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3.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714983

RESUMO

NUTM1 gene rearrangements were originally identified in NUT carcinoma. Recently, NUTM1 has been discovered to rearrange with a variety of gene partners in malignancies of diverse location and type. Only one NUTM1-rearranged tumor occurring in the colon has been reported. Herein we report five such tumors. The five tumors occurred in four females and one male, ranging from 38 to 67 years of age (median 51 years). The masses occurred in the colon (cecum, descending, sigmoid) and ileocecal valve region, measuring 2.5-20 cm in size (median 7 cm). Four patients had metastases at presentation (liver, n = 4; lymph nodes, n = 3). Histologically, the lesions arose in the submucosa, infiltrating into the mucosa and muscularis propria, and grew in fibrosarcoma-like fascicles and sheets of epithelioid or rhabdoid cells, with foci of hyalinized to vaguely osteoid-like matrix. The tumors were composed of relatively monomorphic, spindled to epithelioid cells with focal rhabdoid morphology, hyperchromatic nuclei, and small nucleoli. Mitotic activity was usually low (range 1-14/10 HPF; median 5/10 HPF); necrosis was present in two cases. Variable keratin expression and uniform nuclear NUT expression was present; KIT/DOG1 were negative and SMARCB1/SMARCA4 were retained. Next-generation sequencing identified MXD4-NUTM1 rearrangement in all cases (breakpoints: MXD4 exon 5, NUTM1 exons 2 or 3). Follow-up showed one of the four patients who presented with metastases to be dead of disease at 30 months; the other three patients were alive with metastatic disease. The final patient is disease-free, 5 months after diagnosis. NUTM1-rearranged colorectal sarcomas have characteristic morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic features, suggesting that they represent a distinct entity within the family of NUTM1-rearranged neoplasia. A NUTM1-rearranged tumor should be considered for any difficult-to-classify submucosal spindle cell neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular keratin-positive tumors showing an unusual combination of fibrosarcomatous, epithelioid to rhabdoid and hyalinized morphologies. Recognition of MXD4-NUTM1 rearranged sarcomas may be therapeutically important, even though best treatment is currently elusive/unknown.

4.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742141

RESUMO

Giant cell tumors of soft tissue (GCT-ST) are rare low-grade neoplasms that were at one time thought to represent the soft tissue counterparts of GCT of bone (GCT-B) but are now known to lack the H3F3 mutations characteristic of osseous GCT. We present six distinctive giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms that expressed keratins and carried a recurrent HMGA2-NCOR2 gene fusion. Patients were five females and one male aged 14-60 years (median, 29). All presented with superficial (subcutaneous) masses that were removed by conservative marginal (3) or wide (2) local excision. The tumors originated in the upper extremity (2), lower extremity (2), head/neck (1), and trunk (1). Five patients with follow-up (median, 21 months; range, 14-168) remained disease-free. Grossly, all tumors were well-demarcated but not encapsulated with variable lobulation. Histologically, they were composed of bland plump epithelioid or ovoid to spindled mononuclear cells admixed with evenly distributed multinucleated osteoclast-type giant cells. Foci of stromal hemorrhage and hemosiderin were seen in all cases. The mitotic activity ranged from 2 to 14/10 high power fields (median: 10). Foci of necrosis and vascular invasion were seen in one case each. The mononuclear cells were immunoreactive with the AE1/AE3 keratin cocktail and less frequently/less diffusely for K7 and K19 but lacked expression of other lineage-associated markers. RNA-based next-generation sequencing revealed an HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion in all tumors. None of the keratin-negative conventional GCT-ST showed the HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion (0/7). Metaplastic bone (4/9) and SATB2 expression (3/4) were frequent in keratin-negative conventional GCT-ST but were lacking in keratin-positive HMGA2-NCOR2 fusion-positive tumors. The distinctive immunophenotype and genotype of these tumors strongly suggest that they represent a discrete entity, differing from conventional GCT-ST and other osteoclast-rich morphologic mimics. Their natural history appears favorable, although a study of additional cases and longer follow-up are warranted.

5.
Hum Pathol ; 110: 12-19, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406387

RESUMO

Although the morphologic diagnosis of hibernoma is usually straightforward, some hibernomas have atypical morphologic features, mimicking atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDLs). In addition, the multivacuolated brown fat cells may be mistaken for lipoblasts by pathologists, especially those without significant soft tissue tumor exposure. Thus, we continue to receive in consultation cases of hibernoma sent for MDM2 fluorescence in situ hybridization testing to exclude ALT/WDL. Testing hibernomas for MDM2 amplification, however, adds cost and delays the final diagnosis. Recently, we have noted expression of neprilysin (CD10, CALLA), a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase involved in the inactivation of various peptide hormones, in brown fat cells, and wished to explore the potential utility of this widely available, inexpensive ancillary test in the differential diagnosis of hibernoma. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from well-characterized cases of hibernoma (n = 48), brown fat (n = 21), ALTs/WDLs (n = 17), pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLPSs) (n = 6), lipomas (n = 5), and fat necrosis (n = 5) were immunostained for CD10, using a commercially available antibody and routine laboratory protocols. CD10 expression was evaluated in both adipocytes and in surrounding stromal cells. The hibernomas occurred in 28 men and 20 women, ranging from 11 to 76 years of age and involved the extremities (n = 25), pelvis (n = 7), abdomen/pelvis/retroperitoneum (n = 7), head and neck region (n = 6), back (n = 2), and chest (n = 1). All showed diffuse, strong CD10 expression in multivacuolated brown fat cells and in the majority of adjacent univacuolated fat cells. Brown adipose tissue from various anatomic structures showed an identical pattern of immunoreactivity. In contrast, CD10 expression was present in the adipocytes of only 3 of 17 (18%) ALTs/WDLs and was absent in lipomas and fat necrosis. Lipoblasts expressed CD10 in 3 PLPSs. Expression of CD10 by surrounding fibroblastic stromal cells was more widespread, present in 13 hibernomas, 10 ALTs/WDLs, 1 instance of fat necrosis, 6 PLPSs, and 4 examples of brown fat. We conclude that immunohistochemistry for CD10 may represent a useful, rapid and inexpensive ancillary test in the differential diagnosis of hibernoma from potential morphologic mimics, especially when morphologic features favor hibernoma. CD10 expression in adipocytes, however, should be rigorously distinguished from fibroblastic stromal cell CD10 expression, a nonspecific finding.

6.
Mod Pathol ; 34(4): 758-769, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318583

RESUMO

Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma (ILMS), defined as "a malignant neoplasm showing smooth muscle differentiation, a prominent inflammatory infiltrate, and near-haploidization", is a very rare soft tissue tumor with a generally favorable prognosis. The morphologic features of "histiocyte-rich rhabdomyoblastic tumor" (HRRMT) are similar to those of ILMS, although this lesion shows by definition a skeletal muscle phenotype. Recent gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies have also suggested that ILMS and HRRMT may be related. We studied the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features of four cases previously classified as ILMS and nine classified as HRRMT. Tumors from both groups tended to occur in the deep soft tissues of the extremities of young to middle-aged males and exhibited indolent behavior. Morphologically, all were well-circumscribed, often encapsulated, and showed a striking histiocyte-rich inflammatory infiltrate admixed with variably pleomorphic tumor cells showing spindled and epithelioid to rhabdoid morphology, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and prominent nucleoli, but few, if any, mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and the rhabdomyoblastic markers PAX7, MyoD1, and myogenin. H-caldesmon expression was absent in all cases, using the specific h-CD antibody. Karyotypic study (1 HRRMT) and genome-wide copy number analysis (7 HRRMT, OncoScan SNP assay), revealed near-haploidization in four cases, with subsequent genome doubling in one, an identical phenotype to that seen in ILMS. We propose reclassification of ILMS and HRRMT as "inflammatory rhabdomyoblastic tumor", a name which accurately describes the salient morphologic and immunohistochemical features of this distinctive tumor, as well as its intermediate (rarely metastasizing) clinical behavior.

7.
J Hand Surg Am ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341297

RESUMO

We describe a 43-year-old woman with a 23-year history of recurrent extradigital glomus tumors (glomangiomatosis) of the hand and forearm. She presented with a typical presentation of pain, tenderness to palpation, and hypersensitivity of the affected regions. After surgical resection, she continued to present with new locations of tumor burden and progressively malignant features of the tumors. This exceedingly rare presentation highlights the importance of vigilantly monitoring patients for recurrence with glomangiomatosis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252159

RESUMO

Our knowledge regarding the role of genes encoding the chromatin remodeling switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) complex in the initiation and progression of gynecologic malignancies continues to evolve. This review focuses on gynecologic tumors in which the sole or primary genetic alteration is in SMARCA4 or SMARCB1, two members of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In this review we present a brief overview of the classical example of such tumors, ovarian small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type, and then a detailed review and update of SMARCB1-deficient and SMARCA4-deficient tumors of the uterus and vulva. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097826

RESUMO

Lipoblastomas are benign neoplasms of embryonal white fat that typically present in the first 3 years of life and show a lobular arrangement of maturing adipocytes with variable degrees of myxoid change. We systematically studied the clinicopathologic and genetic features of lipoblastomas arising in older children and adults. Cases with a diagnosis of lipoblastoma or maturing lipoblastoma in patients >3 years of age were retrieved from our archives. Immunostaining for CD34 and desmin and molecular studies (FISH, RNA sequencing) were performed. Twenty-two cases (8F; 14M) were identified in patients ranging from 4 to 44 years of age (median 10 years). Sites included extremity (n = 15), head and neck (n = 4), and trunk (n = 3) with tumor sizes varying from 1.6 to 17.5 cm (median 5). Only three tumors had histologic features of "conventional" lipoblastoma. The majority of tumors (n = 14) were composed of variably sized lobules of mature adipose tissue partitioned by thin fibrous septa ("maturing"). The remaining five cases consisted predominantly of bland spindled to plump ovoid cells embedded in a fibrous stroma, with a vaguely plexiform arrangement of small myxoid and adipocytic nodules ("fibroblastic"). CD34 was diffusely positive in all cases tested (21/21), while desmin immunoreactivity was identified in 12 of 21 cases (diffuse = 7, focal = 5). PLAG1 rearrangements were identified in 13 tumors in the entire cohort (59%), including all 5 fibroblastic tumors. RNA sequencing detected eight PLAG1 fusion partners, of which two were known (CHCHD7 and COL3A1) and six were novel (SRSF3, HNRNPC, PCMTD1, YWHAZ, CTDSP2, and PPP2R2A). Twelve cases had follow-up (1-107 months; median 21 months), and no recurrences were reported. Lipoblastomas may occur in older children and adults and may be difficult to recognize due to their predominantly adipocytic or fibrous appearance. Awareness that lipoblastomas may occur in older patients, careful evaluation for foci showing more typical morphologic features, ancillary immunohistochemistry for CD34 and desmin, and molecular genetic studies to identify PLAG1 rearrangements are the keys to recognizing these tumors.

10.
J Surg Oncol ; 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonuterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are common extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Deep LMS are at an increased risk for recurrence; however, few studies have focused on superficial LMS. METHODS: We reviewed the clinicopathological features of 82 patients with a primary superficial LMS. The mean age and follow-up were 57 ± 15 and 7 ± 5 years. Depth was classified as dermal (based in the skin; n = 35, 43%) and subcutaneous (based below the dermis, above the fascia; n = 47, 57%) on the final resection specimen. Dermal cases were treated with negative margin resection, while subcutaneous tumors were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team for consideration of possible adjuvant therapy. RESULTS: The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for superficial LMS was 90% with no difference (p = .18) in the 10-year DSS between patients with dermal (100%) and subcutaneous (86%) LMS. All disease recurrences occurred in subcutaneous LMS (17% vs. 0%, p = .02) and subcutaneous tumors had a worse10-year metastatic free survival (81% vs. 100%, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that dermal LMS can be managed with a negative margin resection alone. Although the prognosis for patients with subcutaneous LMS is quite favorable, there is some risk for local and distant recurrence, and such patients will benefit from multidisciplinary care.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669612

RESUMO

Mesenchymal tumors driven by NTRK fusions are clinically and morphologically heterogeneous. With an increasing number of clinicopathological entities being associated with NTRK fusions, the diagnostic and predictive value of the identification of NTRK fusions is uncertain. Recently, mesenchymal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract with NTRK fusions were described as gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but the nosology of such neoplasms remains controversial. We report eight mesenchymal tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract with NTRK1 or NTRK3 rearrangements. The tumors occurred in six children and two adults, five males and three females (age range 2 months-55 years; median 3.5 years), and involved the small intestine (n = 4), stomach (n = 2), rectum (n = 1), and mesentery (n = 1). Clinical outcomes were variable, ranging from relatively indolent (n = 2) to aggressive diseases (n = 2). Morphologically, the tumors were heterogeneous and could be classified in the following three groups: (1) infantile fibrosarcoma involving the gastrointestinal tract (n = 4), enriched for NTRK3 fusions; (2) low-grade CD34-positive, S100 protein-positive spindle-cell tumors, associated with NTRK1 fusions (n = 2); and (3) unclassified high-grade spindle-cell sarcomas, with NTRK1 fusions (n = 2). By immunohistochemistry, the tumors demonstrated diffuse pan-TRK expression, of variable intensity, and lacked a specific line of differentiation. Four cases expressed CD34, which was coexpressed with S100 protein in three cases. Expression of SOX10, KIT, and DOG1 was consistently absent. Molecular genetic testing identified TPM3-NTRK1 (n = 3), TPR-NTRK1, LMNA-NTRK1, and ETV6-NTRK3 (n = 2), and SPECC1L-NTRK3 in-frame gene fusions. We conclude that the evaluation of mesenchymal spindle-cell neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract without a definitive line of differentiation should include interrogation of NTRK alterations, particularly in pediatric patients. Mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with NTRK rearrangements are clinically and morphologically heterogeneous, and few, if any, seem related to GIST.

12.
Hum Pathol ; 103: 14-24, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679051

RESUMO

A variety of non-neoplastic diseases of the spine, including herniated/sequestered intervertebral discs, synovial cysts, and degenerative or post-traumatic changes, may present as mass lesions. Over the past several years, we have seen a large number of such paraspinal pseudoneoplasms in consultation, referred out of concern for malignancy on the part of the clinician, pathologist, or both. Herein, we report our experience with these specimens, emphasizing the clinical, radiologic, and histopathological features that allow their confident distinction from various mesenchymal tumors. Fifty-eight cases were identified within our consultation archives, referred in consultation to exclude malignancy and diagnosed as non-neoplastic disease involving the intervertebral disc, ligamentum flavum, or paraspinal soft tissues (2006-2019). Available radiologic studies were reviewed by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. The histologic features of all cases were re-evaluated. Available clinical records were reviewed. The masses occurred in adults (median age 62 years, range 20-86 years) with a male predominance (35 males and 23 females). Sites included lumbar spine (N = 33), thoracic spine (N = 15), cervical spine (N = 6), paraspinal region (N = 3), and sacral spine (N = 1). In 44 cases (76%), the referring pathologist regarded the specimen as representing a benign or malignant neoplasm, either primary or metastatic. Fifteen cases (26%) were sent for second opinion at the request of the treating clinician, following an initial malignant diagnosis. Advanced imaging studies were available for re-review in 37 cases (64%) and showed herniated/extruded disc (N = 17), compression fracture (N = 9), synovial cyst (N = 8), and degenerative joint disease (N = 7). Multiple radiologic findings were seen in 9 patients. Histologically, the specimens showed a spectrum of often florid reactive changes involving degenerating disc material, ligamentum flavum, and bone. Awareness that non-neoplastic spinal processes may form pseudoneoplastic mass lesions, and careful clinical-radiologic-pathologic correlation should allow their confident distinction from potential morphologic mimics.

13.
Histopathology ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698251

RESUMO

AIMS: Blue naevi are uncommon dermal melanocytic neoplasms characterised by GNAQ/GNA11 mutations, which very rarely progress to melanoma. Such melanomas also often have BAP1 mutations, and lack genetic events associated with conventional melanoma. Exceptionally, blue naevi arise in extracutaneous locations; one melanoma arising in this setting has been reported. We report the clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features of two cases of melanoma arising in extracutaneous blue naevus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Both arose in males, aged 25 and 63 years, with no history of other melanocytic lesions, and presented as large, painful intra-abdominal masses. The tumours were dark-brown/black, multilobulated, involved small intestinal mesentery and consisted of a predominantly fascicular and spindled, but occasionally nested and epithelioid, proliferation of variably pigmented, relatively monotonous cells with pale cytoplasm and ovoid nuclei with mild to moderate atypia. Mitotic activity was variable but generally low. Both cases showed areas of conventional and cellular blue naevus. Recurrent tumour in one case showed predominantly epithelioid morphology and greater cytological atypia and mitotic activity. One case expressed Melan-A, SOX10 and CD117, with absent expression of S100 protein and DOG1; the other expressed Melan-A, HMB45 and S100 protein. Next-generation sequencing identified GNAQ and BAP1 mutations in one case and GNA11 mutation in the other. Both patients developed widespread metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Exceptionally rare, aggressive melanomas arising in extracutaneous blue naevi should be distinguished from metastatic melanoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumour and malignant melanotic nerve sheath tumour, especially given the significant therapeutic and prognostic differences between these different entities.

14.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med ; 2020: 3780763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509358

RESUMO

Angiosarcoma of the colon is rare, as is colonic amyloidosis. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of angiosarcoma arising in association with amyloid deposition. Herein, we described a case of 77-year-old man who presented with hematochezia, and a sigmoid mass was found on colonoscopy. Histologic examination of the resected specimen showed extensive nodular deposition of AL-lambda amyloid material in the colonic wall, as well as high-grade angiosarcoma which was closely intermingled with the amyloid deposits. While the occurrence of both colonic amyloidosis and angiosarcoma in this patient may represent pure coincidence, given the intimate association of the angiosarcoma and the amyloid deposition and the rarity of both of these lesions, we hypothesize that angiosarcoma could be secondary to amyloid deposition.

15.
Mod Pathol ; 33(10): 1889-1895, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415263

RESUMO

Epithelial marker expression and/or epithelial differentiation, as well as "anomalous" expression of keratins, are features of some soft tissue tumors. Recently, we have encountered an unusual mesenchymal tumor composed of bland, distinctly eosinophilic, keratin-positive epithelial cells, which were almost entirely obscured by xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Six cases were identified (5 F, 1 M; 16-62 years (median 21 years)) arising in soft tissue (n = 4) and bone (n = 2) and ranging in size from 2 to 7 cm. The tumors were generally circumscribed, with a fibrous capsule containing lymphoid aggregates, and consisted in large part of a sheet-like proliferation of foamy histiocytes, Touton-type and osteoclast-type giant cells, and chronic inflammatory cells. Closer inspection, however, disclosed a distinct population of uniform, cytologically bland mononuclear cells with brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm arranged singly and in small nests and cords. Overt squamous and/or glandular differentiation was absent. By immunohistochemistry, these cells were diffusely positive with the OSCAR and AE1/AE3 keratin antibodies, and focally positive for high-molecular weight keratins; endothelial and myoid markers were negative and SMARCB1 was retained. RNA-seq identified a PLEKHM1 variant of undetermined significance in one case, likely related to this patient's underlying osteopetrosis. Follow-up to date has been benign. In summary, we have identified a novel tumor of soft tissue and bone with a predilection for young females, provisionally termed "xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumor". These unusual lesions do not appear to arise from adnexa, or represent known keratin-positive soft tissue tumors, and the origin of their constituent epithelial cells is obscure. The natural history of this distinctive lesion appears indolent, although study of additional cases and longer term follow-up are needed.

16.
Hum Pathol ; 99: 75-79, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217091

RESUMO

Fibroepithelial stromal polyps (FESPs) are benign polypoid mesenchymal lesions thought to arise from desmin-positive specialized stromal cells of the female genital tract. Although most cases are easily diagnosed by morphology alone, the morphology of FESPs is variable and in some instances can contain hypercellular stroma with numerous atypical desmin-positive cells, simulating botryoid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). Recently, we encountered a cellular FESP showing desmin expression as well as nuclear immunoreactivity for the skeletal muscle-associated transcription factor MyoD1. Although these lesions are widely known to express desmin, there are very few studies examining expression of the more specific markers of skeletal muscle differentiation, myogenin and MyoD1. The aim of our study was to examine desmin, MyoD1, and myogenin expression in a series of 25 FESPs. Of the 25 cases, desmin expression was present in 23 (92%), at least focal MyoD1 expression was present in 10 (40%), and all cases were negative for myogenin. Follow-up data were available for all 25 cases, and none recurred or behaved in a malignant fashion. Awareness of this potential immunohistochemical pitfall and careful morphologic evaluation should allow for the confident distinction of MyoD1-positive FESP from botyroid ERMS in almost all instances.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Proteína MyoD/análise , Neoplasias Fibroepiteliais/química , Pólipos/química , Células Estromais/química , Neoplasias Vaginais/química , Neoplasias Vulvares/química , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Fibroepiteliais/patologia , Pólipos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Células Estromais/patologia , Neoplasias Vaginais/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(6): 729-737, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934916

RESUMO

Soft tissue tumors with GLI1 gene fusions or amplifications have been recently described as a unique pathologic entity with an established risk of malignancy. We herein expand these findings by investigating a cohort of 11 head and neck lesions with GLI1 alterations, including 8 from the tongue, for their clinicopathologic and molecular features. The tumors commonly affected males in their 30s (male:female ratio 2.7:1; range: 1 to 65). Tumors showed a multinodular growth pattern, nested architecture separated by a delicate, arborizing vascular network, monotonous round to ovoid nuclei, and clear cytoplasm. Tumor protrusion into vascular spaces was common. Genetic alterations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or targeted RNA sequencing. Seven tumors harbored GLI1 fusions with the following partners: ACTB (n=4), PTCH1 (n=2), or MALAT1 (n=1). The remaining 4 cases showed coamplifications of GLI1 with CDK4 and MDM2 genes. Tumors were commonly positive for S100 protein and CD56. CDK4, MDM2, and STAT6 were positive in GLI1-amplified tumors. Two of 6 patients with available follow-up (1 each with GLI1 amplification and PTCH1-GLI1 fusion) developed distant metastases. Both tumors showed a high mitotic index and tumor necrosis. The head and neck region, particularly tongue, is a common location for GLI1-related mesenchymal tumors. Although a morphologic overlap was noted with the previously reported "pericytoma with t(7,12) translocation," often occurring in the tongue, our findings expand the original findings, to include a more variable immunophenotype, propensity for late distant metastases, and alternative mechanisms of GLI1 oncogenic activation, such as various GLI1 fusion partners or GLI1 coamplifications with MDM2 and CDK4 genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mod Pathol ; 33(5): 858-870, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792355

RESUMO

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) are tumors that cause hypophosphatemia/osteomalacia chiefly by secreting FGF23. We have identified FN1-FGFR1/FGF1 fusion genes in nearly half of PMT, suggesting a central role of FGFR1 pathways in the pathogenesis of PMT. Tumorigenic drivers are unknown for tumors where previous study detected neither fusion, including many in bone, where FISH failed because of tissue decalcification. To identify alternative fusions in PMT without known fusions, as well as to validate the positive FISH results and characterize the fusion junctions, 34 PMT were studied, including 12 with known FN1-FGFR1 fusion by FISH (Group A), 2 with FN1-FGF1 (B), 12 with neither fusion (C), and 8 with previous acid-based decalcification and hence unknown fusion status (D). In total, 23 archival samples were subjected to anchored multiplex PCR-based RNA-sequencing (AMP-seq) with primers targeting FN1, genes encoding the FGF/FGFR families, and KL (α-Klotho); five Group C cases were also studied with whole-transcriptomic and exome-captured RNA sequencing, respectively. The AMP-seq results were consistent with previous FISH and/or transcriptomic sequencing data, except in one old Group A sample. One case had a novel FGFR1 exon 9 breakpoint, confirmed by genomic DNA sequencing. One Group D bone tumor was found to harbor FN1-FGF1. All 3 RNA-sequencing platforms failed to identify convincing fusion genes in Group C (N = 10), which instead expressed significantly higher levels of either KL or KLB. This result was further confirmed with KL and KLB RNA CISH semi-quantification (RNAscope). Our results demonstrated the utility of AMP-seq, which was compromised by decalcification and prolonged archiving. Of potential importance, fusion-negative PMT frequently overexpressed α-Klotho (or instead ß-Klotho less commonly), whose role as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23-FGFR1 binding suggests its aberrant expression in osteocytes/osteoblasts might result in an FGF23-FGFR1 autocrine loop that in turn drives the overexpression of FGF23 and tumorigenesis through activated FGFR pathways.

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