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1.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): e134-e147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983412

RESUMO

Despite an increase in the proportion of women anaesthesiologists over time, women remain under-represented in academic and leadership positions, honour awards, and academic promotion. Current literature has identified several reasons for the observed gender disparity in anaesthesiology leadership and faculty positions, including unsupportive work environments, lack of mentorship, personal choices, childcare responsibilities, and active discrimination against women. A scoping review design was selected to examine the nature and extent of available research. Our review provides an overview of the literature that explores gender issues in anaesthesiology, identifies gaps in the literature, and appraises effective strategies to improve gender equity in anaesthesiology. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to July 2019, and included 30 studies for analysis. Most reports used retrospective or survey methodologies. The review shows that women anaesthesiologists face gender biases in the work environment, are under-represented in various positions of leadership or influence, and as authors. Work-life demands may impose a challenge. Motivation and interest in career advancement of women anaesthesiologists have not been well studied. Several strategies have been proposed, ranging from an individual to administrative level, which may help anaesthesiologists achieve equal representation of women in the field.

2.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(1): 64-99, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776895

RESUMO

OVERVIEW: The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2020 (the Guidelines) were prepared by the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS), which reserves the right to determine their publication and distribution. The Guidelines are subject to revision and updated versions are published annually. The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2020 supersedes all previously published versions of this document. Although the CAS encourages Canadian anesthesiologists to adhere to its practice guidelines to ensure high-quality patient care, the CAS cannot guarantee any specific patient outcome. Anesthesiologists should exercise their own professional judgement in determining the proper course of action for any patient's circumstances. The CAS assumes no responsibility or liability for any error or omission arising from the use of any information contained in its Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia.

3.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(1): 13-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Perioperative stroke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality yet patients may not be aware of their risk or receive appropriate counselling. Our objectives were to 1) compare patient's perceived vs calculated risk of stroke; 2) determine level of worry; and 3) assess prior discussion about perioperative stroke risk amongst elective patients undergoing non-cardiac, non-neurologic surgery. METHODS: Over a consecutive four-week period, surveys were distributed at two pre-anesthetic clinics to adult patients scheduled for non-cardiac, non-neurologic surgery. The survey included questions about demographics, perioperative stroke risk factors, patient perception of their quantitative and qualitative stroke risk, level of worry about stroke, and risk discussions. We identified independent predictors of risk underestimation amongst medium- and high-risk patients. RESULTS: Six hundred patients completed the survey (response rate 78%). Of these, 479, 104, and 15 patients were classified as low-, medium-, and high-risk, respectively (with two patients missing this data point). Most medium- (86%) and high-risk (80%) patients did not identify their elevated risk. Amongst medium- and high-risk patients, independent predictors of risk underestimation were lower education and absence of kidney disease. Medium- and high-risk patients were more worried than low-risk patients about perioperative stroke (median [interquartile range] visual analogue scale score 2 [0.5-4] vs 1 [0-2], P = 0.001). Fewer than half of patients had discussed perioperative stroke previously (40%, 23%, and 12% of high-, medium-, and low-risk patients, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients at higher risk of stroke frequently underestimate their risk of perioperative stroke. The majority of patients had not discussed perioperative stroke prior to anesthetic consultation.

4.
Spine J ; 20(1): 22-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Frailty and sarcopenia variably predict adverse events (AEs) in a number of surgical populations. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of frailty and sarcopenia to independently predict early mortality and AEs following urgent surgery for metastatic disease of the spine. STUDY DESIGN: A single institution, retrospective cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: One hundred eight patients undergoing urgent surgery for spinal metastases from 2009 to 2015. OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of AEs including 1- and 3-month mortality. METHODS: Sarcopenia was defined using the L3 Total Psoas Area/Vertebral body Area (L3-TPA/VB) technique on CT. The modified Frailty Index (mFI), Metastatic Frailty Index (MSTFI) and the Bollen prognostic scales were calculated for each patient. Additional data included demographics, tumor type and burden, neurological status, the extent of surgical treatment and the use of radiation-therapy. Spearman correlation test, logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier were used to study the relation between the outcomes measures and potential predictors (L3-TPA/VB, MSTFI, mFI, and the Bollen prognostic scales). RESULTS: Eighty-five percent of patients had at least one acute AE. Sarcopenia predicted the occurrence of at least one postop AE (L3-TPA/VB, 1.07±0.40 vs. 1.25±0.52; p=.031). Sarcopenia (L3-TPA/VB) and the degree of neurological impairment were predictive of postoperative AE but MFI or MSTFI were not. Sarcopenia predicted 3-month mortality, independent of primary tumor type (L3-TPA/VB: 0.86±0.27 vs. 1.12±0.41; p<.001). Kaplan-Meyer analysis showed L3-TPA/VB and the Bollen Scale to significantly discriminate patient survival. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia, easily measured by the L3-TPA/VB on conventional CT, predicts both early postoperative mortality and adverse events in patients undergoing urgent surgery for spinal metastasis, thus providing a practical tool for timely therapeutic decision-making in this complex patient population.

6.
Can J Anaesth ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691254

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite an increase in the proportion of women entering the field of anesthesiology, women remain underrepresented in academic and leadership positions. Speaking at national and international conferences is an important component of academic visibility and promotion. To date, the gender representation of speakers at the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS) annual meeting has not been examined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the representation of women amongst speakers at the CAS annual meeting between 2007 and 2019, inclusively. We also examined the representation of women in different subspecialty subject area symposia at each CAS annual meeting, and the gender composition of meeting symposia panels (i.e., groups of two or more speakers in a session) at the meeting. RESULTS: Overall, 28.5% (358/1,256) of speaker slots included women, similar to their representation in Canadian clinical anesthesiology over the study period (26.7%), and increasing significantly over the study period. Women were more highly represented as obstetric anesthesia speakers at the CAS annual meetings, with lower representation in cardiothoracic anesthesia, transplant anesthesia, and critical care symposia. Of the 311 meeting symposia, 146 (46%) were composed of all men speakers. CONCLUSION: The representation of women speakers at the CAS annual meeting was similar to the representation of women in the anesthesiology workforce in Canada over the study period. Gender representation varied widely by subspecialty symposia, subject area, and women were absent from nearly half of all symposia at the CAS annual meetings, which are potential areas of future investigation and intervention.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743275

RESUMO

Trauma requiring neurosurgical intervention in the obstetric population is rare. Provision of care must include consideration for both maternal and fetal well-being, and conflicts may arise. Management strategies to reduce elevated maternal intracranial pressure (ICP) and provide adequate surgical exposure, for example, may compromise uteroplacental perfusion. There is scarce literature to guide anesthetic care and few resources summarizing management of these uncommon cases. We conducted a systematic literature search for English publications of neurosurgical interventions on obstetric patients following trauma. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar from inception to May 1, 2019. We identified 18 cases from 13 publications including 9 case reports and 4 case series. Median Glasgow coma scale on presentation was 6, good maternal outcome occurred in 39% of cases, and good fetal outcome occurred in 67% of cases. Qualitative review of the articles suggests an initially low Glasgow coma scale on admission commonly resulted in worse maternal and fetal outcomes. Delivery occurred postneurosurgical intervention in the majority of viable fetuses. Few details were available regarding anesthetic management, and ICP management strategies varied widely. Our review identified only a small number of case reports and case series. Maternal outcomes were generally poor, although the majority of fetal outcomes were good. Although there seems to be a relationship between outcomes and severity of maternal injury on presentation, it is difficult to draw conclusions or make recommendations because of limited data on perioperative anesthetic and ICP management strategies. Regardless of gestational age, maternal supremacy must be upheld. Our results are limited by the quality of the available research and potential selection bias.

8.
J Neurosurg Spine ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561231

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Surgical treatment of primary bone tumors of the spine and en bloc resection for isolated metastases are complex and challenging. Operative care is fraught with complications, though the true incidence and predictors of adverse events (AEs), length of stay (LOS), and mortality in this population remain poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to describe the incidence and predictors of perioperative AEs in these patients. Secondary objectives included the determination of the incidence and predictors of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), unanticipated reoperation during the same admission, hospital LOS, and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, the authors included consecutive patients at a single quaternary care referral center (January 1, 2009, to September 30, 2018) who underwent either surgery for a primary bone tumor of the spine or an en bloc resection for an isolated spinal metastasis. Information on perioperative AEs, demographic data, primary tumor histology, neurological status, surgical variables, pathological margins, Enneking appropriateness, LOS, ICU stay, reoperation during the same admission period, and in-hospital mortality was collected prospectively in the institutional database. The modified frailty score was extracted retrospectively. RESULTS: One hundred thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria: 98 with primary bone tumors and 15 with isolated metastases. The cohort was 59% male, and the mean age was 49 years (SD 19 years). Overall, 79% of the patients experienced at least 1 AE. The median number of AEs per patient was 2 (IQR 0-4 AEs), and the median LOS was 16 days (IQR 9-32 days). No in-hospital deaths occurred in the cohort. Thirty-two patients (28%) required an ICU stay and 19% underwent an unanticipated second surgery during their admission. A longer surgical duration was associated with a higher likelihood of AEs (OR 1.21/hour, 95% CI 1.06-1.37, p = 0.005), longer ICU stay (OR 1.35/hour, 95% CI 1 1.20-1.52, p < 0.001), and reoperation (OR 1.001/hour, 95% CI 1.0003-1.003, p = 0.012). Longer hospital LOS was independently predicted by older age, female sex, upper cervical and sacral location of the tumor, surgical duration, preoperative neurological deficit, presence of AEs, and higher modified frailty index score. CONCLUSIONS: Surgeries for primary bone tumors and en bloc resection for metastatic tumors are associated with a high incidence of perioperative AEs. Surgical duration predicts complications, reoperation, LOS, and ICU stay.

9.
J Neurotrauma ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407621

RESUMO

Frailty negatively affects outcome in elective spine surgery populations. This study sought to determine the effect of frailty on patient outcome after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). Patients with tSCI were identified from our prospectively collected database from 2004 to 2016. We examined effect of patient age, admission Total Motor Score (TMS), and Modified Frailty Index (mFI) on adverse events (AEs), acute length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and discharge destination (home vs. other). Subgroup analysis (for three age groups: <60, 61-75, and 76+ years), and multi-variable analysis was performed to investigate the impact of age, TMS, and mFI on outcome. For the 634 patients, the mean age was 50.3 years, 77% were male, and falls were the main cause of injury (46.5%). On bivariate analysis, mFI, age at injury, and TMS were predictors of AEs, acute LOS, and in-hospital mortality. After statistical adjustment, mFI was a predictor of LOS (p = 0.0375), but not of AEs (p = 0.1428) or in-hospital mortality (p = 0.1245). In patients <60 years of age, mFI predicted number of AEs, acute LOS, and in-hospital mortality. In those aged 61-75, TMS predicted AEs, LOS, and mortality. In those 76+ years of age, mFI no longer predicted outcome. Age, mFI, and TMS on admission are important determinants of outcome in patients with tSCI. mFI predicts outcomes in those <75 years of age only. The inter-relationship of advanced age and decreased physiological reserve is complex in acute tSCI, warranting further study. Identifying frailty in younger patients with tSCI may be useful for peri-operative optimization, risk stratification, and patient counseling.

10.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(5): 609-615, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192792

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Frailty and sarcopenia represent a state of increased fragility and decreased reserve, and both have been associated with worse outcomes after surgery. The present review focuses on the definitions and measurement tools used to assess frailty and sarcopenia in patients with spinal disorder, and the relationships between frailty, sarcopenia, and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing complex spine surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Complex spine surgery is associated with a high rate of adverse events when using a validated, prospective data collection system. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with spine surgery with frailty and sarcopenia have a higher risk of adverse events, although this relationship varies depending on the measurement tool and specific population studied. Both general and specific frailty assessment tools have been used in the spine surgery population, however the optimal tool is not known. Spinal disorders such as lumbar stenosis contribute to the frailty phenotype, and may be reversible with surgery. SUMMARY: Frailty and sarcopenia are increasingly recognized as important predictors of adverse outcomes after complex spine surgery. The optimal tool to measure frailty and sarcopenia in patients with spinal disorders remains unclear, and the role of surgery as an intervention to reverse frailty requires further investigation.

11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(5): 539-545, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145198

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to identify outstanding topics most relevant to neuroanesthesia practice and patient outcomes. We discuss the role of awake craniotomy, choice of general anesthetic agents, monitoring of anesthetic 'depth', mannitol-induced diuresis, neurophysiological monitoring, hyperventilation, and cerebral hypoperfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: Awake craniotomy, although a technique likely underused, is associated with enhanced recovery after surgery and prolonged survival after brain tumor resection compared with surgery under general anesthesia. The choice of general anesthetic must balance patient and surgical factors. Although propofol may be associated with favorable oncologic outcomes, currently available retrospective evidence does not specifically address neurosurgical patients. Both the definition and monitoring of anesthetic 'depth' remains elusive. Neuroanesthesiologists need to recognize and manage intraoperative light anesthesia in a timely fashion. Further evidence related to the optimal management of mannitol-induced diuresis and hyperventilation in neurosurgical patients is needed. Contemporary neurophysiological monitoring can reasonably detect intraoperative neurologic injury; however, its effect on patient outcome is unclear. Finally, cerebral hypoperfusion without stroke may be common; however, the clinical significance requires further investigation. SUMMARY: We provide an overview of several topics that are relevant to neuroanesthesia practice and patient outcomes based on evidence, opinions, and speculations. Our review highlights the need for further outcome-oriented studies to specifically address these clinically relevant issues.

13.
CMAJ ; 191(17): E480, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036613
16.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(5): 495-502, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Females remain under-represented in academic anesthesiology. Our objectives were to investigate gender differences over time in the first and last authors of published articles as well as corresponding citation rates in the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia (CJA). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of first and last authors' gender from editorials and original articles published in the CJA in a sample of one calendar year of each decade between 1954 to 2017. We analyzed the relationships between author gender, year of publication, article type, and number of citations. RESULTS: Out of 639 articles identified, 542 (85%) were original investigations and 97 (15%) were editorials. Where gender could be confidently identified, the majority (461/571, 81%) of first authors were male. Although there was an increase in the proportion of female first authors over time, this increase was outpaced by the overall increase in female anesthesiologists in Canada. Original articles received more citations and were more likely to have a female first author than editorial articles were. An original article with a female first author resulted in 0.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.39; P < 0.001) more citations per article than a male first author when adjusting for year of publication. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that, despite a slow increase over time, female authors are under-represented relative to male authors in the CJA and relative to the changing demographics of anesthesiologists in Canada. The reasons for this disparity are multifactorial and further research is needed to identify effective solutions.

17.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(4): 470-471, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460605
18.
Eur Spine J ; 28(4): 817-828, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: 'After-hours' non-elective spinal surgeries are frequently necessary, and often performed under sub-optimal conditions. This study aimed (1) to compare the characteristics of patients undergoing non-elective spine surgery 'After-hours' as compared to 'In-hours'; and (2) to compare the perioperative adverse events (AEs) between those undergoing non-elective spine surgery 'after-hours' as compared to 'in-hours'. METHODS: In this retrospective study of a prospective non-elective spine surgery cohort performed in a quaternary spine center, surgery was defined as 'in-hours' if performed between 0700 and 1600 h from Monday to Friday or 'after-hours' if more than 50% of the operative time occurred between 1601 and 0659 h, or if performed over the weekend. The association of 'after-hours' surgery with AEs, surgical duration, intraoperative estimated blood loss (IOBL), length of stay and in-hospital mortality was analyzed using stepwise multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 1440 patients who underwent non-elective spinal surgery between 2009 and 2013 were included in this study. A total of 664 (46%) procedures were performed 'after-hours'. Surgical duration and IOBL were similar. About 70% of the patients operated 'after-hours' experienced at least one AE compared to 64% for the 'in-hours' group (p = 0.016). 'After-hours' surgery remained an independent predictor of AEs on multivariate analysis [adjusted OR 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.66, p = 0.034]. In-hospital mortality increased twofold in patients operated 'after-hours' (4.4% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.013). This association lost significance on multivariate analysis (adjusted OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.98-4.06, p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: Non-elective spine surgery performed 'after-hours' is independently associated with increased risk of perioperative adverse events, length of stay and possibly, mortality. Research is needed to determine the specific factors contributing to poorer outcomes with 'after-hours' surgery and strategies to minimize this risk. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

20.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(1): 75-108, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30560409

RESUMO

OVERVIEW: The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2019 (the Guidelines) were prepared by the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS), which reserves the right to determine their publication and distribution. The Guidelines are subject to revision and updated versions are published annually. The Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia Revised Edition 2019 supersedes all previously published versions of this document. Although the CAS encourages Canadian anesthesiologists to adhere to its practice guidelines to ensure high-quality patient care, the CAS cannot guarantee any specific patient outcome. Anesthesiologists should exercise their own professional judgement in determining the proper course of action for any patient's circumstances. The CAS assumes no responsibility or liability for any error or omission arising from the use of any information contained in its Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia.

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