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1.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 30(6): 304-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419212

RESUMO

: Pregnancy carries a high risk of thromboembolic complications, especially in the postpartum period. This risk is particularly high in women with inherited thrombophilias, among these antithrombin deficiency seems to carry the highest risk. In this case, the use of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended, while the use of antithrombin concentrate is controversial. We report our experience of seven pregnancies occurred in five women: two, with a personal and familiar history negative for venous thromboembolism, were treated with LMWH during pregnancy and antithrombin concentrate immediately before and after the delivery. The other three women had a personal and familiar history positive for venous thromboembolism and were treated with LMWH and antithrombin concentrate during all the pregnancy and the postpartum period. No thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complications were observed in both groups, demonstrating that our strategy could be safe and effective.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400502

RESUMO

We performed a nationwide registry-based analysis to describe the clinical outcome of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-based treatment A total of 441 patients were included in the study. The median age at HSCT was 44 years (range, 18 to 70 years). All 441 patients (100%) received TKI before HSCT (performed between 2005 and 2016). Of these 441 patients, 404 (92%) were in cytologic complete remission (CR), whereas the remaining 37 (8%) had active disease at the time of HSCT. Molecular minimal residual disease (MRD) was negative in 147 patients (36%) at the time of HSCT. The donor was unrelated in 46% of patients. The most prevalent source of stem cells was peripheral blood (70%). The conditioning regimen was myeloablative in 82% of cases (total body irradiation-based in 50%) and included antithymocyte globulin in 51% of patients. With a median follow-up after HSCT of 39.4 months (range, 1 to 145 months), the probability of overall survival (OS) at 1, 2, and 5 years was 69.6%, 61.1% and 50.3%, respectively, with a median OS of 62 months. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1, 2, and 5 years was 60.2%, 52.1% and 43.7%, respectively. OS and PFS were significantly better in patients who were in CR and MRD-negative at the time of HSCT compared with patients who were in CR but MRD-positive (50% OS not reached versus 36 months; P = .015; 50% PFS not reached versus 26 months, P = .003). The subgroup of MRD-negative patients both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT had a better outcome (5-year OS, 70%). Conversely, the 37 patients who underwent a HSCT with active Ph+ ALL had a median OS of 7 months and a median PFS of 5 months. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was significantly lower in MRD-negative patients (19.5% versus 35.4%; P = .001). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after 1, 2, and 5 years was 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.5% to 22.9%), 20.7% (95% CI, 17% to 24.7%), and 24.1% (95% CI, 20% to 28.5%), respectively. NRM was significantly lower with a modified European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (mEBMT) risk score of 0 to 2 compared with ≥3 (15% versus 25%; P = .016). The median OS for Ph+ ALL patients who underwent a TKI-based treatment followed by an allogeneic HSCT, in recent years at the GITMO centers, was 62 months. Evaluation of the mEBMT risk score can be useful to predict NRM. Our data confirm that HSCT is a potentially curative treatment for Ph+ ALL with an excellent outcome for the subgroup of MRD-negative patients both at HSCT and at 3 months after HSCT (5-year OS, 70%).

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371416

RESUMO

BIRC3 is a recurrently mutated gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but the functional implications of BIRC3 mutations are largely unexplored. Also, little is known about the prognostic impact of BIRC3 mutations in CLL cohorts homogeneously treated with first line fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR). Immunoblotting analysis showed that the non-canonical NF-kB pathway is active in BIRC3 mutated cell lines and primary CLL samples, as documented by the stabilization of MAP3K14 and by the nuclear localization of p52. In addition, BIRC3 mutated primary CLL cells are less sensitive to fludarabine. In order to confirm in patients that BIRC3 mutations confer resistance to fludarabine-based chemoimmunotherapy, a retrospective multicenter cohort of 287 untreated CLL receiving first-line FCR was analyzed by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of 24 recurrently mutated genes in CLL. By univariate analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons BIRC3 mutations identify a very poor prognostic subgroup of patients failing FCR [(median progression free survival (PFS): 2.2 years, p < 0.001] similar to cases harboring TP53 mutations (median PFS: 2.6 years, p < 0.0001]. BIRC3 mutations maintained an independent association with an increased risk of progression with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.8 (95% C.I. 1.4-5.6, p = 0.004) in multivariate analysis adjusted for TP53 mutation, 17p deletion and IGHV mutation status. If validated, BIRC3 mutations may be used as a new molecular predictor to select high-risk patients for novel frontline therapeutic approaches.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385309

RESUMO

Since 2000, we have investigated 67 consecutive patients with stage I/II follicular lymphoma (FL) for the presence of BCL2/IGH rearrangements by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) and digital droplet PCR (ddPCR). All patients were treated with involved-field radiotherapy (IF-RT) (24-30 Gy). From 2005, patients with minimal residual disease (MRD) after IF-RT received rituximab (R) (375 mg/m2 , 4 weekly administrations). The median follow-up is 82 months (17-196). At diagnosis, 72% of patients were BCL2/IGH+. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better in patients with undetectable/low levels (<10-5 ) of circulating BCL2/IGH+ cells at diagnosis and in those who were persistently MRD- during follow-up (P = 0·0038). IF-RT induced an MRD- status in 50% of cases; 16/19 (84%) MRD+ patients after IF-RT became MRD- after R treatment. A significantly longer PFS was observed in MRD+ patients treated with R compared to untreated MRD+ patients (P = 0·049). In early stage FL, both circulating levels of BCL2/IGH+ cells at diagnosis and MRD status during follow-up bear prognostic implications. Standard IF-RT fails to induce an MRD-negative status in half of patients. Most patients become MRD- following treatment with R and this is associated with a significantly better PFS.

5.
Leukemia ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455851

RESUMO

GREEN (NCT01905943) is a nonrandomized, open-label, single-arm, phase 3b study investigating the safety and efficacy of obinutuzumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We report the preplanned subgroup analysis of 140 previously untreated, fit CLL patients who received obinutuzumab plus fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (G-FC). The primary endpoint was safety and tolerability. Efficacy was the secondary endpoint. Obinutuzumab 1000 mg was administered intravenously on Day (D)1 (dose split D1‒2), D8 and D15 of Cycle (C)1, and D1 of C2-6 (28-day cycles). Standard intravenous/oral doses of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide were administered on D1-3 of C1-6. Overall, 87.1% of patients experienced grade ≥ 3 adverse events (AEs), including neutropenia (67.1%) and thrombocytopenia (17.1%). Serious AEs were experienced by 42.1% of patients. Rates of grade ≥ 3 infusion-related reactions and infections were 19.3% and 15.7%, respectively. Overall response rate was observed in 90.0%, with 46.4% of patients achieving complete response (CR; including CR with incomplete marrow recovery). Minimal residual disease negativity rates were 64.3% in peripheral blood and 35.7% in bone marrow (intent-to-treat analysis). After a median observation time of 25.6 months, 2 year progression-free survival was 91%. Frontline G-FC represents a promising treatment option for fit patients with CLL.

7.
Blood ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395600

RESUMO

We designed a trial in which post-remission therapy of young patients with de novo AML was decided combining cytogenetics/genetics and post-consolidation levels of minimal residual disease (MRD). After induction and consolidation, favorable-risk patients (FR) were to receive autologous stem cell transplant (AuSCT) and poor-risk patients (PR) allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT). Intermediate-risk patients (IR) were to receive AuSCT or ASCT depending on the post-consolidation levels of MRD. ASCT was to be delivered whatever the source of stem cells. Three hundred-61/500 patients (72%) achieved a CR, 342/361 completed the consolidation phase and were treatment allocated: 165 (48%) to ASCT (122 PR, 43 IR MRD-positive) plus 23 rescued after salvage therapy, for a total of 188 candidates; 150 (44%) to AuSCT (115 FR, 35 IR MRD-negative) plus 27 IR patients (8%) with no leukemia-associated phenotype, for a total of 177 candidates. Overall, 110/177 (62%) and 130/188 (71%) AuSCT or ASCT candidates received it, respectively. Two-year overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of the whole series was 56% and 54%, respectively. Two-year OS and DFS were 74% and 61% in the FR category, 42% and 45% in the PR category, 79% and 61% in the IR MRD-negative category, 70% and 67% in the IR MRD-positive category. In conclusion, AuSCT may still have a role in FR and IR MRD-negative categories. In the IR MRD-positive category, ASCT prolongs OS and DFS to equal those of the FR category. Using all the available sources of stem cells, ASCT was delivered to 71% of the candidates. EudraCT number (2010-023809-36); ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier (NCT01452646).

8.
Hematol Oncol ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325190

RESUMO

In 2009, the four laboratories of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi (FIL) minimal residual disease (MRD) Network started a collaborative effort to harmonize and standardize their methodologies at the national level, performing quality control (QC) rounds for follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) MRD assessment. In 16 QC rounds between 2010 and 2017, the four laboratories received 208 bone marrow (BM) samples (126 FL; 82 MCL); 187 were analyzed, according to the EuroMRD Consortium guidelines, by both nested (NEST) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative (RQ) PCR for BCL2/IGH MBR or IGHV rearrangements. Here, we aimed at analyzing the samples that challenged the interlaboratory reproducibility and data interpretation. Overall, 156/187 BM samples (83%) were concordantly classified as NEST+/RQ+ or NEST-/RQ- by all the four laboratories. The remaining 31 samples (17%) resulted alternatively positive and negative in the interlaboratory evaluations, independently of the method and the type of rearrangement, and were defined "borderline" (brd) samples: 12 proved NEST brd/RQ brd, 7 NEST-/RQ brd, 10 NEST brd/RQ positive not quantifiable (PNQ), and 2 NEST brd/RQ-. Results did not change even increasing the number of replicates/sample. In 6/31 brd samples, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) was tested and showed no interlaboratory discordance. Despite the high interlaboratory reproducibility in the MRD analysis obtained and maintained by the QC round strategy, samples with the lowest MRD levels can still represent a challenge: 17% (31/187) of our samples showed discordant results in interlaboratory assessments, with 6.4% (12/187) remained brd even applying the two methods. Thus, although representing a minority, brd samples are still problematic, especially when a clinically oriented interpretation of MRD results is required. Alternative, novel methods such as ddPCR and next-generation sequencing have the potential to overcome the current limitations.

11.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289209

RESUMO

In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) regulates the response of tumour cells to hypoxia and their protective interactions with the leukemic microenvironment. In this study we demonstrate that chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from TP53-disrupted (TP53dis) patients have constitutively higher expression levels of the α-subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1 α) and increased HIF-1 transcriptional activity, compared to the wild type counterpart. In the TP53dis subset, HIF-1 α upregulation is due to reduced expression of the HIF-1 α ubiquitin ligase von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Hypoxia and stromal cells further enhance HIF-1α accumulation, independently from the TP53 status. Hypoxia acts through the downmodulation of pVHL and the activation of the PI3K/AKT and RAS/ERK1-2 pathways, whereas stromal cells induce an increased activity of the RAS/ERK1-2, RHOA/RHOA kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways, without affecting pVHL expression. Interestingly, we observed that higher levels of HIF-1A mRNA correlate with a lower susceptibility of leukemic cells to spontaneous apoptosis, and associate with the fludarabine resistance that mainly characterizes TP53dis tumour cells. The HIF-1α inhibitor BAY87-2243 exerts cytotoxic effects toward leukemic cells, regardless of the TP53 status, and has anti-tumour activity in Eµ-TCL1 mice. BAY87-2243 also overcomes the constitutive fludarabine resistance of TP53dis leukemic cells and elicits a strongly synergistic cytotoxic effect in combination with ibrutinib, thus providing preclinical evidences for its further investigation as a potential new drug in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

12.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-11, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298059

RESUMO

Clofarabine (CLO) and cyclophosphamide (CY) combinations were tested in late stage refractory/relapsed (R/R) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with disappointing results and high-grade toxicity. We designed a sequential 5-day combination of CLO 40 mg/m2/d plus CY 400 mg/m2/d as first salvage for Philadelphia-negative ALL patients refractory or relapsed until 24 months from complete remission (CR). Primary endpoint was an overall response rate (ORR) ≥ 40%. Among 26 study patients (median age 40.5 years) ORR was 57.6% (CR with complete [n = 8] or incomplete [n = 7] hematologic recovery). Despite severe myelotoxicity, no dose-limiting toxicity suggested de-intensification of CLO schedule. With a median follow-up of 17.0 months, median and 1-year overall and disease-free survival were 6.5 months and 28.6%, and 3.7 months and 28.1%, respectively. This association was tolerable and more effective in patients younger than 40 years with B-precursor ALL, longer first CR, not previously transplanted and achieving CR with full hematological recovery.

14.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1919-1925, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168652

RESUMO

The outcome of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients treated with 5-azacitidine (5-AZA) in the real-life setting remains largely unknown. We evaluated 110 MDS patients (IPSS intermediate 2/high) treated outside of clinical trials at a single institution between September 2003 and January 2017. Median duration of therapy was 9.5 cycles. The overall survival (OS) of the whole cohort was 66.1% at 1 year and 38.3% at 2 years. No differences in terms of OS were observed with regard to gender (p = 0.622) and age at baseline (< 65 years, 65-75, and > 75 years, p = 0.075). According to the IPSS-R, the very high-risk group had an inferior 2-year OS (17%) compared with intermediate-group patients (64%, p < 0.001). Transfusion independency at baseline was identified as a favorable prognostic factor on 1-year (66.8%) and 2-year OS (43.4%) (p < 0.001). After four cycles, the persistence of bone marrow blasts > 10% identified patients with a worse outcome, with a 2-year OS of 9.4% (p = 0.002). The occurrence of an infection during the first four cycles impacted on the 2-year OS (31.6% vs 58.3% in patients without infections, p = 0.032). Patients receiving at least 24 cycles of the drug have a 5-year OS of 38.2%. This analysis allowed to identify features at baseline or during treatment with 5-AZA associated with a different 2-year OS.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1933-1936, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201513

RESUMO

Ruxolitinib is the only commercially available JAK1/2 inhibitor approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis-related splenomegaly and symptoms. During treatment, as rare conditions, leukocytosis and/or thrombocytosis could develop and the management of these situations is not well established. We report here 53 myelofibrosis patients that received a combination of hydroxyurea and ruxolitinib because of uncontrolled myeloproliferation. Both drugs were administered outside clinical trials. At 48 weeks, a significant reduction in leucocyte and platelet counts was observed (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Additionally, the spleen volume decreased from a median value of 10 cm below the left costal margin (range, 0-10) to 6 cm (range, 0-15). The rate of spleen response increased from 14% at the start of the combination to 45% after 48 weeks. The safety profile of the combination was consistent with that observed with ruxolitinib single agent. These data require further confirmation in large cohorts of patients prospectively assessed.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mielofibrose Primária/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Plaquetas/patologia , Contagem de Células , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Mielofibrose Primária/complicações , Mielofibrose Primária/mortalidade , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esplenomegalia/complicações , Esplenomegalia/mortalidade , Esplenomegalia/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 150-156, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex karyotype (CK) is a heterogeneous category with a negative impact in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Our group has recently reported that CK patients with major structural abnormalities (i.e. CK2) are characterised by a worse prognosis, as compared to other lesions within CK(CK1). METHODS: We performed a multicentre retrospective study to test whether the combination of CK subtypes with IGHV status could be a relevant prognostic and predictive tool. RESULTS: Among 522 patients 13% harboured CK2, 41% CK1 and/or U-IGHV (U-CK1) and 46% M-IGHV without any CK subtypes (M-noCK). After a median follow-up of 5.8 years, CK2 patients had the shortest TTFT (5-year TTFT 31%, 39 and 81%, p < 0.0001) and OS (5-year OS 67%, 85 and 93%, p < 0.0001) as compared to U-CK1 or M-noCK cases, regardless of TP53 abnormalities. CK2 patients also had the worst outcome after chemoimmunotherapy. In fact, the median TTNT after FCR or BR was 1.86 and 4.79 years for CK2 and U-CK1, but not reached for M-noCK patients (p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: We herein suggest that the combined assessment of the IGHV mutational status and CK subtypes refines the prognostication of CLL, allowing to identify M-IGHV patients without any CK subtypes who are characterised by an indolent disease and excellent outcome after chemoimmunotherapy.

17.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097627

RESUMO

Olaptesed pegol (NOX-A12) is a pegylated structured L-oligoribonucleotide that binds and neutralizes CXCL12, a chemokine tightly regulating the life cycle of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. The resulting inhibition of CXCR4 and CXCR7 signaling reduces the protective activity of the bone marrow and lymph node microenvironment. CXCL12 inhibition mobilizes chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to the circulation and prevents their homing into the protective niches. In this phase I/II study, 28 patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia were treated with olaptesed pegol in combination with bendamustine and rituximab. Combination treatment was preceded by single escalating pilot doses of olaptesed pegol in the first 10 patients for evaluation of safety and pharmacokinetics. Peak concentrations and systemic exposure of olaptesed pegol were dose-linear; plasma elimination was monophasic with a 53.2 h half-life. A rapid increase in circulating chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells was observed already 1h after olaptesed pegol administration lasting for at least 72h. Single-agent treatment was well tolerated and no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. The combination regimen yielded an overall response rate of 86%, with 11% of patients achieving a complete response and 75% a partial response. Notably, all 10 high-risk patients including 4 with a 17p deletion responded to treatment. Median progression-free survival was 15.4 (95% CI 12.2, 26.2) months while median overall survival was not reached with > 80% of patients alive after a median follow-up of 28 months. Olaptesed pegol was well tolerated and did not result in additional toxicity when combined with bendamustine and rituximab (NCT01486797). Further clinical development of this novel CXCL12 inhibitor is thus warranted.

20.
Ann Hematol ; 98(8): 1885-1890, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044260

RESUMO

There is little information about cardiovascular adverse event (CV-AE) incidence in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with bosutinib in the real-life practice. We identified 54 consecutive CML patients treated with bosutinib, stratified according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) assessment, based on sex, age, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels. The 40-month cumulative incidence of CV-AEs was 25.2 ± 8.1%. Patients with the SCORE of high-very high showed a significantly higher incidence of CV-AEs (55 ± 12.9% vs 9 ± 9.5%; p = 0.002). Overall, 9 CV-AEs were reported, with 2 deaths attributed to CV-AE. In conclusion, the SCORE assessment before starting treatment is helpful in identifying CV-AE high-risk patients during bosutinib treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/induzido quimicamente , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Compostos de Anilina/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Isquemia Encefálica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Dasatinibe/administração & dosagem , Dasatinibe/efeitos adversos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/enzimologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
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