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1.
AIDS Care ; 32(2): 186-192, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663365

RESUMO

Young MSM, especially ethnic and racial minority young MSM, bear a disproportionate burden of new HIV infections. This group also has the highest rates of undiagnosed infection and lowest rates of viral suppression. Previous research indicates that young MSM are testing for HIV too late, which may explain why rates of new HIV infection are rising in young Hispanic MSM and not falling in young Black and White MSM despite advances in preventive medications. Analysis of our sample showed an overall average age at first HIV test of approximately 26. The average age at first HIV test was 25.5 years for Black/African American individuals, 24.7 years for Hispanic individuals, and 28 years for White individuals. More testing resources and innovative outreach methods are needed to increase rates of testing among young MSM.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(10): 2913-2915, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae has prompted the development of rapid molecular assays designed to determine antimicrobial susceptibility. One common assay uses high-resolution melt analysis to target codon 91 of the gyrase A gene (gyrA) to predict N. gonorrhoeae susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. METHODS: We extracted DNA from remnant clinical specimens that had previously tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae using the Aptima Combo 2 for CT/NG assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA, USA). We selected DNA extracts from specimens with indeterminate, WT and mutant gyrA genotype results from a previous study using high-resolution melt analysis to detect the gyrA codon 91 mutation. We re-tested those specimens using the recently CE-marked ResistancePlus GC (beta) assay (SpeeDx, Sydney, Australia). RESULTS: Of 86 specimens with indeterminate gyrA genotypes on high-resolution melt analysis, the ResistancePlus GC (beta) assay (SpeeDx) identified 30 (35%) WT, 22 (26%) mutant and 34 (40%) indeterminate gyrA genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The ResistancePlus GC (beta) assay showed improved N. gonorrhoeae gyrA genotype determination compared with a prior gyrA genotypic high-resolution melt assay.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(1): e10807, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30650057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early treatment studies have shown that prompt treatment of HIV with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can limit the size of latent viral reservoirs, thereby providing clinical and public health benefits. Studies have demonstrated that adolescents have a greater capacity for immune reconstitution than adults. Nevertheless, adolescents who acquired HIV through sexual transmission have not been included in early treatment studies because of challenges in identification and adherence to cART. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and promptly treat with cART youth aged 12 to 24 years in Los Angeles and New Orleans who have acute, recent, or established HIV infection, as determined by Fiebig stages 1 to 6 determined by viral RNA polymerase chain reaction, p24 antigen presence, and HIV-1 antigen Western blot. The protocol recommends treatment on the day of diagnosis when feasible. Surveillance and dedicated behavioral strategies are used to retain them in care and optimize adherence. Through serial follow-up, HIV biomarkers and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) are assessed. The study aims to assess viral dynamics, decay and persistence of viral reservoirs over time, and correlate these data with the duration of viral suppression. METHODS: A total of 72 youth (36 acutely infected and 36 treatment naïve controls) are enrolled across clinical sites using a current community-based strategy and direct referrals. Youth are prescribed ART according to the standard of care HIV-1 management guidelines and followed for a period of 2 years. Assessments are conducted at specific time points throughout these 2 years of follow-up for monitoring of adherence to ART, viral load, magnitude of HIV reservoirs, and presence of coinfections. RESULTS: The study began enrolling youth in July 2017 across study sites in Los Angeles and New Orleans. As of September 30, 2018, a total of 37 youth were enrolled, 12 with recently acquired, 16 with established HIV infection as determined by Fiebig staging, and 9 pending determination of Fiebig status. Recruitment and enrollment are ongoing. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesize that the size of the HIV reservoir and immune activation markers will be different across groups treated with cART, that is, those with acute or recent HIV infection and those with established infection. Adolescents treated early who are virally suppressed will have diminished HIV reservoirs than those with established infection. These youth may be potential candidates for a possible HIV vaccine and additional HIV remission intervention trials. Our study will inform future studies of viral remission strategies. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/10807.

4.
Am J Public Health ; 108(S4): S277-S283, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) disparities in incidence of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis. METHODS: We performed a records-based study of 19 933 patients visiting a federally qualified health center in Los Angeles, California, between November 2016 and October 2017 that examined HIV, STIs, and viral hepatitis incidence proportions. We created multivariable logistic regression models to examine the association between incidence proportions and SOGI among people living with HIV and HIV-negative patients. RESULTS: Among those who were HIV-negative at baseline (n = 16 757), 29% tested positive for any STI during the study period, compared with 38% of people living with HIV. Stratified by birth sex, STI positivity was 32% among men and 11% among women. By SOGI, STI positivity was 35% among gay and bisexual cisgender men, 15% among heterosexual cisgender men, 11% among cisgender women, 25% among transgender women, 13% among gay and bisexual transgender men, 3% among heterosexual transgender men, and 26% among nonbinary people. CONCLUSIONS: Stratifying by SOGI highlighted disparities that are obscured when stratifying by birth sex. Public Health Implications. To monitor and reduce disparities, health jurisdictions should include SOGI data with infectious disease reporting.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Hepatite Viral Humana/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(6): 457-462, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective method for reducing HIV incidence among at-risk populations. However, concerns exist over the potential for an increase in STIs following PrEP initiation. The objective of this study is to compare the STI incidence before and after PrEP initiation within subjects among a cohort of men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California. METHODS: The present study used data from patients who initiated PrEP services at the Los Angeles LGBT Center between October 2015 and October 2016 (n=275). A generalised linear mixed model was used with a case-crossover design to determine if there was a significant difference in STIs within subjects 365 days before (before-PrEP period) and 365 days after PrEP initiation (after-PrEP period). RESULTS: In a generalised linear mixed model, there were no significant differences in urethral gonorrhoea (P=0.95), rectal gonorrhoea (P=0.33), pharyngeal gonorrhoea (P=0.65) or urethral chlamydia (P=0.71) between periods. There were modest increases in rectal chlamydia (rate ratio (RR) 1.83; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.98; P=0.01) and syphilis diagnoses (RR 2.97; 95% CI 1.23 to 7.18; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: There were significant increases in rectal chlamydia and syphilis diagnoses when comparing the periods directly before and after PrEP initiation. However, only 28% of individuals had an increase in STIs between periods. Although risk compensation appears to be present for a segment of PrEP users, the majority of individuals either maintain or decrease their sexual risk following PrEP initiation.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J STD AIDS ; 29(6): 557-562, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29183270

RESUMO

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is a promising but under-utilized strategy for HIV prevention in high-risk populations. Between March 2010 and June 2011, two community-based clinics in Los Angeles County provided PEP in a pilot program to 267 unique individuals. Courses were primarily dispensed to men who have sex with men (84%) and consisted overwhelmingly of a three-drug antiretroviral therapy regimen containing two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and either an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir) or a boosted protease inhibitor (lopinavir/ritonavir). Approximately 64% of all PEP courses were followed for at least 12 weeks, and seven individuals seroconverted. Of the seven seroconversions, six had subsequent re-exposure. The low rate of PEP failure calls for expanded funding for PEP in other jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Los Angeles , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Raltegravir Potássico/administração & dosagem , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 76(5): 501-511, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is effective against HIV acquisition when taken as prescribed. Strategies that identify and intervene with those challenged by adherence to daily medication are needed. SETTING: PATH-PrEP was an open-label single-arm interventional cohort study conducted at 2 community-based clinical sites in Los Angeles, CA. METHODS: We enrolled self-identified men who have sex with men and transgender women ≥18 years of age at an elevated risk of HIV acquisition. Participants received a postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)-based or PrEP-based HIV prevention package for at least 48 weeks. Plasma tenofovir levels from each PrEP visit assessed as below the limit of quantitation (<10 ng/mL) triggered increased adherence support. RESULTS: Three hundred one participants enrolled. Forty-eight-week retention in the PrEP cohort was 75.1%. Biomarker evidence of PrEP adherence consistent with ≥4 doses per week at weeks 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 was found in 83.1%, 83.4%, 75.7%, 71.6%, and 65.5% of participants, respectively; younger and African American participants were less likely to have protective drug levels. Most of those with suboptimal adherence had adherence improvement after brief intervention. One seroconversion occurred in a participant who discontinued PrEP. Nearly half (46.4%) of participants were diagnosed with at least 1 incident sexually transmitted infection during 48 weeks of study follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: PrEP was acceptable and well tolerated in a diverse population of men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. A brief intervention triggered from biomarkers of poor adherence was associated with improved adherence. Drug level monitoring has the potential to allow targeting of additional adherence support to those struggling with daily tablet adherence.


Assuntos
Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Tenofovir/sangue , Tenofovir/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Combinação Emtricitabina e Fumarato de Tenofovir Desoproxila/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
8.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 31(7): 283-289, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628349

RESUMO

Linkage to care (LTC) is a key element of the HIV care continuum, and a crucial bridge from testing and diagnosis to receipt of antiretroviral therapies and viral suppression. In 2012, the Los Angeles LGBT Center hired a full-time LTC specialist (LTC-S), who developed a unique client-centered approach to LTC. This single-arm demonstration project was designed to systematically evaluate the LTC-S intervention. Individuals who were newly diagnosed with HIV between March 2014 and September 2015 were eligible for enrollment. The LTC-S draws heavily from principles of motivational interviewing and strengths-based case management, helping to normalize fears while guiding clients at a pace that reflects individual needs and resources. These tailored, targeted methods facilitate the rapid development of rapport, enabling the LTC-S to help clients address particular reactions and barriers to care more effectively. Of the 118 newly HIV-diagnosed individuals who enrolled, 111 (94.1%) saw an HIV primary care provider within 3 months of diagnosis; the LTC-S spent an average of 2.1 h working with each participant. Enrolled clients were a racially diverse, urban group composed primarily of young men who have sex with men. The LTC-S intervention was effective in promoting LTC among this sample. Our results demonstrate that client-centered, resiliency-based LTC services can be seamlessly integrated into an existing HIV testing program, thereby increasing the chances that newly diagnosed individuals will link to care.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estados Unidos
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 4(2): ofx061, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28596981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a 28-day regimen of antiretroviral medications taken within 72 hours of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure to prevent HIV acquisition. Although nPEP has been recommended since 1998, few studies have analyzed the characteristics that distinguish nPEP failures (seroconverters) and successes (non-seroconverters). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed all nPEP courses prompted by sexual exposure that were prescribed at the Los Angeles LGBT Center between March 2010 and July 2014. Fisher exact tests and logistic regressions were used to determine characteristics that distinguished nPEP seroconverters from non-seroconverters. RESULTS: Of the nPEP courses administered, 1744 had a follow-up visit for HIV testing within 24 weeks of exposure and 17 individuals seroconverted. Seven reported a known re-exposure, 8 self-reported only condom-protected sex subsequent to the initial exposure, and 2 reported abstinence since the exposure. In multivariable analyses, seroconverters were more likely than non-seroconverters to report methamphetamine use, incomplete medication adherence, and nPEP initiation later in the 72-hour window. CONCLUSIONS: Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis is an important emergency tool for HIV prevention. Our findings corroborate that timing of the initial nPEP dose is an important predictor of seroconversion. Although the current study did not offer the initial nPEP dose at the beginning of the visit, use of this fast-track dosing schedule will ensure that the first dose is taken as early as possible postexposure and may lower the likelihood for seroconversion. Furthermore, we recommend systematic screening for substance use because these individuals may be well suited for pre-exposure prophylaxis given their sustained risk.

10.
Sex Transm Dis ; 42(2): 98-103, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25585069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Incident syphilis infections continue to be especially prevalent among a core group of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Because of synergy between syphilis and HIV infections, innovative means for controlling incident syphilis infections are needed. METHODS: Thirty MSM who had syphilis twice or more since their HIV diagnosis were randomized to receive either daily doxycycline prophylaxis or contingency management (CM) with incentive payments for remaining free of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Participants were tested for the bacterial STDs gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and syphilis at weeks 12, 24, 36, and 48 and completed a behavioral risk questionnaire during each visit to assess number of partners, condom use, and drug use since the last visit. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze differences between arms in STD incidence and risk behaviors at follow-up. RESULTS: Doxycycline arm participants were significantly less likely to test positive for any selected bacterial STD during 48 weeks of follow-up (odds ratio, 0.27; confidence interval, 0.09-0.83) compared with CM arm participants (P = 0.02).There were no significant self-reported risk behavior differences between the doxycycline and CM arms at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Daily doxycycline taken prophylactically was associated with a decreased incidence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, or syphilis incident infections among a core group of HIV-infected MSM at high risk for these infections. Safe and effective biomedical tools should be included in the efforts to control transmission of syphilis, especially in this population. A randomized clinical trial should be conducted to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Reembolso de Incentivo , Assunção de Riscos , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e103790, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076208

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN) code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience. RESULTS: Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience. DISCUSSION: Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 30(9): 848-55, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24970113

RESUMO

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has become an important tool for HIV prevention in the men who have sex with men (MSM) communities within Los Angeles County. However, it is unclear as to whether the most sexually at-risk MSM populations are accessing PEP services. Furthermore, it is unclear what behavioral risk factors differentiate individuals who utilize PEP once (single PEP) versus those who utilize it multiple times (re-PEP). Data were collected between May 2011 and December 2012 on all clients enrolled in the Los Angeles LGBT Center's (the Center) PEP-LA program as well as on all sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening clients visiting the Center. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze results. PEP clients had greater odds of having a history of gonorrhea in the past year when compared to high-risk, non-PEP clients (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.25-2.35). Furthermore, they had greater odds of using methamphetamines (OR: 1.71; CI: 1.30-2.24) and inhaled nitrates (OR: 1.62; CI: 1.30-2.01) in the past 12 months when compared to high-risk, non-PEP clients. Re-PEP clients had greater odds of methamphetamine use than single PEP clients (OR: 2.80; CI: 1.65-4.75). There were no significant differences by race/ethnicity between high-risk, non-PEP clients and PEP clients in either the entire cohort or MSM only sample. However, African Americans made up 8.5% of persons accessing PEP services but 16.7% of persons who tested HIV positive. Similar proportions of PEP use by race/ethnicity are problematic considering the disproportionate burden of HIV infections in the African American community. Although uptake among the highest risk populations has been brisk (n=649), inequities based upon race/ethnicity suggest the need for increased outreach.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Feminino , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino
13.
AIDS Care ; 25(12): 1592-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23651439

RESUMO

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA, represent a vulnerable population with lower rates of HIV testing. There are various specific attributes of HIV testing that may impact willingness to test (WTT) for HIV. Identifying specific attributes influencing patients' decisions around WTT for HIV is critical to ensure improved HIV testing uptake. This study examined WTT for HIV by using conjoint analysis, an innovative method for systematically estimating consumer preferences across discrete attributes. WTT for HIV was assessed across eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios varying across seven dichotomous attributes: location (home vs. clinic), price (free vs. $50), sample collection (finger prick vs. blood), timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1-2 weeks), privacy (anonymous vs. confidential), results given (by phone vs. in-person), and type of counseling (brochure vs. in-person). Seventy-five MSM were recruited from a community-based organization providing HIV testing services in Los Angeles to participate in conjoint analysis. WTT for HIV score was based on a 100-point scale. Scores ranged from 32.2 to 80.3 for eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios. Price of HIV testing (free vs. $50) had the highest impact on WTT (impact score = 31.4, SD = 29.2, p<0.0001), followed by timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1-2 weeks) (impact score = 13.9, SD = 19.9, p≤0.0001) and testing location (home vs. clinic) (impact score = 10.3, SD = 22.8, p=0.0002). Impacts of other HIV testing attributes were not significant. Conjoint analysis method enabled direct assessment of HIV testing preferences and identified specific attributes that significantly impact WTT for HIV among MSM. This method provided empirical evidence to support the potential uptake of the newly FDA-approved over-the-counter HIV home test kit with immediate results, with cautionary note on the cost of the kit.


Assuntos
Confidencialidade , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/economia , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Infecções por HIV , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Los Angeles , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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