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1.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918784

RESUMO

The role of meat in the diet has come under scrutiny recently due to an increased public emphasis on providing healthy diets from sustainable food systems and due to health concerns relating to the consumption of red and processed meat. The present review aimed to summarise dietary guidelines relating to meat, actual meat intakes and the contribution of meat to energy and nutrient intakes of children, teenagers and adults in Europe. The available literature has shown that food-based dietary guidelines for most countries recommend consuming lean meat in moderation and many recommend limiting red and processed meat consumption. Mean intakes of total meat in Europe range from 40 to 160 g/d in children and teenagers and from 75 to 233 g/d in adults. Meat contributes to important nutrients such as protein, PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and essential minerals such as Fe and Zn; however, processed meat contributes to significant proportions of saturated fat and Na across population groups. While few data are available on diaggregated intakes of red and processed meat, where data are available, mean intakes in adults are higher than the upper limits recommended by the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (70 g/d) and the World Cancer Research Fund (500 g/week). While there are no recommendations for red and processed meat consumption in children and teenagers, intakes currently range from 30 to 76 g/d. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the role of meat in the European diet which may be of use to stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the agri-food sector.

2.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply a dietary modelling approach to investigate the impact of substituting beef intakes with three types of alternative fatty acid (FA) composition of beef on population dietary fat intakes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, national food consumption survey - the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). The fat content of the beef-containing food codes (n 52) and recipes (n 99) were updated with FA composition data from beef from animals receiving one of three ruminant dietary interventions: grass-fed (GRASS), grass finished on grass silage and concentrates (GSC) or concentrate-fed (CONC). Mean daily fat intakes, adherence to dietary guidelines and the impact of altering beef FA composition on dietary fat sources were characterised. SETTING: Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: Beef consumers (n 1044) aged 18-90 years. RESULTS: Grass-based feeding practices improved dietary intakes of a number of individual FA, wherein myristic acid (C14 : 0) and palmitic acid (C16 : 0) were decreased, with an increase in conjugated linoleic acid (C18 : 2c9,t11) and trans-vaccenic acid (C18 : 1t11; P < 0·05). Improved adherence with dietary recommendations for total fat (98·5 %), SFA (57·4 %) and PUFA (98·8 %) was observed in the grass-fed beef scenario (P < 0·001). Trans-fat intakes were increased significantly in the grass-fed beef scenario (P < 0·001). CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to characterise the impact of grass-fed beef consumption at population level. The study suggests that habitual consumption of grass-fed beef may have potential as a public health strategy to improve dietary fat quality.

3.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900799, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863680

RESUMO

SCOPE: Fish intake is reported to be associated with certain health benefits; however, accurate assessment of fish intake is still problematic. The objective of this study is to identify fish intake biomarkers and examine relationships with health parameters in a free-living population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the NutriTech study, ten participants randomized into the fish group consume increasing quantities of fish for 3 days per week for 3 weeks. Urine is analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), dimethylamine, and dimethyl sulfone are identified and display significant dose-response with intake (p < 0.05). Fish consumption yields a greater increase in urinary TMAO compared to red meat. Biomarker-derived fish intake is calculated in the National Adult Nutrition Survey cross-sectional study. However, the correlation between fish intake and TMAO (r = 0.148, p < 0.01) and that between fish intake and calculated fish intake (r = 0.142, p < 0.01) are poor. In addition, TMAO shows significantly positive correlation with serum insulin and insulin resistance in males and the relationship is more pronounced for males with high dietary fat intake. CONCLUSION: Urinary TMAO displays a strong dose-response relationship with fish intake; however, use of TMAO alone is insufficient to determine fish intake in a free-living population.

4.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646387

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Europe has remained similar since the 1990s despite folic acid supplement recommendations (400 µg/day) for women of childbearing age. Mandatory folic acid fortification of staple foods has proved effective for reducing the prevalence of NTDs in over 80 countries. This study estimated the impact of addition of folic acid to bread or flour in the Republic of Ireland on reducing the risk of occurrence of NTD-affected pregnancies and the possible risk of masking (undiagnosed) vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults. METHODS: Analyses were based on the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010). Folic acid fortification was modelled using DaDiet© software. Estimates were made of the increase in average daily folic acid intake in women (18-50 years) and the risk of exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 1000 µg for folic acid in adults over 50 years of age. RESULTS: The fortification scenarios examined would reduce the risk of NTD-affected pregnancies by 8-32%, corresponding to an increase of 39-152 µg in the mean daily folic acid intake of WCBA. The risk of masking anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency in older adults would be negligible as the probability of exceeding the UL for folic acid, even by a small amount, is very low (≤ 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: These levels of addition of folic acid to bread or flour would effectively reduce the risk of NTDs while allowing safe consumption of folic acid at current levels from other fortified foods and supplements.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 977-983, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measurement error associated with self-reported dietary intake is a well-documented issue. Combining biomarkers of food intake and dietary intake data is a high priority. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop calibration equations for food intake, illustrated with an application for citrus intake. Further, a simulation-based framework was developed to determine the portion of biomarker data needed for stable calibration equation estimation in large population studies. METHODS: Calibration equations were developed using mean daily self-reported citrus intake (4-d semiweighed food diaries) and biomarker-derived intake (urinary proline betaine biomarker) data from participants (n = 565) as part of a cross-sectional study. Different functional specifications and biomarker transformations were tested to derive the optimal calibration equation specifications. The simulation study was developed using linear regression for the calibration equations. Stability in the calibration equation estimations was investigated for varying portions of biomarker and intake data "qualities." RESULTS: With citrus intake, linear regression on nontransformed biomarker data resulted in the optimal calibration equation specifications and produced good-quality predicted intakes. The lowest mean squared error (14,354) corresponded to a linear regression model, defined with biomarker-derived estimates of intakes on the original scale. Using this model in a subpopulation without biomarker data resulted in an average mean ± SD citrus intake of 81 ± 66 g/d. The simulation study suggested that in large population studies, biomarker data on 20-30% of the subjects are required to guarantee stable estimation of calibration equations. This article is accompanied by a web application ("Bio-Intake"), which was developed to facilitate measurement error correction in self-reported mean daily citrus intake data. CONCLUSIONS: Calibration equations proved to be a useful instrument to correct measurement error in self-reported food intake data. The simulation study demonstrated that the use of food intake biomarkers may be feasible and beneficial in the context of large population studies.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The trace element iodine is a vital constituent of thyroid hormones. Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy, when even mild deficiency may affect the neurocognitive development of the offspring. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the means of assessing iodine status in population surveys; a median UIC of 100-199 µg/L is deemed sufficient in a non-pregnant population. Milk is the main dietary source of iodine in the UK and Ireland. METHODS: We surveyed the iodine status of 903 girls aged 14-15 years in seven sites across the island of Ireland. Urine iodine concentration was measured in spot-urine samples collected between March 2014 and October 2015. Food group intake was estimated from iodine-specific food-frequency questionnaire. Milk-iodine concentration was measured at each site in summer and winter. RESULTS: The median UIC overall was 111 µg/L. Galway was the only site in the deficient range (median UIC 98 µg/L). All five of the Republic of Ireland sites had UIC ≤ 105 µg/L. In the two sites surveyed twice, UIC was lower in summer vs winter months [117 µg/L (IQR 76-165) vs 130 µg/L (IQR 91-194) (p < 0.01)]. Milk samples collected from Galway and Roscommon had a lower mean iodine concentration than those from Derry/Londonderry (p < 0.05). Milk intake was positively associated with UIC (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest survey of its kind on the island of Ireland, which currently has no iodine-fortification programme. Overall, the results suggest that this young female population sits at the low end of sufficiency, which has implications if, in future, they enter pregnancy with borderline status.

7.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 78(2): 221-233, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696516

RESUMO

Population ageing is rapidly progressing and it is estimated that by 2050 one in every five people globally will be aged 60 years or over. Research has shown that adequate nutritional status can positively impact the ageing process, resulting in improved quality of life and the prevention of chronic disease and mortality. However, due to physiological and social changes associated with ageing, older adults may be at increased risk of nutrient deficiencies. This review aims to investigate the nutrient intake and status of older adults in Europe and to explore the potential role of fortified foods and nutritional supplements in addressing some of the nutritional challenges identified in this population group. The available literature has highlighted unfavourable intakes of total and saturated fat, sugar, salt and dietary fibre together with low intakes and suboptimal status of key micronutrients such as vitamins D, B2, B12, folate and calcium. Evidence has shown that the consumption of fortified foods and use of nutritional supplements make significant contributions to intakes and status of these micronutrients in older adults. Continued monitoring of nutrient intake and status is important in light of changing fortification practices and food consumption patterns. Future strategies to address the nutritional issues identified in older adults could include the promotion of healthy food choices together with improvements of the food supply including reformulation (fat, sugar and salt), food fortification or supplementation to support successful ageing of our populations.

8.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(2): 220-247, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616391

RESUMO

The use of global, standardized instruments is conventional among clinicians and researchers interested in assessing neurocognitive development. Exclusively relying on these tests for evaluating effects may underestimate or miss specific effects on early cognition. The goal of this review is to identify alternative measures for possible inclusion in future clinical trials and interventions evaluating early neurocognitive development. The domains included for consideration are attention, memory, executive function, language, and socioemotional development. Although domain-based tests are limited, as psychometric properties have not yet been well-established, this review includes tasks and paradigms that have been reliably used across various developmental psychology laboratories.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
9.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 541-550, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Observational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. METHODS: Whole grain intakes were calculated in a nationally representative sample of 1500 Irish adults using data from the most recent national food survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Food consumption was assessed, at brand level where possible, using a 4-day semi-weighed food diary with whole grain content estimated from labels on a dry matter basis. RESULTS: Mean daily whole grain intakes were 27.8 ± 29.4 g/day, with only 19% of the population meeting the quantity-specific recommendation of 48 g per day. Wheat was the highest contributor to whole grain intake at 66%, followed by oats at 26%. High whole grain intakes were associated with higher dietary intakes of fibre, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and a higher alternative Mediterranean Diet Score. Whole grain foods were most frequently eaten at breakfast time. Regression analysis revealed that consumption of an additional 10 g of whole grain containing 'ready-to-eat breakfast cereals', 'rice or pastas', or 'breads' each day would increase intake of whole grains by an extra 5, 3.5, and 2.7 g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals low intakes of whole grains in Irish adults. Recommending cereals, breads, and grains with higher whole grain content as part of public health campaigns could improve whole grain intakes.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grãos Integrais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(3): 1193-1201, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Drinking (plain) water intake has been associated with weight loss and reducing energy intake in intervention trials. In free-living populations, replacing other beverages with drinking water is associated with reduced obesity risk. However, the association of total water intake and its sources, and body fat distribution remain unevaluated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate total water intake and its sources and the association with anthropometric measures. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1500 adults aged 18-90 years (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey, 2008-2010). Total water intake and its sources were estimated using food records. Associations of total water, drinking water, beverage moisture and food moisture intakes split by tertile, and BMI (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), and bio-impedance derived body fat (%) were evaluated using covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses including adjustment for energy intake and energy expenditure. RESULTS: Higher consumption of total water was associated with lower waist circumference [ß-coefficient (95% CI), p trend, tertile 3 versus tertile 1: - 2.19 (- 4.06, - 0.32), 0.036], but not BMI [- 0.44 (- 1.16, 0.28), 0.336] or body fat [- 0.87 (- 1.91, 0.17), 0.146]. Higher consumption of drinking water and food moisture were associated with lower BMI [- 0.65 (- 1.30, - 0.01), 0.027; - 0.64 (- 1.41, - 0.13), 0.014, respectively], body fat [- 1.51 (- 2.43, - 0.59), 0.001; - 1.00 (- 2.12, - 0.12), 0.001], and waist circumference [- 2.83 (- 4.51, - 1.16), < 0.001; - 1.84 (- 3.86, - 0.19), 0.082]. Beverage moisture was not associated with any of the anthropometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of drinking water and food moisture and not total water or beverage moisture were inversely associated with adiposity, independent of energy intake and expenditure. Advice encouraging drinking water and food moisture intake may be beneficial in addition to energy balance advice, in combating obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Água/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Água Potável , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563172

RESUMO

Reduction in portion size, particularly for energy-dense foods, is increasingly addressed in healthy eating guidelines in a bid to tackle the obesity epidemic. The effect of portion size on other aspects of dietary quality, such as nutrient intakes, is less studied. The aim of the current work was to investigate associations between food portion sizes and key indicators of dietary quality, namely energy-adjusted intakes of saturated fat, dietary fibre, sodium, calcium, iron, folate and vitamin D, and dietary energy density (DED), in Irish adults on the days the foods were consumed. Data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008⁻2010) (n = 1274, 18⁻64 years, 4-day semi-weighed record) were used for the analysis. DED was lower on the days larger portions of boiled potatoes, fruit, vegetables and baked beans were consumed, and higher on the days larger portions of white bread, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEBCs), frying meats, cheese, butter, biscuits, chocolate and sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed. Micronutrient intakes were higher on the days larger portions of brown bread, RTEBCs, vegetables and low-fat spreads were consumed, and lower on the days larger portions of white bread, butter, biscuits, chocolate, sugar-sweetened beverages and beer/cider were consumed, with the exception of folate. The study identifies foods for which larger portion sizes may be associated with positive dietary attributes, as well as the opposite. It provides an important evidence base from which more specific dietary guidance on food portion sizes might be developed for Irish adults.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Alimentos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Tamanho da Porção , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2018 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577456

RESUMO

The present study set out to explore the option of developing food portion size for nutritional labelling purposes using two European Union (EU) dietary surveys. The surveys were selected as they differed in (a) methodologies (food diary versus food frequency questionnaire), (b) populations (Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) versus a seven-country survey based on the pan EU study Food4Me), (c) food quantification (multiple options versus solely photographic album) and (d) duration (4 consecutive days versus recent month). Using data from these studies, portion size was determined for 15 test foods, where portion size was defined as the median intake of a target food when consumed. The median values of the portion sizes derived from both the NANS and Food4Me surveys were correlated (r = 0.823; p < 0.00) and the mean of the two survey data sets were compared to US values from the Recognized as Customarily Consumed (RACC) database. There was very strong agreement across all food categories between the averaged EU and the US portion size (r = 0.947; p < 0.00). It is concluded that notwithstanding the variety of approaches used for dietary survey data in the EU, the present data supports using a standardized approach to food portion size quantification for food labelling in the EU.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho da Porção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , União Europeia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Tamanho da Porção/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(7): e1700785, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29388724

RESUMO

SCOPE: This study examines to what extent plasma linoleic acid (LA) is modified by adiposity, and explores any association between plasma LA, demographics, dietary intakes, markers of metabolic health, and haplotypes of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) 1/2 genes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 820 participants with fasting blood samples from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey are studied. Plasma fatty acids are determined using GC-MS. Fifteen SNPs of FADS 1/2 genes are genotyped. Plasma LA decreases, while γ-linoleic acid and dihomo-γ-linoleic acid increases in overweight/obese participants (p ≤ 0.002). Participants in the highest quartile of plasma LA show decreased plasma markers of de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, and of inflammation (TNF-α, PAI-1) (p ≤ 0.005). Adiposity (waist circumference and body fat) is strongly inversely associated with plasma LA accounting for 11.8% of variance observed, which is followed by FADS1/2 haplotypes (3.9%), quantity and quality of carbohydrate intakes (3.8%), dietary PUFA intakes (3.7%), systolic blood pressure (3.6%), and age (3.2%). CONCLUSION: Plasma LA is inversely associated with adiposity, followed by haplotypes of FADS1/2 genes, carbohydrate intakes, and dietary PUFA intakes. The association observed between plasma LA and adiposity may be linked to decreased de novo lipogenesis, insulin resistance, and inflammation.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Sobrepeso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/imunologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210609

RESUMO

This research investigated the intakes of six intense sweeteners: acesulfame-K (E950), aspartame (E951), cyclamate (E952), saccharin (E954), sucralose (E955), and steviol glycosides (E960) in the diets of Irish adults, using data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey. A food label survey that included products currently available on the Irish market supplemented the analysis. Sweetener intakes were investigated using three different exposure scenarios; beginning with a crude assessment which assumed that all foods permitted to contain the additives of interest always did contain them, and at their maximum permitted level (Tier 1). Refined assessments estimated intakes of the six sweeteners using food consumption data up to brand level with additive occurrence data from a survey of products currently available on the Irish market (Tier 2) and sweetener concentration data (Tier 3). Results of all exposure assessment scenarios demonstrate that intakes of each of the sweeteners of interest by the total population were below the relevant ADI level (mg kg-1 bodyweight-1), even by high consumers (P99). The three sweeteners consumed in highest amounts were acesulfame-k, aspartame, and sucralose. The main sources of these sweeteners in the diet were 'cider and perry', 'energy reduced and no added sugar (ER and NAS) carbonated flavoured drinks', 'table-top sweeteners', 'dairy products', 'solid food supplements', and 'sauces'. Intakes of the six intense sweeteners are currently not a concern among Irish adults. However, exposure to these chemicals should be monitored on a regular basis due to evolving market and consumption patterns.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Edulcorantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Humanos , Irlanda , Edulcorantes/provisão & distribução
15.
J Nutr Sci ; 6: e46, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152250

RESUMO

Foodbook24 is a self-administered web-based 24-h dietary recall tool developed to assess food and nutrient intakes of Irish adults. This paper describes the first step undertaken in developing Foodbook24 which was to limit participant burden by establishing a concise list of food items for inclusion in the tool. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether using a concise food list (as opposed to an extensive list) with generic composition data would influence the estimates of nutrient intakes in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults. A 2319-item food list generated from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) (n 1500) was used as the basis for a shortened food list for integration into the tool. Foods similar in nutritional composition were recoded with a generic type food code to produce a concise list of 751 food codes. The concise food list was applied to the NANS food consumption dataset and intake estimates of thirty-five nutrients were compared with estimates derived using the original extensive list. Small differences in nutrient intakes (<6 %) with limited effect size (Cohen's d < 0·1) were observed between estimates from both food lists. The concise food list showed strong positive correlations (rs 0·9-1·0, n 1500, P < 0·001) and a high level of agreement with the extensive list (80-97 % of nutrient intakes classified into the same tertile; >90% of intakes similarly categorised according to dietary reference values). This indicates that a concise food list is suitable for use in a web-based 24-h dietary recall tool for Irish adults.

16.
Br J Nutr ; 118(3): 222-228, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831958

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (P<0·001). There were no differences in classical biomarkers of CVD and T2D, including serum cholesterol and insulin, across dietary patterns. This suggests that the consideration of processed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Nutr ; 2017 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28794208

RESUMO

Background: Improved assessment of meat intake with the use of metabolomics-derived markers can provide objective data and could be helpful in clarifying proposed associations between meat intake and health.Objective: The objective of this study was to identify novel markers of chicken intake using a metabolomics approach and use markers to determine intake in an independent cohort.Methods: Ten participants [age: 62 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.25] in the NutriTech food intake study consumed increasing amounts of chicken, from 88 to 290 g/d, in a 3-wk span. Urine and blood samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, respectively. A multivariate data analysis was performed to identify markers associated with chicken intake. A calibration curve was built based on dose-response association using NutriTech data. A Bland-Altman analysis evaluated the agreement between reported and calculated chicken intake in a National Adult Nutrition Survey cohort.Results: Multivariate data analysis of postprandial and fasting urine samples collected in participants in the NutriTech study revealed good discrimination between high (290 g/d) and low (88 g/d) chicken intakes. Urinary metabolite profiles showed differences in metabolite levels between low and high chicken intakes. Examining metabolite profiles revealed that guanidoacetate increased from 1.47 to 3.66 mmol/L following increasing chicken intakes from 88 to 290 g/d (P < 0.01). Using a calibration curve developed from the NutriTech study, chicken intake was calculated through the use of data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey, in which consumers of chicken had a higher guanidoacetate excretion (0.70 mmol/L) than did nonconsumers (0.47 mmol/L; P < 0.01). A Bland-Altman analysis revealed good agreement between reported and calculated intakes, with a bias of -30.2 g/d. Plasma metabolite analysis demonstrated that 3-methylhistidine was a more suitable indicator of chicken intake than 1-methylhistidine.Conclusions: Guanidoacetate was successfully identified and confirmed as a marker of chicken intake, and its measurement in fasting urine samples could be used to determine chicken intake in a free-living population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

18.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(10)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586169

RESUMO

SCOPE: Classification of subjects into dietary patterns generally relies on self-reporting dietary data which are prone to error. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for objective classification of people into dietary patterns based on metabolomic data. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary and urinary metabolomic data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) was used in the analysis (n = 567). Two-step cluster analysis was applied to the urinary data to identify clusters. The subsequent model was used in an independent cohort to classify people into dietary patterns. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified. Cluster 1 was characterized by significantly higher intakes of breakfast cereals, low fat and skimmed milks, potatoes, fruit, fish and fish dishes (p < 0.05) representing a "healthy" cluster. Cluster 2 had significantly higher intakes of chips/processed potatoes, meat products, savory snacks and high-energy beverages (p < 0.05) representing an "unhealthy cluster". Classification was supported by significant differences in nutrient status (p < 0.05). Validation in an independent group revealed that 94% of subjects were correctly classified. CONCLUSION: The model developed was capable of classifying individuals into dietary patterns based on metabolomics data. Future applications of this approach could be developed for rapid and objective assignment of subjects into dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Dieta , Metabolômica , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Potássio/sangue , Potássio/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sódio/sangue , Sódio/urina , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 19(5): e158, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of technology in the area of dietary assessment has resulted in the development of an array of tools, which are often specifically designed for a particular country or region. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the development, validation, and user evaluation of a Web-based dietary assessment tool "Foodbook24." METHODS: Foodbook24 is a Web-based, dietary assessment tool consisting of a 24-hour dietary recall (24HDR) and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) alongside supplementary questionnaires. Validity of the 24HDR component was assessed by 40 participants, who completed 3 nonconsecutive, self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and a 4-day semi-weighed food diary at separate time points. Participants also provided fasted blood samples and 24-hour urine collections for the identification of biomarkers of nutrient and food group intake during each recording period. Statistical analyses on the nutrient and food group intake data derived from each method were performed in SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc). Mean nutrient intakes (and standard deviations) recorded using each method of dietary assessment were calculated. Spearman and Pearson correlations, Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Paired t test were used to investigate the agreement and differences between the nutritional output from Foodbook24 (test method) and the 4-day semi-weighed food diary (reference method). Urinary and plasma biomarkers of nutrient intake were used as an objective validation of Foodbook24. To investigate the user acceptability of Foodbook24, participants from different studies involved with Foodbook24 were asked to complete an evaluation questionnaire. RESULTS: For nutrient intake, correlations between the dietary assessment methods were acceptable to very good in strength and statistically significant (range r=.32 to .75). There were some significant differences between reported mean intakes of micronutrients recorded by both methods; however, with the exception of protein (P=.03), there were no significant differences in the reporting of energy or macronutrient intake. Of the 19 food groups investigated in this analysis, there were significant differences between 6 food groups reported by both methods. Spearman correlations for biomarkers of nutrient and food group intake and reported intake were similar for both methods. A total of 118 participants evaluated the acceptability of Foodbook24. The tool was well-received and the majority, 67.8% (80/118), opted for Foodbook24 as the preferred method for future dietary intake assessment when compared against a traditional interviewer led recall and semi-weighed food diary. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate the validity and user acceptability of Foodbook24. The results also highlight the potential of Foodbook24, a Web-based dietary assessment method, and present a viable alternative to nutritional surveillance in Ireland.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Dieta/métodos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 61(10)2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556565

RESUMO

SCOPE: There is a dearth of studies demonstrating the use of dietary biomarkers for determination of food intake. The objective of this study was to develop calibration curves for use in quantifying citrus intakes in an independent cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants (n = 50) from the NutriTech food-intake study consumed standardized breakfasts for three consecutive days over three consecutive weeks. Orange juice intake decreased over the weeks. Urine samples were analyzed by NMR-spectroscopy and proline betaine was quantified and normalized to osmolality. Calibration curves were developed and used to predict citrus intake in an independent cohort; the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (n = 565). Proline betaine displayed a dose-response relationship to orange juice intake in 24 h and fasting samples (p < 0.001). In a test set, predicted orange juice intakes displayed excellent agreement with true intake. There were significant associations between predicted intake measured in 24 h and fasting samples and true intake (r = 0.710-0.919). Citrus intakes predicted for the NANS cohort demonstrated good agreement with self-reported intake and this agreement improved following normalization to osmolality. CONCLUSION: The developed calibration curves successfully predicted citrus intakes in an independent cohort. Expansion of this approach to other foods will be important for the development of objective intake measurements.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta , Avaliação Nutricional , Prolina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calibragem , Citrus/química , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prolina/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
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