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1.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1146-1153, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e013148, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422733

RESUMO

Background Low socioeconomic status and poor medication adherence are known to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality among patients with hypertension, but their combined effects have not been studied. We therefore evaluated the joint association of household income and medication adherence with death and cardiovascular disease in patients newly treated for hypertension. Methods and Results This was a nationwide cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance database. We included 1 651 564 individuals, aged 30 to 80 years, with newly treated hypertension and no prior cardiovascular disease and followed them for 10 years. Main exposures were household income in quintiles and adherence to antihypertensive medication, estimated by medication possession ratio: good (≥0.8), moderate (0.5 to <0.8), or poor (<0.5). The primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Higher mortality risk was observed in patients with low income (adjusted hazard ratio=1.50, 99% CI=1.46-1.53; lowest versus highest quintile) and poor medication adherence (adjusted hazard ratio=1.66, 99% CI=1.63-1.68; poor versus good adherence). When compared with the highest-income and good-adherence group, adjusted hazard ratio (99% CI) of death was 1.56 (1.52-1.61) for highest-income poor-adherers, 1.46 (1.41-1.51) for lowest-income good-adherers, and 2.46 (2.38-2.54) for lowest-income poor-adherers (P for interaction <0.001). Conclusions Low socioeconomic status and poor adherence to antihypertensive medication are associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular disease risks, but patients with low income are subject to larger excess risks by nonadherence. This highlights the potential importance of promoting medication adherence for risk reduction, especially in low-income patients with hypertension.

3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(8): 1444-1456, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare incident dementia risk among patients who initiated treatment with metformin or sulfonylurea in Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) patients with replication in Kaiser Permanente Washington (KPW) patients to determine whether first-choice antidiabetic medications are associated with reduced risk of dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohorts contained 75,187 VHA patients and 10,866 KPW patients, 50 years and older, who initiated monotherapy with metformin or sulfonylurea. Patients were free of dementia diagnoses and any diabetes treatment for 2 years before cohort entry. Variables were extracted from electronic health data from VHA (1999-2015) and KPW (1996-2015), which included diagnosis codes, pharmacy data, laboratory values, and demographic characteristics. Propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting controlled for confounding. RESULTS: Veterans Health Affairs patients were 60.8±6.8 years of age on average, and KPW patients were 63.1±9.5 years of age. In the VHA sample, 72,769 (96.8%) were male; and in the KPW sample, 5480 (50.4%). After adjusting for confounding, metformin initiation was associated with a significantly (P=.02) lower risk of dementia in VHA (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.9-1.0), with a similar point estimate in KPW (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.1). Metformin was not associated with dementia risk in patients 75 years and older. CONCLUSION: Existing epidemiological studies of metformin and incident dementia have been inconsistent. Using a similar study design in 2 patient populations that differed in clinical and demographic characteristics, our results provide robust evidence that metformin use is associated with a modestly lower risk of incident dementia.

4.
Circulation ; 140(8): 645-657, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD), but current evidence is based on small, cross-sectional studies. We examined blood DNA methylation in relation to incident CHD across multiple prospective cohorts. METHODS: Nine population-based cohorts from the United States and Europe profiled epigenome-wide blood leukocyte DNA methylation using the Illumina Infinium 450k microarray, and prospectively ascertained CHD events including coronary insufficiency/unstable angina, recognized myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and coronary death. Cohorts conducted race-specific analyses adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education, body mass index, blood cell type proportions, and technical variables. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses across cohorts. RESULTS: Among 11 461 individuals (mean age 64 years, 67% women, 35% African American) free of CHD at baseline, 1895 developed CHD during a mean follow-up of 11.2 years. Methylation levels at 52 CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) sites were associated with incident CHD or myocardial infarction (false discovery rate<0.05). These CpGs map to genes with key roles in calcium regulation (ATP2B2, CASR, GUCA1B, HPCAL1), and genes identified in genome- and epigenome-wide studies of serum calcium (CASR), serum calcium-related risk of CHD (CASR), coronary artery calcified plaque (PTPRN2), and kidney function (CDH23, HPCAL1), among others. Mendelian randomization analyses supported a causal effect of DNA methylation on incident CHD; these CpGs map to active regulatory regions proximal to long non-coding RNA transcripts. CONCLUSION: Methylation of blood-derived DNA is associated with risk of future CHD across diverse populations and may serve as an informative tool for gaining further insight on the development of CHD.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012200, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379242

RESUMO

Background We tested associations of cardiac biomarkers of myocardial stretch, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis with the risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a prospective study of chronic kidney disease patients. Methods and Results The study sample was 3053 participants with chronic kidney disease in the multicenter CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) study who were not identified as having AF at baseline. Cardiac biomarkers, measured at baseline, were NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T, galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15, and soluble ST-2. Incident AF ("AF event") was defined as a hospitalization for AF. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 279 (9%) participants developed a new AF event. In adjusted models, higher baseline log-transformed NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) was associated with incident AF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD higher concentration: 2.11; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.55), as was log-high-sensitivity troponin T (HR 1.42; 95% CI, 1.20, 1.68). These associations showed a dose-response relationship in categorical analyses. Although log-soluble ST-2 was associated with AF risk in continuous models (HR per SD higher concentration 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.58), this association was not consistent in categorical analyses. Log-galectin-3 (HR 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91, 1.22) and log-growth differentiation factor-15 (HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96, 1.40) were not significantly associated with incident AF. Conclusions We found strong associations between higher NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and high-sensitivity troponin T concentrations, and the risk of incident AF in a large cohort of participants with chronic kidney disease. Increased atrial myocardial stretch and myocardial cell injury may be implicated in the high burden of AF in patients with chronic kidney disease.

6.
Ann Fam Med ; 17(4): 352-362, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285213

RESUMO

PURPOSE: African American patients are more likely to experience cognitive decline after type 2 diabetes mellitus onset than white patients. Metformin use has been associated with a lower risk of dementia compared with sulfonylureas. Evidence for whether this association differs by race is sparse. METHODS: Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical record data were obtained for 73,761 African American and white patients aged ≥50 years who used the VHA from fiscal years 2000 to 2015. Patients were free of dementia and diabetes medications during fiscal years 2000 and 2001 and subsequently initiated metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy. For race and age subgroups, Cox proportional hazards models using propensity scores and inverse probability of treatment weighting to control for confounding were computed to measure the association between metformin vs sulfonylurea initiation and incident dementia. RESULTS: After controlling for confounding, among patients aged ≥50 years, metformin vs sulfonylurea use was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia in African American patients (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.6-0.89) but not white patients (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.9-1.03). The strongest magnitude of association between metformin and dementia was observed among African American patients aged 50 to 64 years (HR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.45-0.81). Among those aged 65 to 74 years, metformin was significantly associated with lower risk of dementia in both races. Metformin was not associated with dementia in patients aged ≥75 years. CONCLUSIONS: Metformin vs sulfonylurea initiation was associated with a substantially lower risk of dementia among younger African American patients. These results may point to a novel approach for reducing the risk of dementia in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(6): 1353-1361, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220337

RESUMO

Statins can be associated with myopathy. We have undertaken a genomewide association study (GWAS) to discover and validate genetic risk factors for statin-induced myopathy in a "real-world" setting. One hundred thirty-five patients with statin myopathy recruited via the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink were genotyped using the Illumina OmniExpress Exome version 1.0 Bead Chip and compared with the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium (n = 2,501). Nominally statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signals in the GWAS (P < 5 × 10-5 ) were further evaluated in several independent cohorts (comprising 332 cases and 449 drug-tolerant controls). Only one (rs4149056/c.521C>T in the SLCO1B1 gene) SNP was genomewide significant in the severe myopathy (creatine kinase > 10 × upper limit of normal or rhabdomyolysis) group (P = 2.55 × 10-9 ; odds ratio 5.15; 95% confidence interval 3.13-8.45). The association with SLCO1B1 was present for several statins and replicated in the independent validation cohorts. The data highlight the role of SLCO1B1 c.521C>T SNP as a replicable genetic risk factor for statin myopathy. No other novel genetic risk factors with a similar effect size were identified.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218115, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242253

RESUMO

AIMS: Statin-related myopathy (SRM), which includes rhabdomyolysis, is an uncommon but important adverse drug reaction because the number of people prescribed statins world-wide is large. Previous association studies of common genetic variants have had limited success in identifying a genetic basis for this adverse drug reaction. We conducted a multi-site whole-exome sequencing study to investigate whether rare coding variants confer an increased risk of SRM. METHODS AND RESULTS: SRM 3-5 cases (N = 505) and statin treatment-tolerant controls (N = 2047) were recruited from multiple sites in North America and Europe. SRM 3-5 was defined as symptoms consistent with muscle injury and an elevated creatine phosphokinase level >4 times upper limit of normal without another likely cause of muscle injury. Whole-exome sequencing and variant calling was coordinated from two analysis centres, and results of single-variant and gene-based burden tests were meta-analysed. No genome-wide significant associations were identified. Given the large number of cases, we had 80% power to identify a variant with minor allele frequency of 0.01 that increases the risk of SRM 6-fold at genome-wide significance. CONCLUSIONS: In this large whole-exome sequencing study of severe statin-related muscle injury conducted to date, we did not find evidence that rare coding variants are responsible for this adverse drug reaction. Larger sample sizes would be required to identify rare variants with small effects, but it is unclear whether such findings would be clinically actionable.

9.
Nature ; 570(7759): 71-76, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118516

RESUMO

Protein-coding genetic variants that strongly affect disease risk can yield relevant clues to disease pathogenesis. Here we report exome-sequencing analyses of 20,791 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 24,440 non-diabetic control participants from 5 ancestries. We identify gene-level associations of rare variants (with minor allele frequencies of less than 0.5%) in 4 genes at exome-wide significance, including a series of more than 30 SLC30A8 alleles that conveys protection against T2D, and in 12 gene sets, including those corresponding to T2D drug targets (P = 6.1 × 10-3) and candidate genes from knockout mice (P = 5.2 × 10-3). Within our study, the strongest T2D gene-level signals for rare variants explain at most 25% of the heritability of the strongest common single-variant signals, and the gene-level effect sizes of the rare variants that we observed in established T2D drug targets will require 75,000-185,000 sequenced cases to achieve exome-wide significance. We propose a method to interpret these modest rare-variant associations and to incorporate these associations into future target or gene prioritization efforts.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Exoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
10.
J Electrocardiol ; 51(6): 997-1002, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patch electrocardiographic (ECG) monitors permit extended noninvasive ambulatory monitoring. To guide use of these devices, information is needed about their performance. We sought to determine in a large general population sample the acceptability of patch ECG monitors, the yield of arrhythmia detection, and the consistency of findings in participants monitored twice. METHODS: In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 1122 participants completed one or two monitoring episodes using the Zio Patch XT, a single-channel ECG patch monitor capable of recording for 14 days. Recordings were analyzed for atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter, atrioventricular block, pauses, and supraventricular and ventricular ectopy. RESULTS: The mean(SD) age at the time of monitoring was 75(8) years, 52% were men, and 15% had a prior history of clinically-recognized AF/flutter. The median monitoring duration was 13.8 days. Among 804 participants with no prior clinical history of AF/flutter and at least 12 days of monitoring on a single device, AF/flutter was detected in 32 (4.0%); in 38% of these, AF/flutter was first detected during days 3 through 12 of monitoring. In participants monitored twice, findings from the two devices showed excellent agreement for supraventricular and ventricular ectopic beats per hour, but only fair agreement for high-grade atrioventricular block and pauses of >3 s duration. CONCLUSIONS: In a general population of older individuals, new diagnoses of AF/flutter were made in 4.0% of participants without a prior history. A single monitoring episode accurately estimated rates of supraventricular and ventricular ectopy.

11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(11): 1093-1103, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244297

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the association between diabetes and colon cancer recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study at two integrated health care delivery systems in the United States. Using tumor registry data, we identified patients aged ≥ 18 years when diagnosed with stage I-IIIA adenocarcinomas of the colon during 1995-2014. Pre-existing diabetes was ascertained via diagnosis codes. Medical records were reviewed for eligibility and to abstract recurrence and covariate information. Recurrence was ascertained beginning 90 days after the end of colon cancer treatment (i.e., cohort entry). Recurrence of any cancer or a new primary cancer at any site was a secondary outcome. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between diabetes at cohort entry and study outcomes. RESULTS: Among the 1,923 eligible patients, 393 (16.7%) had diabetes at cohort entry. Diabetes was not associated with recurrence (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.56-1.33) or with any subsequent cancer (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.85-1.40). When the definition of recurrence included second primary colorectal cancer, risk was non-significantly higher in patients with diabetes than without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of colon cancer recurrence appears to be similar in patients with and without diabetes at diagnosis. IMPACT: Future studies should evaluate the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer outcomes, especially second primary colon cancers, in larger populations.

12.
Am J Hematol ; 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905378

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) traits provide insight into a wide range of physiological states and exhibit moderate to high heritability, making them excellent candidates for genetic studies to inform underlying biologic mechanisms. Previous RBC trait genome-wide association studies were performed primarily in European- or Asian-ancestry populations, missing opportunities to inform understanding of RBC genetic architecture in diverse populations and reduce intervals surrounding putative functional SNPs through fine-mapping. Here, we report the first fine-mapping of six correlated (Pearson's r range: |0.04 - 0.92|) RBC traits in up to 19,036 African Americans and 19,562 Hispanic/Latinos participants of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of race/ethnic- and study-specific estimates for approximately 11,000 SNPs flanking 13 previously identified association signals as well as 150,000 additional array-wide SNPs was performed using inverse-variance meta-analysis after adjusting for study and clinical covariates. Approximately half of previously reported index SNP-RBC trait associations generalized to the trans-ethnic study population (p<1.7x10-4 ); previously unreported independent association signals within the ABO region reinforce the potential for multiple functional variants affecting the same locus. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping did not reveal additional signals at the HFE locus independent of the known functional variants. Finally, we identified a potential novel association in the Hispanic/Latino study population at the HECTD4/RPL6 locus for RBC count (p=1.9x10-7 ). The identification of a previously unknown association, generalization of a large proportion of known association signals, and refinement of known association signals all exemplify the benefits of genetic studies in diverse populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855607

RESUMO

We evaluated interactions of SNP-by-ACE-I/ARB and SNP-by-TD on serum potassium (K+) among users of antihypertensive treatments (anti-HTN). Our study included seven European-ancestry (EA) (N = 4835) and four African-ancestry (AA) cohorts (N = 2016). We performed race-stratified, fixed-effect, inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses of 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates; race-combined meta-analysis; and trans-ethnic fine-mapping. Among EAs, we identified 11 significant SNPs (P < 5 × 10-8) for SNP-ACE-I/ARB interactions on serum K+ that were located between NR2F1-AS1 and ARRDC3-AS1 on chromosome 5 (top SNP rs6878413 P = 1.7 × 10-8; ratio of serum K+ in ACE-I/ARB exposed compared to unexposed is 1.0476, 1.0280, 1.0088 for the TT, AT, and AA genotypes, respectively). Trans-ethnic fine mapping identified the same group of SNPs on chromosome 5 as genome-wide significant for the ACE-I/ARB analysis. In conclusion, SNP-by-ACE-I /ARB interaction analyses uncovered loci that, if replicated, could have future implications for the prevention of arrhythmias due to anti-HTN treatment-related hyperkalemia. Before these loci can be identified as clinically relevant, future validation studies of equal or greater size in comparison to our discovery effort are needed.

14.
J Gen Intern Med ; 33(2): 155-165, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD), high-quality evidence about the relative benefits and harms of oral glucose-lowering drugs is limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether mortality risk differs after the initiation of monotherapy with either metformin or a sulfonylurea in Veterans with type 2 diabetes and CKD. DESIGN: Observational, national cohort study in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). PARTICIPANTS: Veterans who received care from the VHA for at least 1 year prior to initiating monotherapy treatment for type 2 diabetes with either metformin or a sulfonylurea between 2004 and 2009. MAIN MEASURES: Metformin and sulfonylurea use was assessed from VHA electronic pharmacy records. The CKD-EPI equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The outcome of death from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, was assessed from VHA Vital Status files. KEY RESULTS: Among 175,296 new users of metformin or a sulfonylurea monotherapy, 5121 deaths were observed. In primary analyses adjusted for all measured potential confounding factors, metformin monotherapy was associated with a lower mortality hazard ratio (HR) compared with sulfonylurea monotherapy across all ranges of eGFR evaluated (HR ranging from 0.59 to 0.80). A secondary analysis of mortality risk differences favored metformin across all eGFR ranges; the greatest risk difference was observed in the eGFR category 30-44 mL/min/1.73m2 (12.1 fewer deaths/1000 person-years, 95% CI 5.2-19.0). CONCLUSIONS: Initiation of metformin versus a sulfonylurea among individuals with type 2 diabetes and CKD was associated with a substantial reduction in mortality, in terms of both relative and absolute risk reduction. The largest absolute risk reduction was observed among individuals with moderately-severely reduced eGFR (30-44 mL/min/1.73m2).

15.
J Med Genet ; 54(5): 313-323, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased heart rate and a prolonged QT interval are important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and can be influenced by the use of various medications, including tricyclic/tetracyclic antidepressants (TCAs). We aim to identify genetic loci that modify the association between TCA use and RR and QT intervals. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted race/ethnic-specific genome-wide interaction analyses (with HapMap phase II imputed reference panel imputation) of TCAs and resting RR and QT intervals in cohorts of European (n=45 706; n=1417 TCA users), African (n=10 235; n=296 TCA users) and Hispanic/Latino (n=13 808; n=147 TCA users) ancestry, adjusted for clinical covariates. Among the populations of European ancestry, two genome-wide significant loci were identified for RR interval: rs6737205 in BRE (ß=56.3, pinteraction=3.9e-9) and rs9830388 in UBE2E2 (ß=25.2, pinteraction=1.7e-8). In Hispanic/Latino cohorts, rs2291477 in TGFBR3 significantly modified the association between TCAs and QT intervals (ß=9.3, pinteraction=2.55e-8). In the meta-analyses of the other ethnicities, these loci either were excluded from the meta-analyses (as part of quality control), or their effects did not reach the level of nominal statistical significance (pinteraction>0.05). No new variants were identified in these ethnicities. No additional loci were identified after inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis of the three ancestries. CONCLUSIONS: Among Europeans, TCA interactions with variants in BRE and UBE2E2 were identified in relation to RR intervals. Among Hispanic/Latinos, variants in TGFBR3 modified the relation between TCAs and QT intervals. Future studies are required to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Eletrocardiografia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Coração/fisiopatologia , Farmacogenética , Idoso , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 51-63, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28017375

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci for erythrocyte traits in primarily European ancestry populations. We conducted GWAS meta-analyses of six erythrocyte traits in 71,638 individuals from European, East Asian, and African ancestries using a Bayesian approach to account for heterogeneity in allelic effects and variation in the structure of linkage disequilibrium between ethnicities. We identified seven loci for erythrocyte traits including a locus (RBPMS/GTF2E2) associated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume. Statistical fine-mapping at this locus pointed to RBPMS at this locus and excluded nearby GTF2E2. Using zebrafish morpholino to evaluate loss of function, we observed a strong in vivo erythropoietic effect for RBPMS but not for GTF2E2, supporting the statistical fine-mapping at this locus and demonstrating that RBPMS is a regulator of erythropoiesis. Our findings show the utility of trans-ethnic GWASs for discovery and characterization of genetic loci influencing hematologic traits.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Eritropoese/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , África/etnologia , Alelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Peixe-Zebra/genética
17.
Diabetes Care ; 39(11): 1858-1869, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27926887

RESUMO

The emerging availability of genomic and electronic health data in large populations is a powerful tool for research that has drawn interest in bringing precision medicine to diabetes. In this article, we discuss the potential application of genomics to the prediction, prevention, and treatment of diabetes, and we use examples from other areas of medicine to illustrate some of the challenges involved in conducting genomics research in human populations and implementing findings in practice. At this time, a major barrier to the application of genomics in diabetes care is the lack of actionable genomic findings. Whether genomic information should be used in clinical practice requires a framework for evaluating the validity and clinical utility of this approach, an improved integration of genomic data into electronic health records, and the clinical decision support and educational resources for clinicians to use these data. Efforts to identify optimal approaches in all of these domains are in progress and may help to bring diabetes into the era of genomic medicine.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Genômica , Pesquisa , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Medição de Risco
18.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 18(12): 79, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27817160

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose is to review evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of new treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. RECENT FINDINGS: In response to guidance issued by the Food and Drug Administration, thousands of patients have been enrolled in large randomized trials evaluating the cardiovascular effects of the three newest diabetes drug classes: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. Two studies of GLP-1 receptor agonists-one of liraglutide and one of semaglutide-have shown cardiovascular benefit relative to placebo, and one study of the SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has shown benefit. The other published cardiovascular outcome studies of the newest drug classes have generally supported safety, apart from an as-yet unresolved safety concern about increased rates of heart failure with DPP-4 inhibitors. Recent research suggests the thiazolidinedione pioglitazone may have beneficial effects on some cardiovascular outcomes as well, but these are counterbalanced by a known increase of the risk of heart failure with this drug. In general, more prospective randomized trial data is now available regarding the cardiovascular effects of the newer diabetes drugs than on the older drug classes. New evidence suggests that the newest diabetes drugs are safe from a cardiovascular perspective. Evidence on benefit from at least some members of the GLP-1 receptor agonist and SGLT-2 inhibitor classes is encouraging but not yet decisive.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Glicemia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
19.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 4(1): 1219, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713904

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The large-scale assembly of electronic health care data combined with the use of sequential monitoring has made proactive postmarket drug- and vaccine-safety surveillance possible. Although sequential designs have been used extensively in randomized trials, less attention has been given to methods for applying them in observational electronic health care database settings. EXISTING METHODS: We review current sequential-surveillance planning methods from randomized trials, and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) and Mini-Sentinel Pilot projects-two national observational electronic health care database safety monitoring programs. FUTURE SURVEILLANCE PLANNING: Based on this examination, we suggest three steps for future surveillance planning in health care databases: (1) prespecify the sequential design and analysis plan, using available feasibility data to reduce assumptions and minimize later changes to initial plans; (2) assess existing drug or vaccine uptake, to determine if there is adequate information to proceed with surveillance, before conducting more resource-intensive planning; and (3) statistically evaluate and clearly communicate the sequential design with all those designing and interpreting the safety-surveillance results prior to implementation. Plans should also be flexible enough to accommodate dynamic and often unpredictable changes to the database information made by the health plans for administrative purposes. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is intended to encourage dialogue about establishing a more systematic, scalable, and transparent sequential design-planning process for medical-product safety-surveillance systems utilizing observational electronic health care databases. Creating such a framework could yield improvements over existing practices, such as designs with increased power to assess serious adverse events.

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