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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), we aimed to estimate the health and cost implications of achieving different targets for diagnosis, treatment, and control of diabetes and its associated cardiovascular risk factors among LMICs. METHODS: We constructed a microsimulation model to estimate disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost and health-care costs of diagnosis, treatment, and control of blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and glycaemia among people with diabetes in LMICs. We used individual participant data-specifically from the subset of people who were defined as having any type of diabetes by WHO standards-from nationally representative, cross-sectional surveys (2006-18) spanning 15 world regions to estimate the baseline 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (defined as fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke), heart failure (ejection fraction of <40%, with New York Heart Association class III or IV functional limitations), end-stage renal disease (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 mL/min per 1·73 m2 or needing dialysis or transplant), retinopathy with severe vision loss (<20/200 visual acuity as measured by the Snellen chart), and neuropathy with pressure sensation loss (assessed by the Semmes-Weinstein 5·07/10 g monofilament exam). We then used data from meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials to estimate the reduction in risk and the WHO OneHealth tool to estimate costs in reaching either 60% or 80% of diagnosis, treatment initiation, and control targets for blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and glycaemia recommended by WHO guidelines. Costs were updated to 2020 International Dollars, and both costs and DALYs were computed over a 10-year policy planning time horizon at a 3% annual discount rate. FINDINGS: We obtained data from 23 678 people with diabetes from 67 countries. The median estimated 10-year risk was 10·0% (IQR 4·0-18·0) for cardiovascular events, 7·8% (5·1-11·8) for neuropathy with pressure sensation loss, 7·2% (5·6-9·4) for end-stage renal disease, 6·0% (4·2-8·6) for retinopathy with severe vision loss, and 2·6% (1·2-5·3) for congestive heart failure. A target of 80% diagnosis, 80% treatment, and 80% control would be expected to reduce DALYs lost from diabetes complications from a median population-weighted loss to 1097 DALYs per 1000 population over 10 years (IQR 1051-1155), relative to a baseline of 1161 DALYs, primarily from reduced cardiovascular events (down from a median of 143 to 117 DALYs per 1000 population) due to blood pressure and statin treatment, with comparatively little effect from glycaemic control. The target of 80% diagnosis, 80% treatment, and 80% control would be expected to produce an overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$1362 per DALY averted (IQR 1304-1409), with the majority of decreased costs from reduced cardiovascular event management, counterbalanced by increased costs for blood pressure and statin treatment, producing an overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1362 per DALY averted (IQR 1304-1409). INTERPRETATION: Reducing complications from diabetes in LMICs is likely to require a focus on scaling up blood pressure and statin medication treatment initiation and blood pressure medication titration rather than focusing on increasing screening to increase diabetes diagnosis, or a glycaemic treatment and control among people with diabetes. FUNDING: None.

2.
Anthropol Med ; 28(2): 223-238, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058932

RESUMO

Opioids, a set of potent pain medications, have numerous known deleterious side effects, ranging from constipation to respiratory depression and death, and yet they are routinely prescribed and administered in biomedical settings. Situated against the backdrop of the US opioid epidemic, this paper examines how the iatrogenic and inadvertent harms and complications caused by opioid administration in clinical settings are experienced by clinicians as forms of moral injury. 'Moral injury' describes a moral agent's experience of perpetrating or being unable to prevent events that are at odds with their moral beliefs and social expectations. This concept powerfully extends Illich's notion of clinical iatrogenesis, which refers to harms experienced by patients; instead, 'moral injury' indexes forms of harm that extend beyond patients to those providing them care. Using an analytic auto-ethnographic approach based on more than a decade of clinical practice in urban hospitals in the Midwestern and Northeastern United States, the authors describe interactions with patients on opioids whose treatment trajectories are fraught with iatrogenic complications, and explore how biomedical institutions and systems further harm vulnerable patients who receive and are addicted to opioids. Though anxious to avoid harming their patients, clinicians are disempowered by hierarchical systems of medical decision-making, which hinder their ability to always act in what they feel are the patient's best interests. This paper highlights the emotional/affective distress and ambivalence experienced by physicians when making decisions about whether to administer or prescribe opioids. Ultimately, the paper demonstrates how iatrogenesis and moral injury are concomitantly produced through cascades of decision-making and local health systems, rather than individual clinical decisions alone.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Doença Iatrogênica/etnologia , Epidemia de Opioides , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etnologia , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antropologia Médica , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Estados Unidos/etnologia
3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04010, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692894

RESUMO

Background: Despite the life-saving work they perform, community health workers (CHWs) have long been subject to global debate about their remuneration. There is now, however, an emerging consensus that CHWs should be paid. As the discussion evolves from whether to financially remunerate CHWs to how to do so, there is an urgent need to better understand the types of CHW payment models and their implications. Methods: This study examines the legal framework on CHW compensation in five countries: Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, and South Africa. In order to map the characteristics of each approach, a review of the regulatory framework governing CHW compensation in each country was undertaken. Law firms in each of the five countries were engaged to support the identification and interpretation of relevant legal documents. To guide the search and aid in the creation of uniform country profiles, a standardized set of questions was developed, covering: (i) legal requirements for CHW compensation, (ii) CHW compensation mechanisms, and (iii) CHW legal protections and benefits. Results: The five countries profiled represent possible archetypes for CHW compensation: Brazil (public), Ghana (volunteer-based), Nigeria (private), Rwanda (cooperatives with performance based incentives) and South Africa (hybrid public/private). Advantages and disadvantages of each model with respect to (i) CHWs, in terms of financial protection, and (ii) the health system, in terms of ease of implementation, are outlined. Conclusions: While a strong legal framework does not necessarily translate into high-quality implementation of compensation practices, it is the first necessary step. Certain approaches to CHW compensation - particularly public-sector or models with public sector wage floors - best institutionalize recommended CHW protections. Political will and long-term financing often remain challenges; removing ecosystem barriers - such as multilateral and bilateral restrictions on the payment of salaries - can help governments institutionalize CHW payment.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Ecossistema , Humanos , Motivação , Remuneração , Voluntários
4.
Glob Public Health ; 16(4): 623-638, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161879

RESUMO

This qualitative study explores perceptions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) among adults with abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in Guatemala, where the burden of CKD is rising. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 39 individuals screened for CKD and found to have abnormal eGFR (defined as <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, per Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] guidelines). Interviews occurred in participants' homes in Spanish or Kaqchikel Mayan. Interview notes were coded for dominant themes through an inductive approach. Interviewees had limited awareness of diabetes and hypertension as CKD risk factors, but appreciated the progressive nature of the disease. While most reported willingness to pursue renal replacement therapies, if necessary, they anticipated economic and geographic barriers. Public health interventions should focus on the association between diabetes, hypertension, and CKD. Improvement of primary care and screening infrastructure is imperative in CKD prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

5.
PLoS Med ; 17(11): e1003434, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective health system interventions may help address the disproportionate burden of diabetes in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We assessed the impact of health system interventions to improve outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, African Index Medicus, LILACS, and Global Index Medicus from inception of each database through February 24, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of health system interventions targeting adults with type 2 diabetes in LMICs. Eligible studies reported at least 1 of the following outcomes: glycemic change, mortality, quality of life, or cost-effectiveness. We conducted a meta-analysis for the glycemic outcome of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). GRADE and Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care methods were used to assess risk of bias for the glycemic outcome and to prepare a summary of findings table. Of the 12,921 references identified in searches, we included 39 studies in the narrative review of which 19 were cluster RCTs and 20 were individual RCTs. The greatest number of studies were conducted in the East Asia and Pacific region (n = 20) followed by South Asia (n = 7). There were 21,080 total participants enrolled across included studies and 10,060 total participants in the meta-analysis of HbA1c when accounting for the design effect of cluster RCTs. Non-glycemic outcomes of mortality, health-related quality of life, and cost-effectiveness had sparse data availability that precluded quantitative pooling. In the meta-analysis of HbA1c from 35 of the included studies, the mean difference was -0.46% (95% CI -0.60% to -0.31%, I2 87.8%, p < 0.001) overall, -0.37% (95% CI -0.64% to -0.10%, I2 60.0%, n = 7, p = 0.020) in multicomponent clinic-based interventions, -0.87% (-1.20% to -0.53%, I2 91.0%, n = 13, p < 0.001) in pharmacist task-sharing studies, and -0.27% (-0.50% to -0.04%, I2 64.1%, n = 7, p = 0.010) in trials of diabetes education or support alone. Other types of interventions had few included studies. Eight studies were at low risk of bias for the summary assessment of glycemic control, 15 studies were at unclear risk, and 16 studies were at high risk. The certainty of evidence for glycemic control by subgroup was moderate for multicomponent clinic-based interventions but was low or very low for other intervention types. Limitations include the lack of consensus definitions for health system interventions, differences in the quality of underlying studies, and sparse data availability for non-glycemic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, we found that health system interventions for type 2 diabetes may be effective in improving glycemic control in LMICs, but few studies are available from rural areas or low- or lower-middle-income countries. Multicomponent clinic-based interventions had the strongest evidence for glycemic benefit among intervention types. Further research is needed to assess non-glycemic outcomes and to study implementation in rural and low-income settings.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ásia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/economia , Programas Governamentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Assistência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida
6.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(9): 1567-1575, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954082

RESUMO

On October 14-15, 2019, the 1st Symposium to Promote Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Research in Guatemala was held in Guatemala City, Guatemala. The Symposium hosted more than 50 attendees, including health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and leaders of nongovernmental organizations. The meeting's objectives were to (1) share clinical and health delivery experiences, (2) disseminate local research, and (3) establish consensus priorities for future research. In this report, we review the state of CKD nephrology in Guatemala, summarize experiences shared during the meeting from representatives of the clinical settings in Guatemala where CKD care is provided, and describe consensus priorities for future research.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503889

RESUMO

COVID-19 disproportionately affects the poor and vulnerable. Community health workers are poised to play a pivotal role in fighting the pandemic, especially in countries with less resilient health systems. Drawing from practitioner expertise across four WHO regions, this article outlines the targeted actions needed at different stages of the pandemic to achieve the following goals: (1) PROTECT healthcare workers, (2) INTERRUPT the virus, (3) MAINTAIN existing healthcare services while surging their capacity, and (4) SHIELD the most vulnerable from socioeconomic shocks. While decisive action must be taken now to blunt the impact of the pandemic in countries likely to be hit the hardest, many of the investments in the supply chain, compensation, dedicated supervision, continuous training and performance management necessary for rapid community response in a pandemic are the same as those required to achieve universal healthcare and prevent the next epidemic.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 71, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide, and the majority of the CKD burden is in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is wide variability in global access to kidney care therapies such as dialysis and kidney transplantation. The challenges health professionals experience while providing kidney care in LMICs have not been well described. The goal of this study is to elicit health professionals' perceptions of providing kidney care in a resource-constrained environment, strategies for dealing with resource limitations, and suggestions for improving kidney care in Guatemala. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 health professionals recruited through convenience sampling at the largest public nephrology center in Guatemala. Health professionals included administrators, physicians, nurses, technicians, nutritionists, psychologists, laboratory personnel, and social workers. Interviews were recorded and transcribed in Spanish. Qualitative data from interviews were analyzed in NVivo using an inductive approach, allowing dominant themes to emerge from interview transcriptions. RESULTS: Health professionals most frequently described challenges in providing high-quality care due to resource limitations. Reducing the frequency of hemodialysis, encouraging patients to opt for peritoneal dialysis rather than hemodialysis, and allocating resources based on clinical acuity were common strategies for reconciling high demand and limited resources. Providers experienced significant emotional challenges related to high patient volume and difficult decisions on resource allocation, leading to burnout and moral distress. To improve care, respondents suggested increased budgets for equipment and personnel, investments in preventative services, and decentralization of services. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals at the largest public nephrology center in Guatemala described multiple strategies to meet the rising demand for renal replacement therapy. Due to systems-level limitations, health professionals faced difficult choices on the stewardship of resources that are linked to sentiments of burnout and moral distress. This study offers important lessons in Guatemala and other countries seeking to build capacity to scale-up kidney care.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Hospitais Especializados/organização & administração , Ambulatório Hospitalar/organização & administração , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Esgotamento Profissional , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Guatemala , Hospitais Especializados/normas , Humanos , Ambulatório Hospitalar/normas , Diálise Peritoneal , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Diálise Renal , Estresse Psicológico
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 3(1): e000510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531407

RESUMO

Background: There has been limited research on the relationship between contraception and child growth in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the association between contraception and child linear growth in Guatemala, an LMIC with a very high prevalence of child stunting. We hypothesise that contraceptive use is associated with better child linear growth and less stunting in Guatemala. Methods: Using representative national data on 12 440 children 0-59 months of age from the 2014-2015 Demographic and Health Survey in Guatemala, we constructed multivariable linear and Poisson regression models to assess whether child linear growth and stunting were associated with contraception variables. All models were adjusted for a comprehensive set of prespecified confounding variables. Results: Contraceptive use was generally associated with modest, statistically significant greater height-for-age z-score. Current use of a modern method for at least 15 months was associated with a prevalence ratio of stunting of 0.87 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.94; p<0.001), and prior use of a modern method was associated with a prevalence ratio of stunting of 0.93 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.98; p<0.05). The severe stunting models found generally similar associations with modern contraceptive use as the stunting models. There was no significant association between use of a modern method for less than 15 months and the prevalence ratio of stunting or severe stunting. Conclusions: Contraceptive use was associated with better child linear growth and less child stunting in Guatemala. In addition to the human rights imperative to expand contraceptive access and choice, family planning merits further study as a strategy to improve child growth in Guatemala and other countries with high prevalence of stunting.

12.
J Knee Surg ; 32(8): 825-832, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189438

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to compare the cyclic loading strength and ultimate failure load in suture anchor repair versus transosseous tunnel repair of patellar tendons using a cadaver model. Twelve cadaveric patella specimens were used (six matched pairs). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements were performed to ensure equal bone quality among groups. All right knees were assigned to the suture anchor repair group (n = 6), whereas all left knees were assigned to the transosseous bone tunnel group (n = 6). Suture type and repair configuration were equivalent. After the respective procedures were performed, each patella was mounted into a gripping jig. Tensile load was applied at a rate of 1 Hz between magnitudes of 50 and 150 N, 50 and 200 N, 50 and 250 N, and tensile load at a rate of 0.1 mm/s until failure. Failure was defined as a sharp deviation in the linear load versus displacement curve, and failure mode was recorded. DXA measurements demonstrated equivalence of bone quality between the two groups (p > 0.05). During cyclic load testing, there was only a statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to cyclic loading at the 50 to 200 N loading cycle (p = 0.010). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to ultimate load to failure (p = 0.43). Failure mode within the suture anchor cohort occurred through anchor pullout except for one, which failed through the tendon. All specimens within the transosseous cohort failed through the midsubstance of the tendon except for one, which failed through suture breakage. Suture anchor repair demonstrated a similar biomechanical profile regarding cyclic loading and ultimate load to failure when compared with "gold standard" transosseous tunnel patellar tendon repair with a trend toward less gapping in the suture anchor group. Using suture anchors for repair of the patella tendon has similar biomechanical properties to transpatellar tunnels but may provide other clinical advantages.


Assuntos
Ligamento Patelar/cirurgia , Âncoras de Sutura , Técnicas de Sutura , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Traumatismos do Joelho/cirurgia , Patela/cirurgia , Suturas , Tendões/cirurgia
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20182018 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705734

RESUMO

A 42-year-old indigenous Maya man presented to a non-profit clinic in rural Guatemala with signs, symptoms and laboratory values consistent with uncontrolled diabetes. Despite appropriate treatment, approximately 18 months after presentation, he was found to have irreversible end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of uncertain aetiology. He was referred to the national public nephrology clinic and subsequently initiated home-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. With primary care provided by the non-profit clinic, his clinical status improved on dialysis, but socioeconomic and psychological challenges persisted for the patient and his family. This case shows how care for people with ESRD in low- and middle-income countries requires scaling up renal replacement therapy and ensuring access to primary care, mental healthcare and social work services.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Peritoneal Ambulatorial Contínua , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Guatemala , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
18.
BMJ Open ; 8(1): e019778, 2018 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358450

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Screening is a key strategy to address the rising burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in low-income and middle-income countries. However, there are few reports regarding the implementation of screening programmes in resource-limited settings. The objectives of this study are to (1) to share programmatic experiences implementing CKD screening in a rural, resource-limited setting and (2) to assess the burden of renal disease in a community-based diabetes programme in rural Guatemala. DESIGN: Cross-sectional assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine albumin. SETTING: Central Highlands of Guatemala. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 144 adults with type 2 diabetes in a community-based CKD screening activity carried out by the sponsoring institution. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of renal disease and risk of CKD progression using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes definitions and classifications. RESULTS: We found that 57% of the sample met GFR and/or albuminuria criteria suggestive of CKD. Over half of the sample had moderate or greater increased risk for CKD progression, including nearly 20% who were classified as high or very high risk. Hypertension was common in the sample (42%), and glycaemic control was suboptimal (mean haemoglobin A1c 9.4%±2.5% at programme enrolment and 8.6%±2.3% at time of CKD screening). CONCLUSIONS: The high burden of renal disease in our patient sample suggests an imperative to better understand the burden and risk factors of CKD in Guatemala. The implementation details we share reveal the tension between evidence-based CKD screening versus screening that can feasibly be delivered in resource-limited global settings.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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