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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 172, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although quality indicators are frequently derived from guidelines, there is a substantial gap in collaboration between the corresponding parties. To optimise workflow, guideline recommendations and quality assurance should be aligned methodologically and practically. Learning from the European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer (ECIBC), our objective was to bring the key knowledge and most important considerations from both worlds together to inform European Commission future initiatives. METHODS: We undertook several steps to address the problem. First, we conducted a feasibility study that included a survey, interviews and a review of manuals for an integrated guideline and quality assurance (QA) scheme that would support the European Commission. The feasibility study drew from an assessment of the ECIBC experience that followed commonly applied strategies leading to separation of the guideline and QA development processes. Secondly, we used results of a systematic review to inform our understanding of methodologies for integrating guideline and QA development. We then, in a third step, used the findings to prepare an evidence brief and identify key aspects of a methodological framework for integrating guidelines QA through meetings with key informants. RESULTS: Seven key themes emerged to be taken into account for integrating guidelines and QA schemes: (1) evidence-based integrated guideline and QA frameworks are possible, (2) transparency is key in clearly documenting the source and rationale for quality indicators, (3) intellectual and financial interests should be declared and managed appropriately, (4) selection processes and criteria for quality indicators need further refinement, (5) clear guidance on retirement of quality indicators should be included, (6) risks of an integrated guideline and QA Group can be mitigated, and (7) an extension of the GIN-McMaster Guideline Development Checklist should incorporate QA considerations. DISCUSSION: We concluded that the work of guideline and QA developers can be integrated under a common methodological framework and we provided key findings and recommendations. These two worlds, that are fundamental to improving health, can both benefit from integration.

3.
J Med Screen ; : 969141321993866, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33632023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mammography screening is generally accepted in women aged 50-69, but the balance between benefits and harms remains controversial in other age groups. This study systematically reviews these effects to inform the European Breast Cancer Guidelines. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) or systematic reviews of observational studies in the absence of RCTs comparing invitation to mammography screening to no invitation in women at average breast cancer (BC) risk. We extracted data for mortality, BC stage, mastectomy rate, chemotherapy provision, overdiagnosis and false-positive-related adverse effects. We performed a pooled analysis of relative risks, applying an inverse-variance random-effects model for three age groups (<50, 50-69 and 70-74). GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 10 RCTs including 616,641 women aged 38-75. Mammography reduced BC mortality in women aged 50-69 (relative risk (RR) 0.77, 95%CI (confidence interval) 0.66-0.90, high certainty) and 70-74 (RR 0.77, 95%CI 0.54-1.09, high certainty), with smaller reductions in under 50s (RR 0.88, 95%CI 0.76-1.02, moderate certainty). Mammography reduced stage IIA+ in women 50-69 (RR 0.80, 95%CI 0.64-1.00, very low certainty) but resulted in an overdiagnosis probability of 23% (95%CI 18-27%) and 17% (95%CI 15-20%) in under 50s and 50-69, respectively (moderate certainty). Mammography was associated with 2.9% increased risk of invasive procedures with benign outcomes (low certainty). CONCLUSIONS: For women 50-69, high certainty evidence that mammography screening reduces BC mortality risk would support policymakers formulating strong recommendations. In other age groups, where the net balance of effects is less clear, conditional recommendations will be more likely, together with shared decision-making.

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 173, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) started developing a methodological framework for a guideline-based quality assurance (QA) scheme to improve cancer quality of care. During the first phase of the work, inconsistency emerged about the use of terminology for the definition, the conceptual underpinnings and the way QA relates to health questions that are answered in guidelines. The objective of this final of three articles is to propose a conceptual framework for an integrated approach to guideline and QA development and clarify terms and definitions for key elements. This work will inform the upcoming European Commission Initiative on Colorectal Cancer (ECICC). METHODS: A multidisciplinary group of 23 experts from key organizations in the fields of guideline development, performance measurement and quality assurance participated in a mixed method approach including face-to-face dialogue and several rounds of virtual meetings. Informed by results of a systematic literature review that indicated absence of an existing framework and practical examples, we first identified the relations of key elements in guideline-based QA and then developed appropriate concepts and terminology to provide guidance. RESULTS: Our framework connects the three key concepts of quality indicators, performance measures and performance indicators integrated with guideline development. Quality indicators are constructs used as a guide to monitor, evaluate, and improve the quality of the structure, process and outcomes of healthcare services; performance measures are tools that quantify or describe measurable elements of practice performance; and performance indicators are quantifiable and measurable units or scores of practice, which should be guided by guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The inconsistency in the way key terms of QA are used and defined has confused the field. Our conceptual framework defines the role, meaning and interactions of the key elements for improving quality in healthcare. It directly builds on the questions asked in guidelines and answered through recommendations. These findings will be applied in the forthcoming ECICC and for the future updates of ECIBC. These are large-scale integrated projects aimed at improving healthcare quality across Europe through the development of guideline-based QA schemes; this will help in implementing and improving our approach.

5.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 31(3): 203-222, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395323

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2013, riociguat a potent and specific stimulator of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) was approved as first in class sGC stimulator which reflected a first culmination of intense research and development efforts starting in the mid 1990ies. In the meantime, it turned out that triggering cGMP production by sGC stimulators could have a broad treatment potential. In consequence, various pharmaceutical companies are still very active in identifying novel chemistry for sGC stimulators. After the first generation of sGC stimulators like riociguat or lificiguat, new compound classes with different physicochemical and kinetic profiles were identified, like the sGC stimulators vericiguat or praliciguat.Area covered: Patent literature on sGC stimulators with a focus on recent compounds of the years 2014-2019 as on claimed use and formulations of these compounds. The information was collected from publicly available data sources only (MedLine, EmBase, Chemical Abstracts, Orbit, Dolphin).Expert Opinion: With the recent advancements reported in the patent literature, sGC stimulators might be differentiated due to tissue selectivity or route of application although exhibiting the same molecular mode of action. The indication space of these compounds is potentially very broad and multiple indications in cardiovascular diseases and beyond are under investigation.

6.
Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes ; 160: 21-33, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations of evidence- and formally consensus-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) represent a valuable source of quality indicators (QIs). Nevertheless, a standardized methodological procedure for developing QIs in the context of CPGs does not yet exist in Germany for all CPGs. For this reason, a methodological standard for the guideline-based development of QIs (QI Standard) was developed based on a structured consensus process involving multiple key stakeholders. METHODS: The proposed content of the QI Standard was derived from evidence, drawing upon results of reviews and qualitative studies, and considered German manuals for guideline-based QI development of two guideline programs. A multi-perspective consensus panel, broadly representing key stakeholders from the German healthcare system with expertise in CPGs and/or quality management, was nominated to vote on recommendations for guideline-based development of QIs. The iterative, structured consensus process included a two-stage online survey based on the Delphi method ("preliminary voting") and a moderated final stakeholder conference where all those recommendations were definitely included in the QI Standard that received approval of more than 75 % (consensus criterion) of the consensus panel. RESULTS: Based on the agreed QI Standard, the QI development process starts with a criteria-based selection of "potential" QIs which - in case of adoption - are published in CPGs as "preliminary" QIs and can achieve the status "final" after successful testing. The QI Standard is composed of a total of 30 recommendations, which are allocated to six areas: A) preparatory work steps for the guideline-based recommendation of QIs, B) QI development group and cooperation with the CPG group, C) development of potential QIs, D) critical appraisal of potential QIs, E) formal adoption and publication as well as F) piloting/testing of preliminary QIs and conversion into final QIs. DISCUSSION: Before the QI Standard can be recommended for implementation in future CPGs, it should have been successfully tested in selected German CPG projects. In addition to methodological requirements for the QI development, it must be ensured that guideline groups have adequate resources for the implementation of the QI Standard. CONCLUSION: By using the QI Standard, scientifically sound and healthcare-relevant QIs can be expected.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Consenso , Alemanha , Padrões de Referência
7.
Pathologe ; 42(1): 116-124, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346872

RESUMO

Primary vaginal carcinoma is rare. There are two pathogenetic pathways, one associated with HPV high-risk infection and another one with inactivation of p53. Vaginal Paget's disease is rare and mostly associated with vulvar disease or represents intravaginal spread of associated locoregional cancer. Diagnostic vaginal biopsies should be examined by step sections on H&E. Sentinel lymph nodes should be processed completely using ultrastaging. Morphology-based prognostic factors with good clinical evidence are tumour stage and lymph node status. Molecular markers are not currently relevant for treatment decision and prognosis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma in Situ , Patologia Cirúrgica , Neoplasias Vaginais , Neoplasias Vulvares , Feminino , Humanos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela , Neoplasias Vaginais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Vaginais/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e20064, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347419

RESUMO

Following the rapid spread of a new type of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), nearly all countries have introduced temporary restrictions affecting daily life, with "social distancing" as a key intervention for slowing the spread of the virus. Despite the pandemic, the development or actualization of medical guidelines, especially in the rapidly changing field of oncology, needs to be continued to provide up-to-date evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for shared decision making and maintaining the treatment quality for patients. In this viewpoint, we describe the potential strengths and limitations of online conferences for medical guideline development. This viewpoint will assist guideline developers in evaluating whether online conferences are an appropriate tool for their guideline conference and audience.


Assuntos
Consenso , Humanos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
9.
Pathologe ; 41(6): 621-633, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940744

RESUMO

Uterine sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies, derived from the myometrium, the endometrial stroma, and very rarely from the nonspecialized uterine soft tissue. The actual incidence is about 1.5 for Caucasian and 3.0 for Afro-American women. There is no grading system for leimoysarcoma defined by the WHO classification; however, if clinicians request, the FNCLCC grading can be specified in analogy to soft tissue sarcomas. Adenosarcomas must be distinguished from adenofibromas (the existence of which is questionable)-with the vast majority of these tumors being uterine adenosarcomas. Within adenosarcomas, deep myometrial invasion (>50%), sarcomatous overgrowth, and a high-grade heterologous component are associated with a higher recurrence rate and poor survival. The immunohistochemical panel represents a very helpful tool for distinguishing low-grade from high grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS) and may be supplemented by molecular analyses. Steroid hormone receptor analysis should be performed for all ESS due to the possible therapeutic relevance. Undifferentiated uterine sarcomas represent a diagnosis of exclusion and have a very poor prognosis. Carcinosarcomas represent a special subtype of endometrial carcinomas and are in fact not uterine sarcomas. Uterine sarcomas may present substantial intratumoral heterogeneity and adequate embedding is mandatory. Lesions ≤2 cm in the largest dimension should be processed completely and larger tumors should be processed with one block per centimeter for the largest tumor dimension.

10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 875, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines and quality indicators (for example as part of a quality assurance scheme) aim to improve health care delivery and health outcomes. Ideally, the development of quality indicators should be grounded in evidence-based, trustworthy guideline recommendations. However, anecdotally, guidelines and quality assurance schemes are developed independently, by different groups of experts who employ different methodologies. We conducted an extension and update of a previous systematic review to identify, describe and evaluate approaches to the integrated development of guidelines and related quality indicators. METHODS: On May 24th, 2019 we searched in Medline, Embase and CINAHL and included studies if they reported a methodological approach to guideline-based quality indicator development and were published in English, French, or German. RESULTS: Out of 16,034 identified records, we included 17 articles that described a method to integrate guideline recommendations development and quality indicator development. Added to the 13 method articles from original systematic review we included a total 30 method articles. We did not find any evaluation studies. In most approaches, guidelines were a source of evidence to inform the quality indicator development. The criteria to select recommendations (e.g. level of evidence or strength of the recommendation) and to generate, select and assess quality indicators varied widely. We found methodological approaches that linked guidelines and quality indicator development explicitly, however none of the articles reported a conceptual framework that fully integrated quality indicator development into the guideline process or where quality indicator development was part of the question formulation for developing the guideline recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: In our systematic review we found approaches which explicitly linked guidelines with quality indicator development, nevertheless none of the articles reported a comprehensive and well-defined conceptual framework which integrated quality indicator development fully into the guideline development process.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 795, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the scope of the European Commission Initiative on Breast Cancer (ECIBC) the Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) subgroup was tasked to identify breast cancer screening programme (BCSP) performance indicators, including their acceptable and desirable levels, which are associated with breast cancer (BC) mortality. This paper documents the methodology used for the indicator selection. METHODS: The indicators were identified through a multi-stage process. First, a scoping review was conducted to identify existing performance indicators. Second, building on existing frameworks for making well-informed health care choices, a specific conceptual framework was developed to guide the indicator selection. Third, two group exercises including a rating and ranking survey were conducted for indicator selection using pre-determined criteria, such as: relevance, measurability, accurateness, ethics and understandability. The selected indicators were mapped onto a BC screening pathway developed by the M&E subgroup to illustrate the steps of BC screening common to all EU countries. RESULTS: A total of 96 indicators were identified from an initial list of 1325 indicators. After removing redundant and irrelevant indicators and adding those missing, 39 candidate indicators underwent the rating and ranking exercise. Based on the results, the M&E subgroup selected 13 indicators: screening coverage, participation rate, recall rate, breast cancer detection rate, invasive breast cancer detection rate, cancers > 20 mm, cancers ≤10 mm, lymph node status, interval cancer rate, episode sensitivity, time interval between screening and first treatment, benign open surgical biopsy rate, and mastectomy rate. CONCLUSION: This systematic approach led to the identification of 13 BCSP candidate performance indicators to be further evaluated for their association with BC mortality.

12.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(8): 848-857, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, an update of the German evidence-based (S3) guidelines "Diagnosis, Therapy and Follow-up of Melanoma" first issued in 2013 was published under the auspices of the German Guideline Program in Oncology. The update also included a revision of existing guideline-based quality indicators (QIs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using a standardized multi-step process, the guideline-derived QIs were revised by a multidisciplinary, interprofessional working group based on the strong (level A) recommendations contained in the guideline update as well as on a systematic literature search for international indicators and on the outcomes of existing QIs as reported by certified German skin cancer centers. RESULTS: Based on the original set of twelve guideline-based QIs agreed upon in 2013, the working group developed an updated set containing nine indicators. Four QIs were kept unchanged; two were modified; two were removed; and three new QIs were added. Unlike 2013, the working group was now able to incorporate the outcomes of QIs previously implemented at the various skin cancer centers. CONCLUSIONS: Close cooperation between guideline group and certification commission allows for the implementation of guideline-based QIs in cancer care. Measured outcomes form the basis for updating both the guidelines and the QI development process. They provide information about the care of cancer patients in a real-world setting as well as on guideline adherence and the feasibility of QIs themselves. This is a dynamic process that can be described in a transparent manner and that requires regular updating.

15.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(4): 400-413, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247292

RESUMO

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common lesions in light-skinned individuals that can potentially progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Both conditions may be associated with significant morbidity and constitute a major disease burden, especially among the elderly. To establish an evidence-based framework for clinical decision making, the guidelines for actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma were developed using the highest level of methodology (S3) according to regulations issued by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The guidelines are aimed at dermatologists, general practitioners, ENT specialists, surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and radiation oncologists in hospitals and office-based settings as well as other medical specialties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AKs and cSCC. The guidelines are also aimed at affected patients, their relatives, policy makers and insurance funds. In the second part, we will address aspects relating to epidemiology, etiology, surgical and systemic treatment of cSCC, follow-up and disease prevention, and discuss AKs and cSCC in the context of occupational disease regulations.

17.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 18(3): 275-294, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130773

RESUMO

Actinic keratoses (AK) are common lesions in light-skinned individuals that can potentially progress to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Both conditions may be associated with significant morbidity and constitute a major disease burden, especially among the elderly. To establish an evidence-based framework for clinical decision making, the guideline "actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma" was developed using the highest level of methodology (S3) according to regulations issued by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF). The guideline is aimed at dermatologists, general practitioners, ENT specialists, surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and radiation oncologists in hospitals and office-based settings as well as other medical specialties involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AK and cSCC. The guideline is also aimed at affected patients, their relatives, policy makers and insurance funds. In the first part, we will address aspects relating to diagnosis, interventions for AK, care structures and quality-of-care indicators.

19.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(1): 46-56, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766052

RESUMO

Description: The European Commission Initiative for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis guidelines (European Breast Guidelines) are coordinated by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The target audience for the guidelines includes women, health professionals, and policymakers. Methods: An international guideline panel of 28 multidisciplinary members, including patients, developed questions and corresponding recommendations that were informed by systematic reviews of the evidence conducted between March 2016 and December 2018. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) Evidence to Decision frameworks were used to structure the process and minimize the influence of competing interests by enhancing transparency. Questions and recommendations, expressed as strong or conditional, focused on outcomes that matter to women and provided a rating of the certainty of evidence. Recommendations: This synopsis of the European Breast Guidelines provides recommendations regarding organized screening programs for women aged 40 to 75 years who are at average risk. The recommendations address digital mammography screening and the addition of hand-held ultrasonography, automated breast ultrasonography, or magnetic resonance imaging compared with mammography alone. The recommendations also discuss the frequency of screening and inform decision making for women at average risk who are recalled for suspicious lesions or who have high breast density.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia Mamária/normas
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