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1.
Scand J Pain ; 20(2): 229-238, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242835

RESUMO

Background and aims In the spring of 2019, Professor Steven J. Linton, the founder of the Center for Health and Medical Psychology (CHAMP) at Örebro University, Sweden, formally retired. As a tribute to his scholarly work covering decades of influence and inspiration to the field of pain psychology, the research center organized a topical conference titled "Pain in the 21st century: Where do we come from and where are we going?", which resulted in this state-of the-art synthesis. The aim of this declaration is to highlight lessons learned but not in the least is meant to inspire and guide our continued journey forward, developing pain psychology into the 21st century. Methods Several collaborators of Professor Linton have summarized and reflected on the current state-of-the-art of pain psychology from the perspective of his input to the field, as well as on developments from the last years of advancements in pain psychology. Results The topics have been divided into six themed sections covering the fear avoidance model, transdiagnostics, secondary prevention, risk- and protective factors, communication and contextual factors. The sections cover a broad spectrum, from basic experimental studies, integrating emotion and motivational theories into current theoretical models, to applied research on the effect of early interventions as well as sophisticated emotion-focused treatment models for pain patients with concurrent emotional ill-health. Conclusions There have been major advancements within pain psychology research during the last decades, moving the field towards a more comprehensive picture, taking emotional and motivational aspects into account to understand pain sufferers. Although psychologically informed interventions in general mainly focus on the individual, it has been put forward that pain management is highly influenced by the surrounding environment, including communication with health care providers, and the occupational and social context. Implications Professor Steven J. Linton has been at the forefront of pain psychology research during the last decades, and inspired by his work this journey will continue into the 21st century, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the understanding and treatment for all people suffering from persistent and disabling pain.

2.
Pain Med ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persistent vulvovaginal pain affects many women and often has adverse effects on sexual functioning. Psychological inflexibility related to pain is associated with distress and functional disability across different types of chronic pain conditions, but little is known about the role of psychological inflexibility in vulvovaginal pain. The present study examines psychological inflexibility related to pain as a predictor of sexual functioning over time among women with vulvovaginal pain. METHODS: Questionnaires including measures of psychological inflexibility, pain severity, and sexual functioning were administered to female university students at two points in time. One hundred thirty women with vulvovaginal pain responded to the questionnaire at baseline and at follow-up after 10 months. A multiple regression model was used to explore psychological inflexibility and pain severity as predictors of sexual functioning at follow-up. RESULTS: Higher levels of psychological inflexibility and more severe pain at baseline were associated with poorer sexual functioning 10 months later. In analysis adjusting for baseline levels of sexual functioning, psychological inflexibility was the only significant predictor of sexual functioning at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide preliminary evidence that psychological inflexibility is associated with sexual adjustment over time among women with vulvovaginal pain and point to the relevance of further examinations of the psychological inflexibility model in the context of vulvovaginal pain.

3.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 49(2): 120-136, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896297

RESUMO

The purpose was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Insomnia Catastrophizing Scale (ICS) including factorial validity and internal consistency as well as discriminative and convergent validity. Associations with sleep parameters and daytime impairment are also examined. Drawn from a randomly selected sample of the general population, 1615 participants completed a survey on insomnia-related nighttime and daytime symptoms, health outcomes and psychological processes, including the ICS. A one-factor solution was supported for both the nighttime catastrophizing (11 items) and daytime catastrophizing (6 items) subscales. Both subscales displayed high internal consistencies (α > 0.90) and accounted for 59.1-70.1% of the variance. The insomnia disorder group had significantly higher scores than participants without insomnia on the two subscales and on the individual items. Cutoffs were established for both subscales with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Both subscales displayed adequate convergent validity with measures indexing worry, cognitive pre-sleep arousal and anxiety. The two subscales were also significantly associated with nighttime and daytime insomnia symptoms. The ICS is a reliable and valid scale for the assessment of insomnia-related catastrophizing. Future research is needed to examine the test-retest reliability and treatment sensitivity of the ICS.

4.
J Sleep Res ; 29(1): e12940, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691408

RESUMO

Adolescents are at risk of sleep deficit, which has serious consequences for their daytime functioning. However, school-based interventions to improve sleep have shown limited success. This might be due to the content of the programmes (e.g., not targeting central factors such as daytime stress and technology use) or because changes have not been captured due to a lack of long-term follow-ups. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a school-based sleep education curriculum including time-management training. The study used a quasi-experimental design. Participants were 3,622 adolescents (mean age 13.7, 48% girls); 286 were in the intervention group and 3,336 were followed as a natural control group. Data were collected before the intervention and at a 1-year follow-up. We divided participants into three groups according to baseline sleep duration (calculated from self-reported bed- and wake times, minus sleep onset latency): insufficient (<7 hr), borderline (7-8 hr) and adequate (>8 hr). Adolescents in the intervention group were ~2 times less likely to report insufficient sleep at follow-up as compared to controls. Sleep knowledge improved significantly in the intervention group but there were no changes in emotional sleep hygiene (e.g., bedtime worry) and perceived stress. Surprisingly, technology use increased and behavioural sleep hygiene worsened in the intervention group. Although the mechanisms of change need further investigation, the results of this study point to potential long-term benefits of school-based sleep programmes.

5.
Scand J Pain ; 20(1): 9-10, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785197
6.
Pain ; 160(8): 1708-1718, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335641

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.

7.
Pain ; 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985624

RESUMO

The comorbidity between chronic pain and emotional problems has proven difficult to address with current treatment options. This study addresses the efficacy of a transdiagnostic emotion-focused exposure treatment ("hybrid") for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems. Adults (n = 115) with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional and emotional problems were included in a 2-centre, parallel randomized controlled, open-label trial comparing this treatment to an active control condition receiving a guided Internet-delivered pain management treatment based on CBT principles (iCBT). The hybrid treatment (n = 58, 10-16 sessions) integrates exposure in vivo for chronic pain based on the fear-avoidance model with an emotion-regulation approach informed by procedures in Dialectical Behavior Therapy. The iCBT (n = 57; 8 treatment modules) addresses topics such as pain education, coping strategies, relaxation, problem solving, stress, and sleep management using standard CBT techniques. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed before and after treatment as well as at a 9-month primary end point. Across conditions, 78% participants completed post-treatment and 81% follow-up assessment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the hybrid had a significantly better post-treatment outcome on pain catastrophizing (d = 0.39) and pain interference (d = 0.63) and significantly better follow-up outcomes on depression (d = 0.43) and pain interference (d = 0.51). There were no differences on anxiety and pain intensity. Observed proportions of clinically significant improvement favoured the hybrid on all but one comparison, but no statistically significant differences were observed. We conclude that the hybrid emotion-focused treatment may be considered an acceptable, credible, and efficacious treatment option for chronic pain patients with comorbid emotional problems.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

8.
Phys Ther ; 98(5): 315-324, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669087

RESUMO

The etiology of chronic pain-related disability is not fully understood, particularly from a clinical perspective. Investigations to date have identified risk factors and elucidated some important processes driving the development of persistent pain problems. Yet this knowledge and its application are not always accessible to practicing physical therapists or other clinicians. This article aims to summarize the main psychological processes involved in the development of chronic pain disability and to derive some guidelines for treatment and future research. To this end, the focus is on the paradox of why coping strategies that are helpful in the short term continue to be used even when-ironically-they maintain the problem in the long term. To aid in summarizing current knowledge, 4 tenets that elucidate the etiology of chronic pain are described. These tenets emphasize that chronic pain disability is a developmental process over time, contextual factors set the stage for this development, underlying transdiagnostic psychological factors fuel this development, and the principles of learning steer the development of pain behaviors. With these tenets, an explanation of how a chronic problem develops for one person but not another is provided. Finally, hypotheses that can be empirically tested to guide clinical application as well as basic research are generated. In conclusion, understanding the psychological processes underlying the etiology of chronic pain provides testable ideas and a path forward for improving treatment interventions.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adaptação Psicológica , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Medição da Dor
9.
Scand J Pain ; 17: 220-225, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Context insensitivity has been put forward as a potential mechanism explaining the high co-occurrence of pain and emotional distress. In the pain literature, the concept has only been introduced at a theoretical level and an assessment tool for exploring its impact is lacking. In an interpersonal setting, a core aspect of context sensitivity and insensitivity concerns when to disclose and when to avoid expressing pain and related distress. Both context insensitive disclosure and context insensitive avoidance may hamper interpersonal support and fuel the problem. This exploratory study describes an attempt to develop a self-report instrument to assess tendencies to disclose vs. avoid expressions of pain and related distress, as well as self-perceived adjustment of disclosure vs. avoidance to the context. METHODS: A pool of items was systematically developed to assess different aspects of context insensitivity, including disclosure vs. avoidance of expression. 105 participants with persistent pain were recruited at pain rehabilitation clinics (80% of the sample) and in a university setting (20% of the sample). The participants responded to the pool of items as well as to a number of validated self-report instruments covering pain, pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, emotion regulation tendencies, self-compassion and pain acceptance. The analyses explored the factorial structure of the initial instrument, as well as the criterion and construct validity. RESULTS: The analyses confirmed a stable underlying structure of the initial scale, with four distinct factors explaining 64.4% of the total variance. However, the criterion and construct validity could only be confirmed for one of the factors, which contained items reflecting context insensitive avoidance of expression. Consequently, only this factor, demonstrating very good internal consistency, was kept in the final version of the instrument which was named context insensitive avoidance (CIA). CONCLUSIONS: We found support for the final version of our instrument, capturing one prominent aspect of context insensitivity. Avoidance of expression was related to higher ratings of pain, disability, catastrophizing and suppression as well as to lower levels of self-compassion. We encourage further studies to explore the impact of context insensitive avoidance for regulating pain and associated negative emotions. Yet, more research is needed that goes beyond self-report and includes other aspects of context. It is urgent to develop systematic ways for assessing context insensitivity, as it will enhance our understanding of regulatory strategies as potential transdiagnostic mechanisms in pain and emotion. IMPLICATIONS: This tool for assessing contextually insensitive avoidance of expression could potentially be used both clinically and in future research to advance our understanding of comorbid problems with pain and emotional distress. Further research is needed to develop methods for assessing other aspects of context insensitivity to fully understand its impact in patients suffering from pain.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/psicologia , Emoções , Dor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Pain Rep ; 2(3): e600, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392215

RESUMO

Introduction: Patient-centered, empathetic communication has been recommended as a means for improving the health care of patients suffering pain. However, a problem has been training health care providers since programs may be time-consuming and difficult to learn. Validation, a form of empathetic response that communicates that what a patient experiences is accepted as true, has been suggested as an appropriate method for improving communication with patients suffering pain. Objectives: We study the immediate effects of providing medical students with a 2-session (45-minute duration each) program in validation skills on communication. Methods: A one group, pretest vs posttest design was employed with 22 volunteer medical students. To control patient variables, actors simulated 1 of 2 patient scenarios (randomly provided at pretest and posttest). Video recordings were blindly evaluated. Self-ratings of validation and satisfaction were also employed. Results: Observed validation responses increased significantly after training and corresponded to significant reductions in invalidating responses. Both the patient simulators and the medical students were significantly more satisfied after the training. Conclusions: We demonstrated that training empathetic validation results in improved communication thus extending previous findings to a medical setting with patients suffering pain. Our results suggest that it would be feasible to provide validation training for health care providers and this warrants further investigation in controlled studies.

11.
Internet Interv ; 4: 43-50, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135789

RESUMO

The aim of this pilot study was to explore the effects of an early and customized CBT intervention, mainly delivered via internet, for adolescents with coexisting recurrent pain and emotional distress (low mood, worry, and/or distress). The intervention was based on a transdiagnostic approach, to concurrently target pain and emotional distress. A single case experimental design (SCED) was employed with six participants, 17-21 years old, who were recruited via school health care professionals at the student health care team at an upper secondary school in a small town in Sweden. The intervention consisted of 5-9 modules of CBT, delivered via internet in combination with personal contacts and face to face sessions. The content and length of the program was customized depending on needs. The effects of the program were evaluated based on self-report inventories, which the participants filled out before and after the intervention and at a six month follow-up. They did also fill out a diary where they rated symptoms on a daily basis. The results were promising, at least when considering changes during the intervention as well as pre- and posttest ratings. However, the results were more modest when calculating the reliable change index (RCI), and most of the treatment effects were not sustained at the follow-up assessment, which raises questions about the durability of the effects. Taken together, this study indicates that this type of program is promising as an early intervention for adolescents with pain and concurrent emotional distress, although the outcomes need to be explored further, especially in terms of long-term effects.

13.
Scand J Pain ; 7(1): 71-79, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911605

RESUMO

Background and purpose Dealing with chronic pain is difficult and affects physiological as well as psychological well-being. Patients with chronic pain are often reporting concurrent emotional problems such as low mood and depressive symptoms. Considering this, treatments need to involve strategies for improving mood and promoting well-being in this group of patients. With the rise of the positive psychology movement, relatively simple intervention strategies to increase positive feelings, cognitions, and behaviours have become available. So far, the evidence for positive psychology techniques mainly comes from studies with healthy participants, and from studies with patients expressing emotional problems such as depression or anxiety as their main complaint. This study describes an initial attempt to explore the potential effects of a positive psychology intervention in a small sample of patients suffering from chronic pain. Methods A replicated single case design was employed with five participants. The participants started to fill out daily self-reports and weekly questionnaires two weeks before the intervention started, and continued throughout the intervention. In addition, they filled out a battery of questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and at a three months follow-up. The instruments for assessment were selected to cover areas and constructs which are important for pain problems in general (e.g. disability, life satisfaction, central psychological factors) as well as more specific constructs from positive psychology (e.g. compassion, savoring beliefs). Results The results on pre and post assessments showed an effect on some of the measures. However, according to a more objective measure of reliable change (Reliable Change Index, RCI), the effects were quite modest. On the weekly measures, there was a trend towards improvements for three of the participants, whereas the other two basically did not show any improvement. The daily ratings were rather difficult to interpret because of their large variability, both between and within individuals. For the group of participants as a whole, the largest improvements were on measures of disability and catastrophizing. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study indicate that a positive psychology intervention may have beneficial effects for some chronic pain patients. Although it is not to be expected that a limited positive psychology intervention on its own is sufficient to treat pain-related disability in chronic patients, our findings suggest that for some it may be an advantageous complement to enhance the effects of other interventions. Implications The results of this pilot study about the potential effects of a positive psychology intervention for chronic pain patients may be encouraging, warranting a larger randomized controlled study. Future studies may also concentrate on integrating positive psychology techniques into existing treatments, such as composite CBT-programs for chronic pain patients. Our advice is that positive psychology interventions are not to be regarded as stand-alone treatments for this group of patients, but may potentially enhance the effect of other interventions. However, when and for which patients these techniques may be recommended is to be explored in future research.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/psicologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Psicoterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Empatia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Scand J Pain ; 9(1): 74-80, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911654

RESUMO

Background and purpose Recurrent vulvar pain is a common and debilitating condition which has received remarkably little attention in pain research. For instance, little is known about how these women cope with sexual activities, and there are no structured assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to explore coping strategies in this group, with a view to develop a measure to assess how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. Methods The current study is based on a subsample from a longitudinal study about vulvar pain in a student sample consisting of women between 18 and 35 years old (N = 964). Only data from the ones reporting recurrent vulvar pain during the last six months (N = 289) were used in the analyses. First, the CHAMP Sexual Pain Coping Scale (CSPCS) was created, with the aim of assessing how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. The scale was inspired by previous research on women with vulvar pain as well as well-known coping strategies in other pain populations. Second, the psychometric properties of the scale were explored by analyzing the factor structure and internal reliability. Third, validity features were examined in terms of criterion validity and construct validity. Results The analyses supported a three-factor solution, embracing the strategies endurance, avoidance and alternative coping. The internal reliability of the subscales turned out to be good, and the criterion validity was supported for all three subscales. The construct validity was clearly supported for the endurance and the avoidance subscales, but not for the alternative coping subscale. Conclusions The findings support the CSPCS as an instrument for assessing how women with vulvar pain cope with sexual activities. The strategies endurance, avoidance and alternative coping correspond with findings from earlier research. Endurance reflects a tendency to engage in and continue with sexual activities despite pain, while attempting to minimize or suppress thoughts of pain. Avoidance, on the other hand, involves efforts to stay away from sexual activities, in particular vaginal penetration, because of fear of pain. Alternative coping refers to endeavours to find alternative sexual activities that do not necessarily involve vaginal penetration. Even though this first study indicates that the CSPCS may be psychometrically sound, more studies are needed to confirm the psychometric properties and clinical application of this instrument. In particular, the construct validity of the alternative coping subscale needs to be further evaluated. Implications A valid instrument for assessing strategies for coping with sexual activities in this population has important clinical implications, since it provides a method that may enhance assessment procedures, be used in research, and stimulate the development of treatment.

15.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 43(4): 332-41, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25268910

RESUMO

Catastrophizing and depressed mood are risk factors for poor outcome in treatments for pain and appear to act as mediators for favorable outcome. However, little is known about how catastrophizing and depressed mood co-occur within individuals and how these patterns change during treatment, which is the focus of the current study. The study uses data from a randomized controlled trial about early cognitive behaviorally oriented interventions for patients with nonspecific spinal pain (N = 84). Cluster analyses were used to extract subgroups of individuals with similar scoring patterns on catastrophizing and depressed mood at pretreatment, mid-treatment, posttreatment, and at 6 months' follow-up. To track individual progress, the clusters were linked over time. The analyses revealed four clusters: "low depression and catastrophizing", "high depression and catastrophizing", "high depression", and "high catastrophizing". There was little individual transition from one scoring pattern to another across time, not at least for those scoring high on both depressed mood and catastrophizing. Moreover, high stability within this cluster was related to low levels of psychological flexibility at baseline. It is concluded that catastrophizing and depressed mood at the start of treatment were likely to remain high despite a cognitive behavioral intervention and that a lack of psychological flexibility may have a role.


Assuntos
Catastrofização/complicações , Catastrofização/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Manejo da Dor/psicologia , Dor/complicações , Catastrofização/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Occup Rehabil ; 24(3): 446-57, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24077863

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This randomized controlled trial had two main aims. The first aim was to investigate the effect of early preventive, psychologically informed, interventions for pain-related disability. The second aim was explore whether people who are matched to an intervention specifically targeting their psychological risk profile had better outcomes than people who were not matched to interventions. METHODS: A total of 105 participants were recruited from their workplace, screened for psychological risk factors and classified as being at risk for long-term pain-related disability. They were subgrouped into one of three groups based on their psychological profile. Three behaviorally oriented psychological interventions were developed to target each of the three risk profiles. Half of the participants were assigned a matched intervention developed to target their specific profile, and half were assigned an unmatched intervention. After treatment, repeated measure ANOVAs and v2 tests were used to determine if treatments had an effect on primary and secondary outcomes including perceived disability, sick leave, fear and avoidance, pain catastrophizing and distress, and if matched participants had better outcomes than did unmatched. RESULTS: Treatments had effects on all outcome variables (effect sizes d ranging between 0.23 and 0.66), but matched participants did not have better outcomes than unmatched. CONCLUSIONS: Early, preventive interventions have an impact on a number of outcome variables but it is difficult to realize a matching procedure. More in-depth research of the process of matching is needed.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dor Musculoesquelética/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Catastrofização/prevenção & controle , Medo , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/psicologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia
17.
J Clin Psychol Med Settings ; 19(2): 224-34, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22323041

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-I) for insomnia on patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment. A randomized controlled design was used with a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-two patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment were randomized to either CBT-I or a waitlist condition (WLC). The primary outcome was insomnia severity. Secondary outcomes were sleep diary parameters, dysfunction, anxiety, and depression. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in lower insomnia severity at post-treatment and at follow-up (d = 1.18-1.56). Relative to WLC, CBT-I also led, at both assessment points, to reduced total wake time (d = 1.39) and increased sleep restoration (d = 1.03-1.07) and sleep quality (d = 0.91-1.16). Both groups increased their total sleep time, but no significant group difference emerged. Compared to WLC, CBT-I resulted in higher function (d = 0.81-0.96) and lower anxiety (d = 1.29-1.30) at both assessment points. Neither CBT-I nor WLC led to improvement on depression. Based on the Insomnia Severity Index, more CBT-I (53-77%) than WLC participants (0-7%) were treatment responders. Also, more CBT-I (24%) than WLC participants (0%) remitted. In patients with insomnia co-morbid with hearing impairment, CBT-I was effective in decreasing insomnia severity, subjective sleep parameters, dysfunction, and anxiety. These findings are in line with previous results on the effects of CBT-I in other medical conditions.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Suécia , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/psicologia
18.
Br J Health Psychol ; 17(2): 408-19, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22106932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim is to explore pain catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective. The links between catastrophizing, problem framing, and problem-solving behaviour are examined through two possible models of mediation as inferred by two contemporary and complementary theoretical models, the misdirected problem solving model (Eccleston & Crombez, 2007) and the fear-anxiety-avoidance model (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004). DESIGN: In this prospective study, a general population sample (n= 173) with perceived problems with spinal pain filled out questionnaires twice; catastrophizing and problem framing were assessed on the first occasion and health care seeking (as a proxy for medically oriented problem solving) was assessed 7 months later. METHODS: Two different approaches were used to explore whether the data supported any of the proposed models of mediation. First, multiple regressions were used according to traditional recommendations for mediation analyses. Second, a bootstrapping method (n= 1000 bootstrap resamples) was used to explore the significance of the indirect effects in both possible models of mediation. RESULTS: The results verified the concepts included in the misdirected problem solving model. However, the direction of the relations was more in line with the fear-anxiety-avoidance model. More specifically, the mediation analyses provided support for viewing catastrophizing as a mediator of the relation between biomedical problem framing and medically oriented problem-solving behaviour. CONCLUSION: These findings provide support for viewing catastrophizing from a problem-solving perspective and imply a need to examine and address problem framing and catastrophizing in back pain patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Medo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Resolução de Problemas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Teoria Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Eur J Pain ; 14(8): 887-92, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20219398

RESUMO

This investigation was an initial attempt to explore psychological factors that might help or hinder the effect of exposure in vivo for patients with musculoskeletal pain and pain-related fear. The study was based on data from a randomized-controlled trial for patients with non-specific spinal pain (Linton et al., 2008). First, catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression were studied as possible treatment moderators. We found evidence that catastrophizing was a moderator of treatment outcome in exposure. When further exploring the nature of the relationship between catastrophizing and outcome, the results showed that the exposure was effective only for patients with low or moderate levels of catastrophizing. High catastrophizers did not improve from the treatment. On the other hand, anxiety was a general predictor of poor outcome, and not a specific moderator of outcome in exposure. In contrast, depression was not significantly related to outcome. Next, patients were divided into high change participants and low change participants based on their improvement in disability after treatment in order to investigate the change in psychological variables during treatment. Descriptive data indicated that high change participants had large improvements across treatment on depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs whereas low change participants virtually did not change at all on these variables across treatment. These findings denote that catastrophizing is a moderator of treatment outcome in exposure whereas several psychological variables might be important for the treatment process.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/psicologia , Catastrofização/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Seleção de Pacientes , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Behav Res Ther ; 47(8): 721-8, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19486960

RESUMO

This paper describes a preliminary experimental evaluation of a technique intended to help people suffering from chronic back pain and low pain acceptance to alter the aversiveness or threat value of their persisting pain. Using a multiple baseline cross-over design six individuals with chronic back pain were taught to use a form of interoceptive exposure as well as a relaxation/distraction breathing-based technique in the presence of their pain. Half the participants used one method for three weeks, and then crossed over to the other method for a further three weeks. The other half did the reverse. Assessments were conducted at pre/post treatment and at a three month follow-up. Daily monitoring of pain-related distress was also completed. The results indicated moderately high improvements in pain acceptance across most participants and corresponding declines in pain-related distress. No clear differences occurred between conditions, but the changes on disability and catastrophising scales for most cases were consistent with those reported after more substantial interventions. The study raises some important clinical and methodological issues that could inform future research in this area.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/terapia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Implosiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Relaxamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Autorrelato
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