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1.
Virchows Arch ; 478(1): 73-80, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411030

RESUMO

The diagnosis and classification of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is extremely challenging; obtaining an accurate histopathological diagnosis of the different types and subtypes requires expert assessment and suitable biopsies that are not always available, which can leave doctors uncertain about the patient's diagnosis, sometimes resulting in a delay in the start of treatment. In this review, we discuss recent major advances in the molecular characterisation of MPM and their implications for histological classification. We detail what is known of the molecular landscape of MPM at the genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic levels, describe the similarities and dissimilarities of the multiple molecular classifications that have been proposed, and provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity. We also highlight the current gaps in knowledge and how addressing them would benefit classification, as well as the patients in general.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , /metabolismo , Patologia Molecular , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260905

RESUMO

Somatic mutations in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter regions are frequent events in urothelial cancer (UC) and their detection in urine (supernatant cell-free DNA or DNA from exfoliated cells) could serve as putative non-invasive biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, detecting these tumor-borne mutations in urine requires highly sensitive methods, capable of measuring low-level mutations. In this study, we developed sensitive droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assays for detecting TERT promoter mutations (C228T, C228A, CC242-243TT, and C250T). We tested the C228T and C250T ddPCR assays on all samples with sufficient quantity of urinary DNA (urine supernatant cell-free DNA (US cfDNA) or urine pellet cellular DNA (UP cellDNA)) from the DIAGURO (n = 89/93 cases and n = 92/94 controls) and from the IPO-PORTO (n = 49/50 cases and n = 50/50 controls) series that were previously screened with the UroMuTERT assay and compared the performance of the two approaches. In the DIAGURO series, the sensitivity and specificity of the ddPCR assays for detecting UC using either US cfDNA or UP cellDNA were 86.8% and 92.4%. The sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the UroMuTERT assay in the IPO-PORTO series (67.4% vs. 65.3%, respectively), but not in the DIAGURO series (86.8% vs. 90.7%). The specificity was 100% in the IPO-PORTO controls for both the UroMuTERT and ddPCR assays, whereas in the DIAGURO series, the specificity dropped for ddPCR (92.4% versus 95.6%). Overall, an almost perfect agreement between the two methods was observed for both US cfDNA (n = 164; kappa coefficient of 0.91) and UP cellDNA (n = 280; kappa coefficient of 0.94). In a large independent series of serial urine samples from DIAGURO follow-up BC cases (n = 394), the agreement between ddPCR and UroMuTERT was (i) strong (kappa coefficient of 0.87), regardless of urine DNA types (kappa coefficient 0.89 for US cfDNA and 0.85 for UP cellDNA), (ii) the highest for samples with mutant allelic fractions (MAFs) > 2% (kappa coefficient of 0.99) and (iii) only minimal for the samples with the lowest MAFs (< 0.5%; kappa coefficient 0.32). Altogether, our results indicate that the two methods (ddPCR and UroMuTERT) for detecting urinary TERT promoter mutations are comparable and that the discrepancies relate to the detection of low-allelic fraction mutations. The simplicity of the ddPCR assays makes them suitable for implementation in clinical settings.

3.
Genetics ; 216(4): 1205-1215, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067324

RESUMO

Allele frequencies vary across populations and loci, even in the presence of migration. While most differences may be due to genetic drift, divergent selection will further increase differentiation at some loci. Identifying those is key in studying local adaptation, but remains statistically challenging. A particularly elegant way to describe allele frequency differences among populations connected by migration is the F-model, which measures differences in allele frequencies by population specific F ST coefficients. This model readily accounts for multiple evolutionary forces by partitioning F ST coefficients into locus- and population-specific components reflecting selection and drift, respectively. Here we present an extension of this model to linked loci by means of a hidden Markov model (HMM), which characterizes the effect of selection on linked markers through correlations in the locus specific component along the genome. Using extensive simulations, we show that the statistical power of our method is up to twofold higher than that of previous implementations that assume sites to be independent. We finally evidence selection in the human genome by applying our method to data from the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP).

4.
Gigascience ; 9(11)2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung neuroendocrine neoplasms (LNENs) are rare solid cancers, with most genomic studies including a limited number of samples. Recently, generating the first multi-omic dataset for atypical pulmonary carcinoids and the first methylation dataset for large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas led us to the discovery of clinically relevant molecular groups, as well as a new entity of pulmonary carcinoids (supra-carcinoids). RESULTS: To promote the integration of LNENs molecular data, we provide here detailed information on data generation and quality control for whole-genome/exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and EPIC 850K methylation arrays for a total of 84 patients with LNENs. We integrate the transcriptomic data with other previously published data and generate the first comprehensive molecular map of LNENs using the Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) dimension reduction technique. We show that this map captures the main biological findings of previous studies and can be used as reference to integrate datasets for which RNA sequencing is available. The generated map can be interactively explored and interrogated on the UCSC TumorMap portal (https://tumormap.ucsc.edu/?p=RCG_lungNENomics/LNEN). The data, source code, and compute environments used to generate and evaluate the map as well as the raw data are available, respectively, in a Nextjournal interactive notebook (https://nextjournal.com/rarecancersgenomics/a-molecular-map-of-lung-neuroendocrine-neoplasms/) and at the EMBL-EBI European Genome-phenome Archive and Gene Expression Omnibus data repositories. CONCLUSIONS: We provide data and all resources needed to integrate them with future LNENs transcriptomic studies, allowing meaningful conclusions to be drawn that will eventually lead to a better understanding of this rare understudied disease.

5.
NAR Genom Bioinform ; 2(2): lqaa021, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363341

RESUMO

The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the way of reaching a genome sequence, with the promise of potentially providing a comprehensive characterization of DNA variations. Nevertheless, detecting somatic mutations is still a difficult problem, in particular when trying to identify low abundance mutations, such as subclonal mutations, tumour-derived alterations in body fluids or somatic mutations from histological normal tissue. The main challenge is to precisely distinguish between sequencing artefacts and true mutations, particularly when the latter are so rare they reach similar abundance levels as artefacts. Here, we present needlestack, a highly sensitive variant caller, which directly learns from the data the level of systematic sequencing errors to accurately call mutations. Needlestack is based on the idea that the sequencing error rate can be dynamically estimated from analysing multiple samples together. We show that the sequencing error rate varies across alterations, illustrating the need to precisely estimate it. We evaluate the performance of needlestack for various types of variations, and we show that needlestack is robust among positions and outperforms existing state-of-the-art method for low abundance mutations. Needlestack, along with its source code is freely available on the GitHub platform: https://github.com/IARCbioinfo/needlestack.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 55: 102462, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DNA released into the bloodstream by malignant tumours· called circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA), is often a small fraction of total cell-free DNA shed predominantly by hematopoietic cells and is therefore challenging to detect. Understanding the biological properties of ctDNA is key to the investigation of its clinical relevance as a non-invasive marker for cancer detection and monitoring. METHODS: We selected 40 plasma DNA samples of pancreatic cancer cases previously reported to carry a KRAS mutation at the 'hotspot' codon 12 and re-screened the cell-free DNA using a 4-size amplicons strategy (57 bp, 79 bp, 167 bp and 218 bp) combined with ultra-deep sequencing in order to investigate whether amplicon lengths could impact on the capacity of detection of ctDNA, which in turn could provide inference of ctDNA and non-malignant cell-free DNA size distribution. FINDINGS: Higher KRAS amplicon size (167 bp and 218 bp) was associated with lower detectable cell-free DNA mutant allelic fractions (p < 0·0001), with up to 4·6-fold (95% CI: 2·6-8·1) difference on average when comparing the 218bp- and the 57bp-amplicons. The proportion of cases with detectable KRAS mutations was also hampered with increased amplicon lengths, with only half of the cases having detectable ctDNA using the 218 bp assay relative to those detected with amplicons less than 80 bp. INTERPRETATION: Tumour-derived mutations are carried by shorter cell-free DNA fragments than fragments of wild-type allele. Targeting short amplicons increases the sensitivity of cell-free DNA assays for pancreatic cancer and should be taken into account for optimized assay design and for evaluating their clinical performance. FUNDING: IARC; MH CZ - DRO; MH SK; exchange program between IARC and Sao Paulo medical Sciences; French Cancer League.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 53: 102643, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detecting pre-clinical bladder cancer (BC) using urinary biomarkers may provide a valuable opportunity for screening and management. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations detectable in urine have emerged as promising BC biomarkers. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the population-based prospective Golestan Cohort Study (50,045 participants, followed up to 14 years) and assessed TERT promoter mutations in baseline urine samples from 38 asymptomatic individuals who subsequently developed primary BC and 152 matched controls using a Next-Generation Sequencing-based single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) and droplet digital PCR assays. FINDINGS: Results were obtained for 30 cases and 101 controls. TERT promoter mutations were detected in 14 pre-clinical cases (sensitivity 46·67%) and none of the controls (specificity 100·00%). At an estimated BC cumulative incidence of 0·09% in the cohort, the positive and negative predictive values were 100·00% and 99·95% respectively. The mutant allelic fractions decreased with the time interval from urine collection until BC diagnosis (p = 0·033) but the mutations were detectable up to 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results provide the first evidence from a population-based prospective cohort study of the potential of urinary TERT promoter mutations as promising non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of BC. Further studies should validate this finding and assess their clinical utility in other longitudinal cohorts. FUNDING: French Cancer League, World Cancer Research Fund International, Cancer Research UK, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the U.S. National Cancer Institute.

8.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(1): 29-49, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Molecular and immunologic breakthroughs are transforming the management of thoracic cancer, although advances have not been as marked for malignant pleural mesothelioma where pathologic diagnosis has been essentially limited to three histologic subtypes. METHODS: A multidisciplinary group (pathologists, molecular biologists, surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists), sponsored by European Network for Rare Adult Solid Cancers/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, met in 2018 to critically review the current classification. RESULTS: Recommendations include: (1) classification should be updated to include architectural patterns and stromal and cytologic features that refine prognostication; (2) subject to data accrual, malignant mesothelioma in situ could be an additional category; (3) grading of epithelioid malignant pleural mesotheliomas should be routinely undertaken; (4) favorable/unfavorable histologic characteristics should be routinely reported; (5) clinically relevant molecular data (programmed death ligand 1, BRCA 1 associated protein 1 [BAP1], and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A) should be incorporated into reports, if undertaken; (6) other molecular data should be accrued as part of future trials; (7) resection specimens (i.e., extended pleurectomy/decortication and extrapleural pneumonectomy) should be pathologically staged with smaller specimens being clinically staged; (8) ideally, at least three separate areas should be sampled from the pleural cavity, including areas of interest identified on pre-surgical imaging; (9) image-acquisition protocols/imaging terminology should be standardized to aid research/refine clinical staging; (10) multidisciplinary tumor boards should include pathologists to ensure appropriate treatment options are considered; (11) all histologic subtypes should be considered potential candidates for chemotherapy; (12) patients with sarcomatoid or biphasic mesothelioma should not be excluded from first-line clinical trials unless there is a compelling reason; (13) tumor subtyping should be further assessed in relation to duration of response to immunotherapy; and (14) systematic screening of all patients for germline mutations is not recommended, in the absence of a family history suspicious for BAP1 syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: These multidisciplinary recommendations for pathology classification and application will allow more informative pathologic reporting and potential risk stratification, to support clinical practice, research investigation and clinical trials.

9.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 191-202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease related to asbestos exposure, with no effective therapeutic options. METHODS: We undertook unsupervised analyses of RNA-sequencing data of 284 MPMs, with no assumption of discreteness. Using immunohistochemistry, we performed an orthogonal validation on a subset of 103 samples and a biological replication in an independent series of 77 samples. FINDINGS: A continuum of molecular profiles explained the prognosis of the disease better than any discrete model. The immune and vascular pathways were the major sources of molecular variation, with strong differences in the expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; the extrema of this continuum had specific molecular profiles: a "hot" bad-prognosis profile, with high lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; a "cold" bad-prognosis profile, with low lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of pro-angiogenic genes; and a "VEGFR2+/VISTA+" better-prognosis profile, with high expression of immune checkpoint VISTA and pro-angiogenic gene VEGFR2. We validated the gene expression levels at the protein level for a subset of five selected genes belonging to the immune and vascular pathways (CD8A, PDL1, VEGFR3, VEGFR2, and VISTA), in the validation series, and replicated the molecular profiles as well as their prognostic value in the replication series. INTERPRETATION: The prognosis of MPM is best explained by a continuous model, which extremes show specific expression patterns of genes involved in angiogenesis and immune response.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Transcriptoma
10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores Sexuais
11.
EBioMedicine ; 44: 431-438, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (C228T and C250T) detected in tumours and cells shed into urine of urothelial cancer (UC) patients are putative biomarkers for UC detection and monitoring. However, the possibility of detecting these mutations in cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA) in blood and urine, or DNA from urinary exfoliated cells (cellDNA) with a single-gene sensitive assay has never been tested in a case-control setting. METHODS: We developed a single-plex assay (UroMuTERT) for the detection of low-abundance TERT promoter mutations. We tested 93 primary and recurrent UC cases and 94 controls recruited in France (blood, urine samples and tumours for the cases), and 50 primary UC cases and 50 controls recruited in Portugal (urinary exfoliated cell samples). We compared our assay with urine cytology. FINDINGS: In the French series, C228T or C250T were detected in urinary cfDNA or cellDNA in 81 cases (87·1%; 95% CI 78·6-93·2), and five controls (Specificity 94·7%; 95%CI 88·0-98·3), with 98·6% (95% CI 92·5-99·96) concordance in matched tumours. Detection rate in plasma cfDNA among cases was 7·1%. The UroMuTERT sensitivity was (i) highest for urinary cfDNA and cellDNA combined, (ii) consistent across primary and recurrent cases, tumour stages and grades, (iii) higher for low-risk non-muscle invasive UC (86·1%) than urine cytology (23·0%) (P < 0·0001) and (iv) 93·9% when combined with cytology. In the Portuguese series - the sensitivity and specificity for detection of UC with urinary cellDNA was 68·0% (95% CI 53·3-80·5) and 98·0% (95% CI 89·3-100·0). INTERPRETATION: TERT promoter mutations detected by the UroMuTERT assay in urinary DNA (cfDNA or cellDNA) show excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of UC, significantly outperforming that of urine cytology notably for detection of low-grade early stages UC. FUND: French Cancer League; French Foster Research in Molecular Biology and European Commission FP7 Marie Curie COFUND.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Urológicas/diagnóstico
13.
Science ; 363(6426): 499-504, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705186

RESUMO

Adaptive evolution in new or changing environments can be difficult to predict because the functional connections between genotype, phenotype, and fitness are complex. Here, we make these explicit connections by combining field and laboratory experiments in wild mice. We first directly estimate natural selection on pigmentation traits and an underlying pigment locus, Agouti, by using experimental enclosures of mice on different soil colors. Next, we show how a mutation in Agouti associated with survival causes lighter coat color through changes in its protein binding properties. Together, our findings demonstrate how a sequence variant alters phenotype and then reveal the ensuing ecological consequences that drive changes in population allele frequency, thereby illuminating the process of evolution by natural selection.


Assuntos
Proteína Agouti Sinalizadora/genética , Cor de Cabelo/genética , Peromyscus/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Melaninas/análise , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Nebraska , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Deleção de Sequência
14.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 35(4): 792-806, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346646

RESUMO

The interplay of gene flow, genetic drift, and local selective pressure is a dynamic process that has been well studied from a theoretical perspective over the last century. Wright and Haldane laid the foundation for expectations under an island-continent model, demonstrating that an island-specific beneficial allele may be maintained locally if the selection coefficient is larger than the rate of migration of the ancestral allele from the continent. Subsequent extensions of this model have provided considerably more insight. Yet, connecting theoretical results with empirical data has proven challenging, owing to a lack of information on the relationship between genotype, phenotype, and fitness. Here, we examine the demographic and selective history of deer mice in and around the Nebraska Sand Hills, a system in which variation at the Agouti locus affects cryptic coloration that in turn affects the survival of mice in their local habitat. We first genotyped 250 individuals from 11 sites along a transect spanning the Sand Hills at 660,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms across the genome. Using these genomic data, we found that deer mice first colonized the Sand Hills following the last glacial period. Subsequent high rates of gene flow have served to homogenize the majority of the genome between populations on and off the Sand Hills, with the exception of the Agouti pigmentation locus. Furthermore, mutations at this locus are strongly associated with the pigment traits that are strongly correlated with local soil coloration and thus responsible for cryptic coloration.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Fluxo Gênico , Peromyscus/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191701, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377909

RESUMO

We investigated how somatic changes in HNSCC interact with environmental and host risk factors and whether they influence the risk of HNSCC occurrence and outcome. 180-paired samples diagnosed as HNSCC in two high incidence regions of Europe and South America underwent targeted sequencing (14 genes) and evaluation of copy number alterations (SCNAs). TP53, PIK3CA, NOTCH1, TP63 and CDKN2A were the most frequently mutated genes. Cases were characterized by a low copy number burden with recurrent focal amplification in 11q13.3 and deletion in 15q22. Cases with low SCNAs showed an improved overall survival. We found significant correlations with decreased overall survival between focal amplified regions 4p16, 10q22 and 22q11, and losses in 12p12, 15q14 and 15q22. The mutational landscape in our cases showed an association to both environmental exposures and clinical characteristics. We confirmed that somatic copy number alterations are an important predictor of HNSCC overall survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cromossomos Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(1): 33-42, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29066508

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous genomic studies have identified two mutually exclusive molecular subtypes of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC): the RB1 mutated (mostly comutated with TP53) and the RB1 wild-type groups. We assessed whether these subtypes have a predictive value on chemotherapy outcome.Experimental Design: Clinical data and tumor specimens were retrospectively obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Pathology Registry. Panel-consensus pathology revision confirmed the diagnosis of LCNEC in 148 of 232 cases. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for TP53, RB1, STK11, and KEAP1 genes, as well as IHC for RB1 and P16 was performed on 79 and 109 cases, respectively, and correlated with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), stratifying for non-small cell lung cancer type chemotherapy including platinum + gemcitabine or taxanes (NSCLC-GEM/TAX) and platinum-etoposide (SCLC-PE).Results:RB1 mutation and protein loss were detected in 47% (n = 37) and 72% (n = 78) of the cases, respectively. Patients with RB1 wild-type LCNEC treated with NSCLC-GEM/TAX had a significantly longer OS [9.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 7.7-11.6 months] than those treated with SCLC-PE [5.8 (5.5-6.1); P = 0.026]. Similar results were obtained for patients expressing RB1 in their tumors (P = 0.001). RB1 staining or P16 loss showed similar results. The same outcome for chemotherapy treatment was observed in LCNEC tumors harboring an RB1 mutation or lost RB1 protein.Conclusions: Patients with LCNEC tumors that carry a wild-type RB1 gene or express the RB1 protein do better with NSCLC-GEM/TAX treatment than with SCLC-PE chemotherapy. However, no difference was observed for RB1 mutated or with lost protein expression. Clin Cancer Res; 24(1); 33-42. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mutação , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(42): 72621-72632, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069814

RESUMO

The use of non-invasive biomarkers such as circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in head and neck tumors may be of relevance in early diagnosis and eventually improved outcome. We evaluated two different approaches from two case series in Europe and South America including (i) targeted screening of ctDNA mutations, and (ii) detection of TP53 mutations in plasma and oral rinses without previous knowledge of mutational status in tumor samples. Targeted sequencing in 5 genes identified ctDNA mutations in plasma among 42% of HNSCC cases, 67% of who were early stage cases. No association was found between ctDNA mutation detection and overall survival. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the TP53 gene resulted in identification of TP53 mutations in 76% of tumor cases. However, concordance of mutation detection was low between tumor, oral rinses (11%) and plasma (2,7%) samples. Identification of 5 pathogenic TP53 mutations in oral rinses from 3 non-cancer controls gives additional evidence of mutation occurrence in individuals without a diagnosed cancer and presents an additional challenge for the development of ctDNA diagnostic assays.

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