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1.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244873, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have highlighted the negative impact of COVID-19 and its particular effects on vulnerable sub-populations. Complementing this work, here, we report on the social patterning of self-reported positive changes experienced during COVID-19 national lockdown in Scotland. METHODS: The CATALYST study collected data from 3342 adults in Scotland during weeks 9-12 of a national lockdown. Using a cross-sectional design, participants completed an online questionnaire providing data on key sociodemographic and health variables, and completed a measure of positive change. The positive change measure spanned diverse domains (e.g., more quality time with family, developing new hobbies, more physical activity, and better quality of sleep). We used univariate analysis and stepwise regression to examine the contribution of a range of sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity, educational attainment, and employment status) in explaining positive change. RESULTS: There were clear sociodemographic differences across positive change scores. Those reporting higher levels of positive change were female, from younger age groups, married or living with their partner, employed, and in better health. CONCLUSION: Overall our results highlight the social patterning of positive changes during lockdown in Scotland. These findings begin to illuminate the complexity of the unanticipated effects of national lockdown and will be used to support future intervention development work sharing lessons learned from lockdown to increase positive health change amongst those who may benefit.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Higiene do Sono , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) can be used in STI testing environments to prioritize individuals at highest risk of infection and optimize resource allocation. We previously derived a CPR to predict asymptomatic chlamydia and/or gonorrhea (CT/NG) infection among women and heterosexual men at in-person STI clinics based on five predictors. Population differences between clinic-based and internet-based testers may limit the tool's application across settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity, sensitivity, and overall performance of this CPR within an internet-based testing environment (GetCheckedOnline.com). METHODS: We analyzed GetCheckedOnline online risk assessment and laboratory data from 10/2015-06/2019. We compared the STI clinic population used for CPR derivation (data previously published) and the GetCheckedOnline validation population using chi-square tests. Calibration and discrimination were assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) goodness-of-fit test and the Area Under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC), respectively. Sensitivity and the fraction of total screening tests offered were quantified for CPR-predicted risk scores. RESULTS: Asymptomatic CT/NG infection prevalence in the GetCheckedOnline population (n=5,478) was higher than in the STI clinic population (n=10,437; 2.4% vs. 1.8%, p=0.007). When applied to GetCheckedOnline, the CPR had reasonable calibration (H-L p=0.90) and discrimination (AUC=0.64). By screening only individuals with total risk scores ≥4, we would detect 97% of infections and reduce screening by 14%. CONCLUSIONS: The application of an existing CPR to detect asymptomatic CT/NG infection is valid within an internet-based STI testing environment. CPRs applied online can reduce unnecessary STI testing and optimize resource allocation within publicly-funded health systems.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327556

RESUMO

We examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and concomitant restrictions (i.e., lockdown) on 24-hour movement behaviors (i.e., physical activity, sitting, sleep) in a purposive sample of people (n = 3230) reporting change recruited online. Participants' self-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), walking, sitting and sleep prior to lockdown (T1), during the first national lockdown (T2) and as restrictions initially started to ease (T3). For each 24-hour movement behavior, category-shifts are reported (positive, negative or did not change), as well as the percentage of participants recording positive/negative changes across clusters of behaviors and the percentage of participants recording improvement or maintenance of change across time. From T1 to T2 walking decreased, whereas MVPA, sitting and sleep increased, from T2 to T3 levels returned to pre-lockdown for all but MVPA. Participants who changed one behavior positively were more likely to report a positive change in another and 50% of those who reported positive changes from T1 to T2 maintained or improved further when restrictions started to ease. The current study showed that a large proportion of the sample reported positive changes, most notably those displaying initially poor levels of each behavior. These findings will inform salutogenic intervention development.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia , Postura Sentada , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Viral Hepat ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215781

RESUMO

The ease of Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) medications for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has provided an opportunity to decentralise HCV treatment into community settings. However, the role of non-specialist clinicians in community-based pathways has received scant attention to date. This study examined barriers and enablers to expanding the role of General Practitioners (GPs) in HCV treatment provision, using simple behaviour change theory as a conceptual framework. A maximum variation sample of 22 HCV treatment providers, GPs and HCV support workers participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were inductively coded, and the resulting codes deductively mapped into three principal components of behaviour change: capability, opportunity, and motivation (COM-B). By this process, a number of provider- and systemic-level barriers and enablers were identified. Key barriers included the pre-treatment assessment of liver fibrosis, GP capacity and the 'speciality' of HCV care. Enablers included the simplicity of the drugs, existing GP/patient relationships, and the provision of holistic care. In addition to these specific factors, the data also exposed an overarching provider understanding of 'HCV treatment' as triumvirate in nature, incorporating the assessment of liver fibrosis, the provision of holistic support, and the treatment of disease. This understanding imposes a further fundamental barrier to GP-led treatment as each of these three components need to be individually addressed. To enable sustainable models of HCV treatment provision by GPs, a pragmatic re-examination of the 'HCV treatment triumvirate' is required, and a paradigm shift from the 'refer and treat' status quo.

5.
Int J Drug Policy ; 88: 103033, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing HIV outbreak amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) in Glasgow, Scotland, and one response which has not yet been widely implemented is the provision of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PrEP is the use of HIV anti-retrovirals prior to HIV infection to provide a barrier to infection. This has been shown to be effective amongst various at-risk populations in preventing HIV spread. The present study aimed to explore views of PWID who might benefit from PrEP provision and Service Providers working with PWID to understand will to use PrEP and literacy of PrEP, contributing to the development of a PrEP service. METHODS: A qualitative approach was taken, with semi structured interviews conducted in Glasgow at two third sector service sites. 11 Service Providers and 21 PWID participated in the study. Data was analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants, both PWID and Service Providers, were keen to engage with PrEP and perceived substantial potential benefits of PrEP for this population. Potential barriers to engagement were identified as a lack of health literacy, motivation, and self-ascribed risk, as well as the overwhelming unpredictability of substance use. Participants wanted PrEP to be provided within already existing structures, particularly community pharmacies, and for promotion and provision to involve peers. CONCLUSION: This sample reported willingness to engage with PrEP, and suggested there is a specific need amongst PWID for PrEP. However, PWID have specific lived experienced contexts and needs, and are burdened by social and economic marginalisation and inequality at every level. This contrasts them from other populations currently being provided with PrEP, and must be considered in the development of provision.

6.
Lancet HIV ; 7(12): e801-e802, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039008
7.
Br J Health Psychol ; 25(4): 1039-1054, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Development of a vaccine against COVID-19 will be key to controlling the pandemic. We need to understand the barriers and facilitators to receiving a future COVID-19 vaccine so that we can provide recommendations for the design of interventions aimed at maximizing public acceptance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional UK survey with older adults and patients with chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: During the UK's early April 2020 'lockdown' period, 527 participants (311 older adults, mean age = 70.4 years; 216 chronic respiratory participants, mean age = 43.8 years) completed an online questionnaire assessing willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, perceptions of COVID-19, and intention to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. A free text response (n = 502) examined barriers and facilitators to uptake. The Behaviour Change Wheel informed the analysis of these responses, which were coded to the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified. RESULTS: Eighty-six per cent of respondents want to receive a COVID-19 vaccine. This was positively correlated with the perception that COVID-19 will persist over time, and negatively associated with perceiving the media to have over-exaggerated the risk. The majority of barriers and facilitators were mapped onto the 'beliefs about consequences' TDF domain, with themes relating to personal health, health consequences to others, concerns of vaccine safety, and severity of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccination is currently high among high-risk individuals. Mass media interventions aimed at maximizing vaccine uptake should utilize the BCTs of information about health, emotional, social and environmental consequences, and salience of consequences.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Vacinação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vacinas Virais
8.
Health (London) ; : 1363459320954237, 2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951461

RESUMO

Mass media and communication interventions can play a role in increasing HIV testing among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Despite the key role of social marketing principles and visual design within intervention development of this type, evidence is limited regarding interventions' social marketing mix or visual design. As part of a systematic review, intervention content was assessed using social marketing theory and social semiotics. Data were extracted on the nature of the intervention, mode of delivery, use of imagery, content and tone and the eight key characteristics of social marketing. Data were synthesised narratively. Across the 19 included studies, reference to social marketing principles was often superficial. Common design features were identified across the interventions, regardless of effectiveness, including: the use of actors inferred to be GBMSM; use of 'naked' and sexually explicit imagery; and the use of text framed as statements or instructions. Our results suggest that effective interventions tended to use multiple modes of delivery, indicating high social marketing complexity. However, this is only part of intervention development, and social marketing principles are key to driving the development process. We identified consistent aspects of intervention design, but were unable to determine whether this is based on evidence of effectiveness or a lack of originality in intervention design. An openness to novel ideas in design and delivery is key to ensuring that evidence-informed interventions are effective for target populations.

9.
Br J Health Psychol ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Increasing appropriate HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) is crucial to HIV prevention. Mass media interventions are effective in promoting testing, but to date, there has been little examination of their active content. DESIGN: We conducted a qualitative analysis of intervention materials (n = 69) derived from a systematic review of mass media interventions designed to improve testing with MSM. METHODS: Visual data were analysed for their affective and ideological content using a novel method drawing on concepts from semiotics (i.e., broadly speaking, the analysis of signs). RESULTS: Whilst affect was not explicitly theorized or examined in any of the studies, there are clearly identifiable affective elements implicitly at play in these interventions. Four thematic categories of affect/ideology were identified including (1) sexual desire and the 'pornographication' of the gay/bisexual male subject; (2) narratives of romance and love; (3) fear, threat, and regret; and (4) 'flattened' affect. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine and detail the affective and ideological aspects of intervention content in this field. Using analytic techniques such as those reported here, in addition to approaches that focus on the manner in which intervention content address more proximal determinants of behaviour, can provide a rich and potentially more useful evidence base to assist with future interventions.

10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 99, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) describes activities concerned with safe-guarding antibiotics for the future, reducing drivers for the major global public health threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), whereby antibiotics are less effective in preventing and treating infections. Appropriate antibiotic prescribing is central to AMS. Whilst previous studies have explored the effectiveness of specific AMS interventions, largely from uni-professional perspectives, our literature search could not find any existing evidence evaluating the processes of implementing an integrated national AMS programme from multi-professional perspectives. METHODS: This study sought to explain mechanisms affecting the implementation of a national antimicrobial stewardship programme, from multi-professional perspectives. Data collection involved in-depth qualitative telephone interviews with 27 implementation lead clinicians from 14/15 Scottish Health Boards and 15 focus groups with doctors, nurses and clinical pharmacists (n = 72) from five Health Boards, purposively selected for reported prescribing variation. Data was first thematically analysed, barriers and enablers were then categorised, and Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used as an interpretive lens to explain mechanisms affecting the implementation process. Analysis addressed the NPT questions 'which group of actors have which problems, in which domains, and what sort of problems impact on the normalisation of AMS into everyday hospital practice'. RESULTS: Results indicated that major barriers relate to organisational context and resource availability. AMS had coherence for implementation leads and prescribing doctors; less so for consultants and nurses who may not access training. Conflicting priorities made obtaining buy-in from some consultants difficult; limited role perceptions meant few nurses or clinical pharmacists engaged with AMS. Collective individual and team action to implement AMS could be constrained by lack of medical continuity and hierarchical relationships. Reflexive monitoring based on audit results was limited by the capacity of AMS Leads to provide direct feedback to practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides original evidence of barriers and enablers to the implementation of a national AMS programme, from multi-professional, multi-organisational perspectives. The use of a robust theoretical framework (NPT) added methodological rigour to the findings. Our results are of international significance to healthcare policy makers and practitioners seeking to strengthen the sustainable implementation of hospital AMS programmes in comparable contexts.

11.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(5): 349-354, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532928

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: UK Black African/Black Caribbean women remain disproportionately affected by HIV. Although oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could offer them an effective HIV prevention method, uptake remains limited. This study examined barriers and facilitators to PrEP awareness and candidacy perceptions for Black African/Black Caribbean women to help inform PrEP programmes and service development. METHODS: Using purposive sampling through community organisations, 32 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Black African/Black Caribbean women living in London and Glasgow between June and August 2018. Participants (aged 19-63) included women of varied HIV statuses to explore perceptions of sexual risk and safer sex, sexual health knowledge and PrEP attitudes. A thematic analysis guided by the Social Ecological Model was used to explore how PrEP perceptions intersected with wider safer sex understandings and practices. RESULTS: Four key levels of influence shaping safer sex notions and PrEP candidacy perceptions emerged: personal, interpersonal, perceived environment and policy. PrEP-specific knowledge was low and some expressed distrust in PrEP. Many women were enthusiastic about PrEP for others but did not situate PrEP within their own safer sex understandings, sometimes due to difficulty assessing their own HIV risk. Many felt that PrEP could undermine intimacy in their relationships by disrupting the shared responsibility implicit within other HIV prevention methods. Women described extensive interpersonal networks that supported their sexual health knowledge and shaped their interactions with health services, though these networks were influenced by prevailing community stigmas. CONCLUSIONS: Difficulty situating PrEP within existing safer sex beliefs contributes to limited perceptions of personal PrEP candidacy. To increase PrEP uptake in UK Black African/Black Caribbean women, interventions will need to enable women to advance their knowledge of PrEP within the broader context of their sexual health and relationships. PrEP service models will need to include trusted 'non-sexual health-specific' community services such as general practice.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adulto , Região do Caribe , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Sexo Seguro , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sociol Health Illn ; 42(6): 1394-1408, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449529

RESUMO

Increased public engagement is a feature of policy and communications focussed on the reduction of antimicrobial resistance. Explaining antimicrobial resistance for general publics has proven difficult and they continue to endorse apparently mistaken knowledge, including the conflation of antimicrobial resistance with the notion of the resistant body. We interviewed members of the general public in Melbourne, Australia, to explore explanatory models for antimicrobial resistance and shed light on the persistence of the resistant body assumption and related concepts. In the face of AMR's complexity and the portended antibiotic apocalypse, publics rely on a heavily inscribed understanding of the body defending itself against microbes. Publics also read antibiotic misuse and overuse messages as the responsibility of other patients and medical practitioners, and not themselves. Significantly, the scientific world view that has created expert knowledge about AMR hails publics in ways that discredits them and limits their capacity to take action. Increased engagement with publics will be required to ensure that collaborative and sustainable AMR approaches are fashioned for the future.

13.
Soc Sci Med ; 256: 113032, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447174

RESUMO

News media can be an important source of information about emerging health threats. They are also significant sites for the production of narrative on threats to life that help to condition and reflect the responses of governments and publics. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one such health threat with particular significance because it represents the failure to manage the risks to antibiotics and other antimicrobials, health technologies that have provided the basis for modern medicine. Knowledge of how news media address this situation is an important element for an effective public health response to AMR and helps to extend the social analysis of health and media. Based on an analysis of television, printed and digital news for 2017 in Australia, this paper examines the patterns and meanings of AMR news. It shows that AMR is a fragmented story mainly framed by scientific discovery. These stories reassure audiences that science is seeking out the means of arresting AMR and, therefore, also constructs lay publics as passive witnesses to the AMR story. This pattern of AMR story-telling furthers the social standing of science and scientists, but it also neglects deliberation on collective action, important lacunae in the social response to AMR.

14.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034806, 2020 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229523

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Partner notification (PN) is a process aiming to identify, test and treat the sex partners of people (index patients) with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a PN method whereby healthcare professionals assess sex partners, by telephone consultation, before giving the index patient antibiotics and STI self-sampling kits to deliver to their sex partner(s). The Limiting Undetected Sexually Transmitted infections to RedUce Morbidity programme aims to determine the effectiveness of APT in heterosexual women and men with chlamydia and determine whether APT could affect Chlamydia trachomatis transmission at population level. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes a cross-over cluster randomised controlled trial of APT, offered as an additional PN method, compared with standard PN. The trial is accompanied by an economic evaluation, transmission dynamic modelling and a qualitative process evaluation involving patients, partners and healthcare professionals. Clusters are 17 sexual health clinics in areas of England and Scotland with contrasting patient demographics. We will recruit 5440 heterosexual women and men with chlamydia, aged ≥16 years.The primary outcome is the proportion of index patients testing positive for C. trachomatis 12-16 weeks after the PN consultation. Secondary outcomes include: proportion of sex partners treated; cost effectiveness; model-predicted chlamydia prevalence; experiences of APT.The primary outcome analysis will be by intention-to-treat, fitting random effects logistic regression models that account for clustering of index patients within clinics and trial periods. The transmission dynamic model will be used to predict change in chlamydia prevalence following APT. The economic evaluation will use mathematical modelling outputs, taking a health service perspective. Qualitative data will be analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis and framework analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol received ethical approval from London-Chelsea Research Ethics Committee (18/LO/0773). Findings will be published with open access licences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN15996256.

15.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118515

RESUMO

Good sexual health requires navigating intimate relationships within diverse power dynamics and sexual cultures, coupled with the complexities of increasing biomedicalisation of sexual health. Understanding this is important for the implementation of biomedical HIV prevention. We propose a socially nuanced conceptual framework for sexual health literacy developed through a consensus building workshop with experts in the field. We use rigorous qualitative data analysis to illustrate the functionality of the framework by reference to two complementary studies. The first collected data from five focus groups (FGs) in 2012 (n = 22), with gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men aged 18-75 years and 20 in-depth interviews in 2013 with men aged 19-60 years. The second included 12 FGs in 2014/15 with 55 patients/service providers involved in the use/implementation of HIV self-testing or HIV prevention/care. Sexual health literacy goes well beyond individual health literacy and is enabled through complex community practices and multi-sectoral services. It is affected by emerging (and older) technologies and demands tailored approaches for specific groups and needs. The framework serves as a starting point for how sexual health literacy should be understood in the evaluation of sustainable and equitable implementation of biomedical sexual healthcare and prevention internationally.

16.
Disabil Rehabil ; 42(4): 510-518, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299176

RESUMO

Purpose: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is effective in improving walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) with foot drop. There is limited research exploring people's experiences of using this device. This study aims to explore the utility, efficacy, acceptability, and impact on daily life of the device in people with MS.Methods: An interpretative phenomenological approach was employed. Ten participants who had used FES for 12 months were interviewed. Transcripts were analysed, and emergent themes identified.Results: Nine participants continued to use the device. Three relevant super-ordinate themes were identified; impact of functional electrical stimulation, sticking with functional electrical stimulation, and autonomy and control. Participants reported challenges using the device; however, all reported positive physical and psychological benefits. Intrinsic and external influences such as; access to professional help, the influence of others, an individual's ability to adapt, and experiences using the device, influenced their decisions to continue with the device. A thematic model of these factors was developed.Conclusions: This study has contributed to our understanding of people with MS experiences of using the device and will help inform prescribing decisions and support the continued, appropriate use of FES over the longer term.Implications for RehabilitationPeople with multiple sclerosis using functional electrical stimulation report benefits in many aspects of walking, improved psychological well-being and increased engagement in valued activities.A number of challenges impact on functional electrical stimulation use. Factors such as; a positive experience using the device, access to professional help, the influence of others, a strong sense of personal autonomy and an individual's ability to adapt, influence an individual's decision to continue using functional electrical stimulation.Clinicians prescribing functional electrical stimulation should be aware of these factors so that the right support and guidance can be provided to people with multiple sclerosis, thus improving outcomes and compliance over the long term.

17.
SSM Popul Health ; 10: 100519, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853476

RESUMO

Globally, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) experience an increased burden of poor sexual, mental and physical health. Syndemics theory provides a framework to understand comorbidities and health among marginalised populations. Syndemics theory attempts to account for the social, environmental, and other structural contexts that are driving and/or sustaining simultaneous multiple negative health outcomes, but has been widely critiqued. In this paper, we conceptualise a new framework to counter syndemics by assessing the key theoretical mechanisms by which pathogenic social context variables relate to ill-health. Subsequently, we examine how salutogenic, assets-based approaches to health improvement could function among GBMSM across diverse national contexts. Comparative quantitative secondary analysis of data on syndemics and community assets are presented from two international, online, cross-sectional surveys of GBMSM (SMMASH2 in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and Sex Now in Canada). Negative sexual, mental and physical health outcomes were clustered as hypothesised, providing evidence of the syndemic. We found that syndemic ill-health was associated with social isolation and the experience of stigma and discrimination, but this varied across national contexts. Moreover, while some of our measures of community assets appeared to have a protective effect on syndemic ill-health, others did not. These results present an important step forward in our understanding of syndemic ill-health and provide new insights into how to intervene to reduce it. They point to a theoretical mechanism through which salutogenic approaches to health improvement could function and provide new strategies for working with communities to understand the proposed processes of change that are required. To move forward, we suggest conceptualising syndemics within a complex adaptive systems model, which enables consideration of the development, sustainment and resilience to syndemics both within individuals and at the population-level.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029538, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551376

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second largest contributor to liver disease in the UK, with injecting drug use as the main risk factor among the estimated 200 000 people currently infected. Despite effective prevention interventions, chronic HCV prevalence remains around 40% among people who inject drugs (PWID). New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) HCV therapies combine high cure rates (>90%) and short treatment duration (8 to 12 weeks). Theoretical mathematical modelling evidence suggests HCV treatment scale-up can prevent transmission and substantially reduce HCV prevalence/incidence among PWID. Our primary aim is to generate empirical evidence on the effectiveness of HCV 'Treatment as Prevention' (TasP) in PWID. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We plan to establish a natural experiment with Tayside, Scotland, as a single intervention site where HCV care pathways are being expanded (including specialist drug treatment clinics, needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), pharmacies and prison) and HCV treatment for PWID is being rapidly scaled-up. Other sites in Scotland and England will act as potential controls. Over 2 years from 2017/2018, at least 500 PWID will be treated in Tayside, which simulation studies project will reduce chronic HCV prevalence among PWID by 62% (from 26% to 10%) and HCV incidence will fall by approximately 2/3 (from 4.2 per 100 person-years (p100py) to 1.4 p100py). Treatment response and re-infection rates will be monitored. We will conduct focus groups and interviews with service providers and patients that accept and decline treatment to identify barriers and facilitators in implementing TasP. We will conduct longitudinal interviews with up to 40 PWID to assess whether successful HCV treatment alters their perspectives on and engagement with drug treatment and recovery. Trained peer researchers will be involved in data collection and dissemination. The primary outcome - chronic HCV prevalence in PWID - is measured using information from the Needle Exchange Surveillance Initiative survey in Scotland and the Unlinked Anonymous Monitoring Programme in England, conducted at least four times before and three times during and after the intervention. We will adapt Bayesian synthetic control methods (specifically the Causal Impact Method) to generate the cumulative impact of the intervention on chronic HCV prevalence and incidence. We will use a dynamic HCV transmission and economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the HCV TasP intervention, and to estimate the contribution of the scale-up in HCV treatment to observe changes in HCV prevalence. Through the qualitative data we will systematically explore key mechanisms of TasP real world implementation from provider and patient perspectives to develop a manual for scaling up HCV treatment in other settings. We will compare qualitative accounts of drug treatment and recovery with a 'virtual cohort' of PWID linking information on HCV treatment with Scottish Drug treatment databases to test whether DAA treatment improves drug treatment outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Extending HCV community care pathways is covered by ethics (ERADICATE C, ISRCTN27564683, Super DOT C Trial clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02706223). Ethical approval for extra data collection from patients including health utilities and qualitative interviews has been granted (REC ref: 18/ES/0128) and ISCRCTN registration has been completed (ISRCTN72038467). Our findings will have direct National Health Service and patient relevance; informing prioritisation given to early HCV treatment for PWID. We will present findings to practitioners and policymakers, and support design of an evaluation of HCV TasP in England.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Redução do Dano/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/etiologia , Hepatite C Crônica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escócia/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
19.
Br J Health Psychol ; 24(3): 704-737, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267624

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mass media HIV testing interventions are effective in increasing testing, but there has been no examination of their theory or behaviour change technique (BCT) content. Within a heterogeneous body of studies with weak evaluative designs and differing outcomes, we attempted to gain useful knowledge to shape future interventions. METHODS: Within a systematic review, following repeated requests to the authors of included studies for intervention materials, the Theory Coding Scheme, the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), and Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy (BCTT) were used to extract data relating to active intervention content. RESULTS: Of 19 studies, five reported an explicit theoretical basis to their intervention. TDF analysis highlighted the key domains employed within the majority of interventions: 'knowledge', 'social roles and identities', and 'beliefs about consequences'. BCT analysis showed three BCT groupings commonly reported within interventions: 'Comparison of outcomes', 'Natural consequences', and 'Shaping knowledge'. Three individual BCTs formed the backbone of most interventions and can be considered 'standard' content: 'Instructions on how to perform behaviour'; 'Credible source'; and 'Information about health consequences'. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine and detail active intervention content in this field. It suggests future interventions should improve knowledge about testing, and use well-branded and trusted sources that endorse testing. Future interventions should also provide clear information about the health benefits of testing. Our analysis also suggests that to improve levels of effectiveness characterizing the current field, it may be useful to elicit commitment, and action plans, relating to how to implement testing intentions. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Interventions are urgently needed to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) and enable increased access to effective treatment for HIV infection. There is some evidence of the effectiveness of mass media interventions in increasing HIV testing among MSM. Nothing is known about the active components of existing mass media interventions targeting HIV testing. What does this study add? It describes the available literature concerning evaluated mass media interventions to increase HIV testing. It shows few interventions report any explicit theoretical basis although many interventions share common components, including coherently connected causal mechanisms and behaviour change techniques to moderate them. As a minimum, future interventions should improve knowledge about testing; use well-branded and trusted sources that endorse testing; and provide clear information about the health benefits of testing. Our analysis also tentatively suggests it may be useful to elicit commitment and planning of how to implement testing intentions.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Programas de Rastreamento , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 351-357, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite a recent fall in the incidence of HIV within the UK, men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected. As biomedical prevention technologies including pre-exposure prophylaxis are increasingly taken up to reduce transmission, the role of HIV testing has become central to the management of risk. Against a background of lower testing rates among older MSM, this study aimed to identify age-related factors influencing recent (≤12 months) HIV testing. METHODS: Cross-sectional subpopulation data from an online survey of sexually active MSM in the Celtic nations-Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and Ireland (n=2436)-were analysed to compare demographic, behavioural and sociocultural factors influencing HIV testing between MSM aged 16-25 (n=447), 26-45 (n=1092) and ≥46 (n=897). RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that for men aged ≥46, not identifying as gay (OR 0.62, CI 0.41 to 0.95), location (Wales) (OR 0.49, CI 0.32 to 0.76) and scoring higher on the personalised Stigma Scale (OR 0.97, CI 0.94 to 1.00) significantly reduced the odds for HIV testing in the preceding year. Men aged 26-45 who did not identify as gay (OR 0.61, CI 0.41 to 0.92) were also significantly less likely to have recently tested for HIV. For men aged 16-25, not having a degree (OR 0.48, CI 0.29 to 0.79), location (Republic of Ireland) (OR 0.55, CI 0.30 to 1.00) and scoring higher on emotional competence (OR 0.57, CI 0.42 to 0.77) were also significantly associated with not having recently tested for HIV. CONCLUSION: Key differences in age-related factors influencing HIV testing suggest health improvement interventions should accommodate the wide diversities among MSM populations across the life course. Future research should seek to identify barriers and enablers to HIV testing among the oldest and youngest MSM, with specific focus on education and stigma.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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