveness of each individual tumor island. Sphingomyelin lipids were found to be located in stroma containing inflammatory cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Lipídeos/análise , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral
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