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1.
Mod Pathol ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415263

RESUMO

Epithelial marker expression and/or epithelial differentiation, as well as "anomalous" expression of keratins, are features of some soft tissue tumors. Recently, we have encountered an unusual mesenchymal tumor composed of bland, distinctly eosinophilic, keratin-positive epithelial cells, which were almost entirely obscured by xanthogranulomatous inflammation. Six cases were identified (5 F, 1 M; 16-62 years (median 21 years)) arising in soft tissue (n = 4) and bone (n = 2) and ranging in size from 2 to 7 cm. The tumors were generally circumscribed, with a fibrous capsule containing lymphoid aggregates, and consisted in large part of a sheet-like proliferation of foamy histiocytes, Touton-type and osteoclast-type giant cells, and chronic inflammatory cells. Closer inspection, however, disclosed a distinct population of uniform, cytologically bland mononuclear cells with brightly eosinophilic cytoplasm arranged singly and in small nests and cords. Overt squamous and/or glandular differentiation was absent. By immunohistochemistry, these cells were diffusely positive with the OSCAR and AE1/AE3 keratin antibodies, and focally positive for high-molecular weight keratins; endothelial and myoid markers were negative and SMARCB1 was retained. RNA-seq identified a PLEKHM1 variant of undetermined significance in one case, likely related to this patient's underlying osteopetrosis. Follow-up to date has been benign. In summary, we have identified a novel tumor of soft tissue and bone with a predilection for young females, provisionally termed "xanthogranulomatous epithelial tumor". These unusual lesions do not appear to arise from adnexa, or represent known keratin-positive soft tissue tumors, and the origin of their constituent epithelial cells is obscure. The natural history of this distinctive lesion appears indolent, although study of additional cases and longer term follow-up are needed.

2.
Hum Pathol ; 99: 75-79, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217091

RESUMO

Fibroepithelial stromal polyps (FESPs) are benign polypoid mesenchymal lesions thought to arise from desmin-positive specialized stromal cells of the female genital tract. Although most cases are easily diagnosed by morphology alone, the morphology of FESPs is variable and in some instances can contain hypercellular stroma with numerous atypical desmin-positive cells, simulating botryoid embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS). Recently, we encountered a cellular FESP showing desmin expression as well as nuclear immunoreactivity for the skeletal muscle-associated transcription factor MyoD1. Although these lesions are widely known to express desmin, there are very few studies examining expression of the more specific markers of skeletal muscle differentiation, myogenin and MyoD1. The aim of our study was to examine desmin, MyoD1, and myogenin expression in a series of 25 FESPs. Of the 25 cases, desmin expression was present in 23 (92%), at least focal MyoD1 expression was present in 10 (40%), and all cases were negative for myogenin. Follow-up data were available for all 25 cases, and none recurred or behaved in a malignant fashion. Awareness of this potential immunohistochemical pitfall and careful morphologic evaluation should allow for the confident distinction of MyoD1-positive FESP from botyroid ERMS in almost all instances.

4.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(6): 729-737, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31934916

RESUMO

Soft tissue tumors with GLI1 gene fusions or amplifications have been recently described as a unique pathologic entity with an established risk of malignancy. We herein expand these findings by investigating a cohort of 11 head and neck lesions with GLI1 alterations, including 8 from the tongue, for their clinicopathologic and molecular features. The tumors commonly affected males in their 30s (male:female ratio 2.7:1; range: 1 to 65). Tumors showed a multinodular growth pattern, nested architecture separated by a delicate, arborizing vascular network, monotonous round to ovoid nuclei, and clear cytoplasm. Tumor protrusion into vascular spaces was common. Genetic alterations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or targeted RNA sequencing. Seven tumors harbored GLI1 fusions with the following partners: ACTB (n=4), PTCH1 (n=2), or MALAT1 (n=1). The remaining 4 cases showed coamplifications of GLI1 with CDK4 and MDM2 genes. Tumors were commonly positive for S100 protein and CD56. CDK4, MDM2, and STAT6 were positive in GLI1-amplified tumors. Two of 6 patients with available follow-up (1 each with GLI1 amplification and PTCH1-GLI1 fusion) developed distant metastases. Both tumors showed a high mitotic index and tumor necrosis. The head and neck region, particularly tongue, is a common location for GLI1-related mesenchymal tumors. Although a morphologic overlap was noted with the previously reported "pericytoma with t(7,12) translocation," often occurring in the tongue, our findings expand the original findings, to include a more variable immunophenotype, propensity for late distant metastases, and alternative mechanisms of GLI1 oncogenic activation, such as various GLI1 fusion partners or GLI1 coamplifications with MDM2 and CDK4 genes.

5.
Hum Pathol ; 95: 113-136, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669060

RESUMO

Hemangiopericytoma and fibrosarcoma represented at one time two of the most common diagnoses in soft tissue pathology. Both terms are now largely extinct. This article will review the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic advances that have led to these changes, and review the pathologic features of a select group of soft tissue tumors previously classified as hemangiopericytoma or fibrosarcoma.

6.
Virchows Arch ; 476(1): 3-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701221

RESUMO

Although traditional morphological evaluation remains the cornerstone for the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors, ancillary diagnostic modalities such as immunohistochemistry and molecular genetic analysis are of ever-increasing importance in this field. New insights into the molecular pathogenesis of soft tissue tumors, often obtained from high-throughput sequencing technologies, has enabled significant progress in the characterization and biologic stratification of mesenchymal neoplasms, expanding the spectrum of immunohistochemical tests (often aimed towards recently discovered genetic events) and molecular genetic assays (most often fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). This review discusses selected novel molecular and immunohistochemical assays with diagnostic applicability in mesenchymal neoplasms, with emphasis on diagnosis, refinement of tumor classification, and treatment stratification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , DNA Helicases/análise , Fusão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Proteínas Nucleares/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor trkA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteína SMARCB1/análise , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/química , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/análise
7.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(2): 271-279, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688141

RESUMO

We report 21 cases of a distinctive and unique vascular tumor which we propose to be a pure lymphatic-type angiosarcoma characterized by architectural and growth characteristics of angiosarcoma, cytologic, and immunohistochemical features of lymphatic differentiation, a prominent lymphocytic infiltrate, and variable nuclear grade. Patients included 12 males and 9 females with a median age of 65 years (range: 32 to 95 y). Tumors involved the head and neck (n=11), lower extremities (n=5), trunk (n=4), and upper extremity (n=1) and were located superficially in the dermis and/or subcutis. Tumors were designated "low grade" (n=10) when the nuclear grade was low, and vascular channel formation was evident throughout but with multilayering of endothelium within the vessels. Cases were designated "high grade" (n=11) when nuclei appeared higher grade with more rounded contours and prominent nucleoli and when solid areas predominated over vascular channel formation. A striking feature of both groups was the presence of a dense, lymphocytic infiltrate with occasional germinal center formation. All cases strongly and diffusely expressed at least 1 lymphatic marker (21/21) with podoplanin (17/19) and Prox-1 (11/11) more commonly expressed than LYVE-1 (5/10). No consistent molecular alteration was identified. Follow-up on 17 patients (median: 41 mo, mean: 54 mo) showed 10 patients were alive without disease, 5 were alive with disease, 1 died of other cause, and 1 died of disease. Local recurrence developed in 9 cases and metastasis in 2 cases, although neither correlated with grade as defined. On the basis of clinical follow-up to date, the natural history of lymphatic-type angiosarcoma appears to be more favorable than other forms of cutaneous angiosarcoma.

8.
Int J Surg Pathol ; 28(4): 352-360, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847636

RESUMO

Objective. We explore the clinicopathologic features of Ewing sarcoma (ES) presenting in older adulthood. Methods. Cases of molecularly confirmed ES arising in patients aged ≥40 years were evaluated. Results. Fifty patients were identified (33 males/17 females; 41-86 years). The majority of tumors (41) arose at extraskeletal sites, while 9 were bone primaries. Twenty-eight cases showed nested architecture, while the remaining cases showed sheet-like growth. Tumor cytology was categorized as conventional (n = 39), crushed (n = 5), clear cell (n = 4), rhabdoid (n = 3), and epithelioid (n = 2). Fifty percent had necrosis, while rosettes were noted in 1 case. Immunostains performed ranged from 1 to 28 (median = 10). Follow-up (n = 43, 1-147 months) revealed 15 patients with metastasis. Conclusion. Although rare, ES should be considered in the differential diagnosis for round cell malignancies in older adult patients. In this cohort, ES is most often extraskeletal, and may show unusual morphologic features, closely simulating more common neoplasms in this age group.

9.
Skeletal Radiol ; 49(1): 109-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267178

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the CT and MRI characteristics of extraneural perineuriomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With IRB approval, our institutional imaging database was retrospectively reviewed for cases of pathologically proven extraneural perineuriomas. CT and MRI features were recorded, correlative imaging analyzed, and the electronic medical record cross-referenced. RESULTS: We identified ten patients [(seven males, three females, mean age 49.4 ± 18.3 years (range, 16-70 years)]. All cases were pathologically confirmed. Nine cases were conventional soft tissue extraneural perineuriomas, including one with "reticular" features and one with histologic features of malignancy; the tenth case contained admixed Schwann cells (hybrid perineurioma/schwannoma). Six out of ten patients underwent CT and ten of ten MRI evaluation. Nine out of ten MRIs were performed with IV contrast. Five lesions were subcutaneous, four intermuscular, and one intramuscular. Mean lesion diameter was 4.3 ± 2.7 cm (range, 0.9-10.2 cm). Nine out of ten lesions were well circumscribed; one had irregular margins. On CT, five of six were hypodense and one isodense compared to skeletal muscle. Most lesions were T1 isointense (5/10) or hypointense (4/10) and T2 hyperintense (7/10) relative to skeletal muscle, and demonstrated solid enhancement (6/9). There was no evidence of muscular denervation on any MRI exam, and a nerve of origin was identified in two out of ten cases. CONCLUSIONS: Extraneural perineuriomas have a distinctly different imaging appearance from intraneural perineuriomas, manifesting as rounded or ovoid soft tissue masses, without evidence of muscular denervation, and usually without an apparent nerve of origin. Because these features mimic other benign and malignant soft tissue lesions, including sarcomas, biopsy or excision is needed for definitive diagnosis.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792355

RESUMO

Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMT) are tumors that cause hypophosphatemia/osteomalacia chiefly by secreting FGF23. We have identified FN1-FGFR1/FGF1 fusion genes in nearly half of PMT, suggesting a central role of FGFR1 pathways in the pathogenesis of PMT. Tumorigenic drivers are unknown for tumors where previous study detected neither fusion, including many in bone, where FISH failed because of tissue decalcification. To identify alternative fusions in PMT without known fusions, as well as to validate the positive FISH results and characterize the fusion junctions, 34 PMT were studied, including 12 with known FN1-FGFR1 fusion by FISH (Group A), 2 with FN1-FGF1 (B), 12 with neither fusion (C), and 8 with previous acid-based decalcification and hence unknown fusion status (D). In total, 23 archival samples were subjected to anchored multiplex PCR-based RNA-sequencing (AMP-seq) with primers targeting FN1, genes encoding the FGF/FGFR families, and KL (α-Klotho); five Group C cases were also studied with whole-transcriptomic and exome-captured RNA sequencing, respectively. The AMP-seq results were consistent with previous FISH and/or transcriptomic sequencing data, except in one old Group A sample. One case had a novel FGFR1 exon 9 breakpoint, confirmed by genomic DNA sequencing. One Group D bone tumor was found to harbor FN1-FGF1. All 3 RNA-sequencing platforms failed to identify convincing fusion genes in Group C (N = 10), which instead expressed significantly higher levels of either KL or KLB. This result was further confirmed with KL and KLB RNA CISH semi-quantification (RNAscope). Our results demonstrated the utility of AMP-seq, which was compromised by decalcification and prolonged archiving. Of potential importance, fusion-negative PMT frequently overexpressed α-Klotho (or instead ß-Klotho less commonly), whose role as an obligatory co-receptor for FGF23-FGFR1 binding suggests its aberrant expression in osteocytes/osteoblasts might result in an FGF23-FGFR1 autocrine loop that in turn drives the overexpression of FGF23 and tumorigenesis through activated FGFR pathways.

12.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481664

RESUMO

Lipomatosis of nerve is a rare malformation characterized by a fibrolipomatous proliferation within peripheral nerve. Lipomatosis of nerve most frequently involves the median nerve, and manifests clinically as a compressive neuropathy. However, 30-60% of cases are associated with tissue overgrowth within the affected nerve's territory (e.g., macrodactyly for lipomatosis of nerve in the distal median nerve). Somatic activating PIK3CA mutations have been identified in peripheral nerve from patients with lipomatosis of nerve with type I macrodactyly, which is now classified as a PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum disorder. However, the PIK3CA mutation status of histologically confirmed lipomatosis of nerve, including cases involving proximal nerves, and cases without territory overgrowth, has not been determined. Fourteen histologically confirmed cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the median (N = 6), brachial plexus (N = 1), ulnar (N = 3), plantar (N = 2), sciatic and superficial peroneal nerves (N = 1 each) were included. Ten cases had nerve territory overgrowth, ranging from macrodactyly to hemihypertrophy; and four cases had no territory overgrowth. Exome sequencing revealed "hotspot" activating PIK3CA missense mutations in 6/7 cases. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for the five most common PIK3CA mutations (p.H1047R, p.H1047L, p.E545K, p.E542K, and p.C420R) confirmed the exome results and identified an additional six cases with mutations (12/14 total). PIK3CA mutations were found in 8/10 cases with territory overgrowth (N = 7 p.H1047R and N = 1 p.E545K), including two proximal nerve cases with extremity overgrowth, and 4/4 cases without territory overgrowth (p.H1047R and p.H1047L, N = 2 each). The variant allele frequency of PIK3CA mutations (6-32%) did not correlate with the overgrowth phenotype. Three intraneural lipomas had no detected PIK3CA mutations. As PIK3CA mutations are frequent events in lipomatosis of nerve, irrespective of anatomic site or territory overgrowth, we propose that all phenotypic variants of this entity be classified within the PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum and termed "PIK3CA-related lipomatosis of nerve".

13.
Hum Pathol ; 91: 77-85, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299267

RESUMO

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is associated with an underlying pathogenic translocation involving either PAX3 or PAX7 and FOXO1. The presence or absence of this fusion defines the biology and clinical behavior of this subtype of RMS and its identification in tumors is relevant to prognostication and treatment planning. To further explore the unique characteristics of fusion-driven RMS, we leveraged a published gene expression data set to perform an unbiased comparison of 33 fusion-positive and 25 fusion-negative RMS cases. Our analyses revealed 1790 expressed loci with more than two-fold differential expression at a threshold of P < .05. Genes with increased expression in fusion-positive relative to fusion-negative RMS were significantly enriched for those involved in "nervous system development," "neuron differentiation," and "neurogenesis," highlighting a neurodevelopmental gene expression signature driven by the alveolar RMS-associated fusion protein. We show that neurodevelopmental genes are enriched near PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein binding sites, suggesting a genome-wide fusion protein-mediated activation of cis regulatory elements. Among the genes with differential expression in fusion-positive versus fusion-negative RMS, we identified expression of the transcriptional regulator of motor neuron and oligodendrocyte development, OLIG2, as a marker of the fusion protein-dependent neurodevelopmental signature. Immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of 73 RMS specimens revealed OLIG2 expression in 96.4% of fusion-positive RMS (N = 27/28), but only in 6.7% of fusion-negative RMS (N = 3/45; P < .001). The proportion of OLIG2-expressing cells in fusion-negative cases did not exceed 5%, while 92.9% of fusion-positive cases showed expression in at least 5% of cells. Our findings identify OLIG2 expression as a unique manifestation of a neurodevelopmental gene expression signature driven by the oncogenic fusion protein characteristic of alveolar RMS, which may aid in the diagnostic and prognostic distinction of fusion-positive cases.

14.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 36(4): 260-268, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301876

RESUMO

Perhaps the rarest cause of osteomalacia is that caused by a neoplasm, so-called "tumor-induced osteomalacia" (TIO). Although very rare cases of TIO have been associated with carcinomas and syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type-1 and McCune-Albright syndrome, the overwhelming majority of TIO is caused by tumors of mesenchymal origin. Although it was historically felt that almost any mesenchymal tumor type could occasionally result in TIO, it has become increasingly clear over the past several decades that almost all cases of mesenchymal tumor-associated TIO are caused by a single entity, known as "phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor" (PMT). This article will review historical aspects of this tumor, as well as its clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic features. The distinction of PMT from its many potential morphological mimics is discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Mesenquimoma/complicações , Mesenquimoma/genética , Mesenquimoma/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias de Tecido Conjuntivo/etiologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/complicações , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
15.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med ; 2019: 7530845, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341686

RESUMO

Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon low-grade malignant vascular tumor that may arise in soft tissue/bone or visceral sites such as the liver and lung. As this tumor exhibits epithelioid morphology, it frequently causes diagnostic confusion with other epithelioid vascular neoplasms as well as carcinoma. While 90% of classic EHE are driven by a WWTR1-CAMTA1 fusion gene, a histologically distinctive subset of EHE has been recently shown to harbor a different fusion gene, YAP1-TFE3. This variant is likely underrecognized given its rarity and only recent description. Notably, EHE frequently involves the liver but only one case of hepatic YAP1-TFE3 rearranged EHE has been reported to date. We present the second case of YAP1-TFE3 rearranged EHE affecting a 65-year-old woman and presenting as multiple liver masses, with characterization of the fusion gene at the transcriptomic and genomic levels. There are several educational points noted from this case. YAP1-TFE3 rearranged EHE shows distinctly vasoformative foci, unlike classic EHE and mimicking angiosarcoma or epithelioid hemangioma. The tumors cells show a histiocytoid appearance with voluminous cytoplasm, similar to other TFE3-rearranged tumors. Finally, in the liver, this tumor may in part mimic focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver which is an underrecognized diagnostic pitfall. This report highlights the key diagnostic and genetic features of this newly recognized variant of hepatic EHE to aid pathologists in appropriately classifying these tumors.

16.
Histopathology ; 75(6): 825-832, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236950

RESUMO

AIMS: Pulmonary chondromas, which are rare cartilaginous neoplasms that often arise in the setting of Carney triad, are morphologically similar to pulmonary hamartomas, which are much more common. There is evidence that succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency drives neoplasia in patients with Carney triad, and SDHB immunohistochemistry can be used as a surrogate marker to detect SDH deficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of SDHB immunohistochemistry in distinguishing pulmonary chondromas from hamartomas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry for SDHB (clone 21A11AE7) was performed on histological sections from six cases of pulmonary chondroma and 33 cases of pulmonary hamartoma. SDHB expression was retained in all 33 pulmonary hamartomas, and lost in the majority of evaluable chondromas (five of six). Of the five patients with chondromas showing SDHB loss, four had definitive Carney triad. Most patients with pulmonary hamartomas were older males with small solitary masses, whereas chondromas often presented as multiple masses in young females. CONCLUSION: Loss of SDHB immunohistochemical expression can be useful for differentiating pulmonary chondromas from hamartomas, and potentially identifying patients with Carney triad.

17.
Hum Pathol ; 87: 65-74, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851332

RESUMO

TFE3 rearrangements are characteristic of alveolar soft part sarcomas (ASPS), Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (Xp11-RCC), and other rare tumors. Immunohistochemistry for TFE3 protein has been considered by some to be a reliable surrogate for TFE3 molecular studies, although others disagree. We compared 2 methods for TFE3 immunohistochemistry to determine if technical differences underlie these differences. Ninety-eight archival cases of mixed type, 19 ASPS, and 8 Xp11-RCC were stained for TFE3 at Laboratory A and Laboratory B using routine protocols. Positive controls were normal human testis (Laboratory A) and Xp11-RCC (Laboratory B). Nuclear staining was scored as "negative," "1+" (<10%), "2+" (10%-50%), and "3+" (>50%). Intensity was scored as "negative," "weak," "moderate," or "strong." Only moderate-strong, 2+ or 3+ staining was considered positive. Laboratory A results were as follows: archival cases (42 of 98, 43%), ASPS (16 of 19, 84%), and Xp11-RCC (7 of 8, 88%). Laboratory B results were as follows: archival cases (5 of 98, 5%), ASPS (14 of 19, 74%), and Xp11-RCC (5 of 8, 63%). TFE3 fluorescence in situ hybridization was positive in all tested ASPS and Xp11-RCC. The overall sensitivity and specificity of TFE3 immunohistochemistry for TFE3-rearranged neoplasms were 85% (23/27) and 57% (56/98) at Laboratory A and 70% (19/27) and 95% (93/98) at Laboratory B. Technical differences, in particular, the type of control tissue, likely account for these different results. The results of our study and prior studies suggest that TFE3 immunohistochemistry should play only a minor role (if any) in the diagnosis of TFE3-rearranged tumors, with fluorescence in situ hybridization representing the preferred method.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/diagnóstico , Feminino , Rearranjo Gênico , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia
18.
Hum Pathol ; 87: 37-43, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826321

RESUMO

In 2009, Tanas et al reported unusual changes in the perinephric fat, mimicking well-differentiated liposarcoma. We report 11 perinephric masses showing similar changes but chiefly arising in patients with non-neoplastic renal disease. Tissue from 11 perinephric masses was retrieved, and immunohistochemistry for IgG/IgG4 and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for MDM2 amplification was performed. Clinical information was obtained. Cases occurred in 10 males and 1 female (43-84 years of age; median, 63.5 years). Ten patients presented with perinephric masses (size range, 2-28 cm), and one was an incidental finding. Four patients had bilateral or multiple masses. Underlying renal disease included diabetes mellitus (n = 3), end-stage kidney (n = 2), diabetes and end-stage kidney disease (n = 1), chronic pyelonephritis (n = 1), and non-invasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis (n = 1). Three patients were not known to have renal disease. Most tumors were submitted as "well-differentiated liposarcoma." The masses consisted of mature fat, myxoid stroma, moderately variable spindled to stellate cells and a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate. Enlarged, hyperchromatic stromal cells were absent. IgG4-positive plasma cells and MDM2 amplification were absent in all tested cases. Clinical follow-up (11 patients; range, 1-120 months; median, 24 months) showed absent or stable disease in 9 patients; 2 died of unrelated causes. This distinctive pseudoneoplasm usually occurs in association with non-neoplastic renal disease, although similar changes may be identified in the perinephric fat of patients with renal carcinoma. Morphologic evaluation and FISH for MDM2 amplification should allow its distinction from liposarcoma and other mimics.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Lipossarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Mod Pathol ; 32(3): 446-457, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287926

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle tumors are traditionally classified as rhabdomyoma or rhabdomyosarcoma. We have identified an unusual adult rhabdomyoblastic tumor not clearly corresponding to a previously described variant of rhabdomyoma or rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized by a very striking proliferation of non-neoplastic histiocytes, obscuring the underlying tumor. Ten cases were identified in nine males and one female with a median age of 43 years (range 23-69 years). Tumors involved the deep soft tissues of the trunk (N = 4), lower limbs (N = 4), and neck (N = 2). Tumors were well-circumscribed, nodular masses, frequently surrounded by a fibrous capsule containing lymphoid aggregates and sometimes calcifications. Numerous foamy macrophages, multinucleated Touton-type giant cells, and sheets/fascicles of smaller, often spindled macrophages largely obscured the underlying desmin, MyoD1, and myogenin-positive rhabdomyoblastic tumor. Cases were wild type for MYOD1 and no other mutations or rearrangements characteristic of a known subtype of rhabdomyoma or rhabdomyosarcoma were identified. Two of four cases successfully analyzed using a next-generation sequencing panel of 170 common cancer-related genes harbored inactivating NF1 mutations. Next-generation sequencing showed no gene fusions. Clinical follow (nine patients; median 9 months; mean 23 months; range 3-124 months) showed all patients received wide excision; four patients also received adjuvant radiotherapy and none received chemotherapy. At the time of last follow-up, all patients were alive and without disease; no local recurrences or distant metastases occurred. We hypothesize that these unusual tumors represent rhabdomyoblastic tumors of uncertain malignant potential. Possibly over time they should be relegated to a new category of skeletal muscle tumors of intermediate (borderline) malignancy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Musculares/classificação , Neoplasias Musculares/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rabdomioma/patologia , Rabdomiossarcoma/patologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(2): 261-267, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371510

RESUMO

The term "idiopathic calcifying tenosynovitis" (ICT) refers to a clinically and radiologically defined syndrome of pain and tendinous calcifications, most often involving the shoulder joint. A distinctive subset of ICT cases, termed "tenosynovitis with psammomatous calcifications" (TPC), occurs in the distal extremities and shows characteristic morphology, in particular psammomatous calcifications. As only 14 cases have been reported to date, TPC remains poorly recognized by both pathologists and clinicians. Twenty-three well-characterized cases of TPC along with all available radiologic and clinical information, including follow-up, were collected. Cases occurred in 21 females and 1 male (1 patient of unknown sex), aged 16 to 75 years (mean: 41), and almost exclusively involved the fingers and toes, except for one case in the elbow and one in the knee joint. The lesions ranged from 2 to 30 mm in size (mean: 10 mm). Pain was the most common presenting symptom (12/16 patients). A history of trauma or repetitive activity was present in 6 of 15 patients. None of the individuals was known to have disorders in calcium or phosphate metabolism. Radiographic studies showed a nonspecific, calcified mass. Typical morphologic features of TPC were invariably present, with degenerating tendinous tissue containing psammomatous calcifications, surrounded by a variably cellular, CD68/CD163/CD4-positive histiocyte-rich granulomatous host reaction. HUMARA assay in one case showed a polyclonal pattern. Clinical follow-up (19 patients; mean: 5.2 y; range: 1 to 14 y) showed no local recurrences. In this, the largest study of TPC to date, we confirm striking predilection of this distinctive pseudoneoplasm for the fingers and toes of young to middle-aged women. TPC should be rigorously distinguished from other forms of ICT, which typically involve large, proximal joints, and show simply dystrophic calcification involving tendinous tissues, and from tumoral calcinosis, which also involves large joints and often is associated with calcium and/or phosphate abnormalities. TPC appears to be related to trauma and/or repetitive activity and is cured with simple excision.


Assuntos
Calcinose/patologia , Tenossinovite/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Extremidades/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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