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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e019395, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191841

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important vascular disease and public health problem. Prevention of VTE has focused mainly on using thromboprophylaxis to avoid provoked VTE or recurrent VTE, with little attention paid to the possibility of preventing the one third to one half of VTEs that are unprovoked. We review growing research suggesting that unhealthy lifestyle risk factors may cause a considerable proportion of unprovoked VTE. Using epidemiologic data to calculate population attributable risks, we estimate that in the United States obesity may contribute to 30% of VTEs, physical inactivity to 4%, current smoking to 3%, and Western dietary pattern to 11%. We also review possibilities for VTE primary prevention either through a high-risk individual approach or a population-wide approach. Interventions for outpatients at high VTE risk but without VTE provoking factors have not been fully tested; yet, improving patient awareness of risk and symptoms, lifestyle counseling, and possibly statins or direct oral anticoagulants may prove useful in primary prevention of unprovoked VTE. A population approach to prevention would bolster awareness of VTE and aim to shift lifestyle risk factors downward in the whole population using education, environmental changes, and policy. Assuming the epidemiological associations are accurate, causal, and independent of each other, a reduction of obesity, physical inactivity, current smoking, and Western diet by 25% in the general population might reduce the incidence of unprovoked VTE by 12%. We urge further research and consideration that primary prevention of unprovoked VTE may be a worthwhile public health aim.

2.
PLoS Med ; 17(10): e1003361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) risk is highest in late life, and impaired pulmonary vascular function is a risk factor for HF development. However, data regarding the contributors to and prognostic importance of pulmonary vascular dysfunction among HF-free elders in the community are limited and largely restricted to pulmonary hypertension. Our objective was to define the prevalence and correlates of abnormal pulmonary pressure, resistance, and compliance and their association with incident HF and HF phenotype (left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction [LVEF] ≥ or < 50%) independent of LV structure and function. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed cross-sectional and time-to-event analyses in a prospective epidemiologic cohort study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. This is an ongoing, observational study that recruited 15,792 persons aged 45-64 years between 1987 and 1989 (visit 1) from four representative communities in the United States: Minneapolis, Minnesota; Jackson, Mississippi; Hagerstown, Maryland; and Forsyth County, North Carolina. The current analysis included 2,810 individuals aged 66-90 years, free of HF, who underwent echocardiography at the fifth study visit (June 8, 2011, to August 28, 2013) and had measurable tricuspid regurgitation by spectral Doppler. Echocardiography-derived pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC) were measured. The main outcome was incident HF after visit 5, and key secondary end points were incident HF with preserved LVEF (HFpEF) and incident HF with reduced LVEF (HFrEF). The mean ± SD age was 76 ± 5 years, 66% were female, and 21% were black. Mean values of PASP, PVR, and PAC were 28 ± 5 mm Hg, 1.7 ± 0.4 Wood unit, and 3.4 ± 1.0 mL/mm Hg, respectively, and were abnormal in 18%, 12%, and 14%, respectively, using limits defined from the 10th and 90th percentile limits in 253 low-risk participants free of cardiovascular disease or risk factors. Left heart dysfunction was associated with abnormal PASP and PAC, whereas a restrictive ventilatory deficit was associated with abnormalities of PASP, PVR, and PAC. PASP, PVR, and PAC were each predictive of incident HF or death (hazard ratio per SD 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.4], p < 0.001; 1.1 [1.0-1.2], p = 0.04; 1.2 [1.1-1.4], p = 0.001, respectively) independent of LV measures. Elevated pulmonary pressure was predictive of incident HFpEF (HFpEF: 2.4 [1.4-4.0, p = 0.001]) but not HFrEF (1.4 [0.8-2.5, p = 0.31]). Abnormal PAC predicted HFrEF (HFpEF: 2.0 [1.0-4.0, p = 0.05], HFrEF: 2.8 [1.4-5.5, p = 0.003]), whereas abnormal PVR was not predictive of either (HFpEF: 0.9 [0.4-2.0, p = 0.85], HFrEF: 0.7 [0.3-1.4, p = 0.30],). A greater number of abnormal pulmonary vascular measures was associated with greater risk of incident HF. Major limitations include the use of echo Doppler to estimate pulmonary hemodynamic measures, which may lead to misclassification; inclusions bias related to detectable tricuspid regurgitation, which may limit generalizability of our findings; and survivor bias related to the cohort age, which may result in underestimation of the described associations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed abnormalities of PASP, PVR, and PAC in 12%-18% of elders in the community. Higher PASP and lower PAC were independently predictive of incident HF. Abnormally high PASP predicted incident HFpEF but not HFrEF. These findings suggest that impairments in pulmonary vascular function may precede clinical HF and that a comprehensive pulmonary hemodynamic evaluation may identify pulmonary vascular phenotypes that differentially predict HF phenotypes.

3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2756-2763, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common disease that has a genetic basis. Lifestyle factors contribute to risk, but it is unknown whether healthy lifestyle can mitigate the genetic risk. We studied whether greater adherence to the American Heart Association's cardiovascular health metric, Life's Simple 7 (LS7), is associated with lower incidence of VTE in individuals across categories of a genetic risk score (GRS) for VTE. Approach AND RESULTS: We followed 9026 White participants from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study, a prospective cohort enrolled in 1987 to 1989 until 2015. We tested the joint associations with VTE of a validated VTE GRS comprising 5 well-known gene variants and baseline LS7 categories. There were 466 incident VTE events over 22.8 years. Participants with an optimal LS7 score had a lower incidence of VTE (3.9%) than those with inadequate LS7 (5.7%). Compared with the high GRS and inadequate LS7 group (hazard ratio=1), those with high GRS and optimal LS7 indeed had a reduced hazard ratio of VTE: 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89). The group with low GRS and optimal LS7 had the lowest hazard ratio of VTE (0.39 [95% CI, 0.25-0.61]). Of the LS7 components, in all GRS groups, the factor most strongly protective for VTE was normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: Among people at low or high genetic risk for VTE, healthier lifestyle factors, particularly normal weight, were associated with a lower incidence of VTE. Further studies should determine the impact of lifestyle changes among patients at high genetic risk of VTE, such as in thrombophilic families.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(12): 2465-2471, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Weight gain increases risk of cardiovascular disease, but has not been examined extensively in relationship to venous thromboembolism (VTE). The association between weight change over 9 years and subsequent VTE among participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study was examined, with a hypothesis that excess weight gain is a risk factor for VTE, relative to no weight change. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Quintiles of 9-year weight change were calculated (visit 4 1996-1998 weight minus visit 1 1987-1989 weight in kg: Quintile 1: ≥-1.81 kg; Quintile 2: <-1.81 to ≤1.36 kg; Quintile 3: >1.36 to ≤4.08 kg; Quintile 4: >4.08 to ≤7.71 kg; Quintile 5: >7.71 kg). Incident VTEs from visit 4 (1996-1998) through 2015 were identified and adjudicated using medical records. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox models. RESULTS: 529 incident VTEs were identified during an average of 19 years of follow up. Compared to Quintile 2, participants in Quintile 5 of weight change had 1.46 times the rate of incident VTE (HR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.09, 1.95), adjusted for age, race, sex, income, physical activity, smoking, and prevalent CVD). The HR for Quintile 5 was modestly attenuated to 1.38 (95% CI 1.03, 1.84) when visit 1 BMI was included in the model. When examined separately, results were significant for unprovoked VTE, but not for provoked VTE. Among those obese at visit 1, both weight gain (HR 1.86 95% CI 1.27, 2.71) and weight loss (HR 2.11 95% CI 1.39, 3.19) were associated with incident VTE, compared with normal-weight participants with no weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain later life was associated with increased risk for unprovoked VTE. Among those with obesity, both weight gain and weight loss were associated with increased risk for VTE.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2322-2331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory markers, such as hs-CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), have been reported to be related to peripheral artery disease (PAD). Galectin-3, a biomarker of fibrosis, has been linked to vascular remodeling and atherogenesis. However, its prospective association with incident PAD is unknown; as is the influence of inflammation on the association between galectin-3 and PAD. Approach and Results: In 9851 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants free of PAD at baseline (1996-1998), we quantified the association of galactin-3 and hs-CRP with incident PAD (hospitalizations with PAD diagnosis [International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 440.2-440.4] or leg revascularization [eg, International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision: 38.18]) as well as its severe form, critical limb ischemia (PAD cases with resting pain, ulcer, gangrene, or leg amputation) using Cox models. Over a median follow-up of 17.4 years, there were 316 cases of PAD including 119 critical limb ischemia cases. Log-transformed galectin-3 was associated with incident PAD (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.17 [1.05-1.31] per 1 SD increment) and critical limb ischemia (1.25 [1.05-1.49] per 1 SD increment). The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for hs-CRP (1.14 [1.02-1.27] and 1.22 [1.02-1.45], respectively). Log-transformed hs-CRP demonstrated robust associations with PAD and critical limb ischemia even after adjusting for galectin-3 (adjusted hazard ratio per 1 SD increment 1.34 [1.18-1.52] and 1.34 [1.09-1.65], respectively). The addition of galectin-3 and hs-CRP to traditional atherosclerotic predictors (C statistic of the base model 0.843 [0.815-0.871]) improved the risk prediction of PAD (ΔC statistics, 0.011 [0.002-0.020]). CONCLUSIONS: Galectin-3 and hs-CRP were independently associated with incident PAD in the general population, supporting the involvement of fibrosis and inflammation in the pathophysiology of PAD.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Galectina 3/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Isquemia/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Incidência , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Claudicação Intermitente/epidemiologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/epidemiologia , Isquemia/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
6.
Neurology ; 95(12): e1660-e1671, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that periodontal disease would be associated with increased risk for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by assessing dementia/MCI outcomes after a baseline periodontal examination. METHODS: Participants enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study with a clinical periodontal examination (or edentulous participants) at visit 4 (1996-1998; mean ± SD age 63 ± 6 years, 55% female, 21% black) and adjudicated dementia outcomes through 2016 were included (n = 8,275). A subgroup of 4,559 participants had adjudicated dementia and MCI assessments at visit 5 (2011-2013). Participants received a full-mouth periodontal examination and were classified into periodontal profile classes (PPCs) based on the severity and extent of gingival inflammation and attachment loss. MCI and dementia were determined via neurocognitive testing, neurological examination and history, informant interviews, and brain MRI in a subset. Cox proportional hazards models regressed incident dementia on PPCs. Relative risk regression models were used for the composite of MCI/dementia. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence and incidence density of dementia during follow-up (average 18.4 years) were 19% (n = 1,569) and 11.8 cases per 1,000 person-years. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for incident dementia among participants with severe PPC or edentulism (vs periodontal healthy) were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.47) and 1.21 (95% CI 0.99-1.48), respectively. For the combined dementia/MCI outcome, adjusted risk ratios among participants with mild/intermediate PPC, severe PPC, or edentulism (vs periodontal healthy) were 1.22 (95% CI 1.00-1.48), 1.15 (95% CI 0.88-1.51), and 1.90 (95% CI 1.40-2.58). Results were stronger among younger (≤62 years) participants (p for interaction = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Periodontal disease was modestly associated with incident MCI and dementia in a community-based cohort of black and white participants.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(9): 107605, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600893

RESUMO

AIMS: The association of hyperglycemia and duration of diabetes with intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) in the general population is not well documented. We examined whether elevated glucose and longer diabetes duration is independently associated with ICAS in a community-based sample. METHODS: We cross-sectionally analyzed 1644 participants (age 67-90 years) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who underwent cerebrovascular magnetic resonance angiography in 2011-13. We applied multivariable ordinal logistic regression to evaluate the association of ICAS category ("no stenosis", "stenosis <50%", or "stenosis ≥50%") with glucose or diabetes duration (<10, 10 to 20, and ≥20 years). We also obtained the corresponding odds ratios applying inverse-probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to attrition. RESULTS: Compared to non-diabetic participants in the lowest glucose quartile, the weighted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of higher ICAS category were 1.88 (1.18, 3.00) and 2.01 (1.08, 3.72) for non-diabetic and diabetic participants in the corresponding highest glucose quartile, respectively. We observed significant positive trends of ICAS across diabetes duration categories in unweighted, but not in weighted, analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Hyperglycemia and longer duration of diabetes were independently associated with ICAS, suggesting the importance of maintaining glycemic control to prevent stroke.

8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e015656, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476561

RESUMO

Background Relatively little is known about the long-term consequences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) on physical functioning. We compared long-term frailty status, physical function, and quality of life among survivors of VTE with survivors of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and with those without these diseases. Methods and Results Cases of VTE, CHD, and stroke were continuously identified since ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study) recruitment during 1987 to 1989. Functional measures were objectively captured at ARIC clinic visits 5 (2011-2013) and 6 (2016-2017); quality of life was self-reported. The 6161 participants at visit 5 were, on average, 75.7 (range, 66-90) years of age. By visit 5, 3.2% had had a VTE, 6.9% CHD, and 3.4% stroke. Compared with those without any of these conditions, VTE survivors were more likely to be frail (odds ratio [OR], 3.11; 95% CI, 1.80-5.36) and have low (<10) versus good scores on the Short Physical Performance Battery (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.36-5.47). They also had slower gait speed, less endurance, and lower physical quality of life. VTE survivors were similar to coronary heart disease and stroke survivors on categorical frailty and outcomes on Short Physical Performance Battery assessment. When score on the Short Physical Performance Battery instrument was modeled continuously, VTE survivors performed better than stroke survivors but worse than CHD survivors. Conclusions VTE survivors had triple the odds of frailty and poorer physical function than those without the vascular diseases considered. Their function was somewhat worse than that of CHD survivors, but better than stroke survivors. These findings suggest that VTE patients may benefit from additional efforts to improve postevent physical functioning.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e014885, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390492

RESUMO

Background Greater physical activity (PA) is associated with lower heart failure (HF) risk. However, it is unclear whether this inverse association exists across all subgroups at high risk for HF, particularly among those with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results We followed 13 810 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants (mean age 55 years, 54% women, 26% black) without HF at baseline (visit 1; 1987-1989). PA was assessed using a modified Baecke questionnaire and categorized according to American Heart Association guidelines: recommended, intermediate, or poor. We constructed Cox models to estimate associations between PA categories and incident HF within each high-risk subgroup at baseline, with tests for interaction. We performed additional analyses modeling incident coronary heart disease as a time-varying covariate. Over a median of 26 years of follow-up, there were 2994 HF events. Compared with poor PA, recommended PA was associated with lower HF risk among participants with hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (all P<0.01), but not among those with prevalent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease) (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.13 [P interaction=0.02]). Recommended PA was associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86), but not with lower HF risk in those with interim coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.78-1.04 [P interaction=0.04]). Conclusions PA was associated with decreased HF risk in patients with hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Despite a myriad of benefits in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, PA may have weaker associations with HF prevention after ischemic disease is established.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(10): 1134-1142, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383452

RESUMO

We examined associations of individual- and neighborhood-level life-course (LC) socioeconomic status (SES) with incident dementia in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. Individual- and neighborhood-level SES were assessed at 3 life epochs (childhood, young adulthood, midlife) via questionnaire (2001-2002) and summarized into LC-SES scores. Dementia was ascertained through 2013 using cognitive exams, telephone interviews, and hospital and death certificate codes. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of dementia by LC-SES scores in race-specific models. The analyses included data from 12,599 participants (25% Black) in the United States, with a mean age of 54 years and median follow-up of 24 years. Each standard-deviation greater individual LC-SES score was associated with a 14% (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.92) lower risk of dementia in White and 21% (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.87) lower risk in Black participants. Education was removed from the individual LC-SES score and adjusted for separately to assess economic factors of LC-SES. A standard-deviation greater individual LC-SES score, without education, was associated with a 10% (HR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84, 0.97) lower dementia risk in White and 15% (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96) lower risk in Black participants. Neighborhood LC-SES was not associated with dementia. We found that individual LC-SES is a risk factor for dementia, whereas neighborhood LC-SES was not associated.


Assuntos
Demência/etnologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(11): 1878-1885, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association of magnesium levels with incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) despite emerging evidence of magnesium contributing to vascular calcification. Moreover, no data are available on whether the magnesium-PAD relationship is independent of or modified by kidney function. METHODS: A cohort of 11 839 participants free of PAD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 2 (1990-92) was studied. We investigated the association of serum magnesium and other bone-mineral metabolism markers [calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and intact fibroblast growth factor-23] with incident PAD using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Over a median of 23 years, there were 471 cases of incident PAD. The hazard ratio for incident PAD in Quartile 1 (<1.5 mEq/L) versus Quartile 4 (>1.7 mEq/L) of magnesium was 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.40-2.74) after adjustment for potential confounders. Lower magnesium levels were associated with greater incidence of PAD, particularly in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 11 606). In contrast, the association was largely flat in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 233) with P-for-interaction 0.03. Among bone-mineral metabolism markers, only higher iPTH showed an interaction with kidney function (P-for-interaction 0.01) and iPTH >65 pg/mL was significantly related to PAD only in those with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSIONS: Lower magnesium was independently associated with incident PAD, but this association was significantly weaker in those with reduced kidney function. In contrast, higher iPTH levels were particularly related to PAD risk in this clinical population.

12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(5): 758-767, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Elevated serum calcium and phosphorus have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. We evaluated whether abnormal calcium and high serum phosphorus are associated cross-sectionally with echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) structure and function, as doing so may provide insight into the etiology of cardiac disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Included in the analysis were 5213 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) participants who in 2011-2013 had echocardiography and serum calcium and phosphorus measurements. We evaluated the association of serum calcium (corrected for albumin) and phosphorus quintiles with measures of LV structure and function, after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors. Participants were on average 75.3 years old; 59.1% were female and 19.8% were African American. Mean (±SD) concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 9.33 ± 0.38 and 3.46 ± 0.45 mg/dL, respectively. Higher calcium was associated with lower LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) but greater prevalence of concentric remodeling (p-trend: 0.005 and 0.004 respectively). We observed association between high phosphorus and high septal E/e' (p-trend: 0.02). Likewise, higher serum phosphorus was associated with higher left atrial volume index (p-trend: 0.001) and LV hypertrophy prevalence (p-trend: 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, higher calcium was associated with more concentric remodeling but lower LVEDD, suggesting complex associations between calcium and cardiac function. Serum phosphorus was related to worse indices of LV diastolic function and LV hypertrophy, but not to LV systolic function. However, the magnitudes of association were modest, so clinical implications of these findings may be limited.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Fósforo/sangue , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
13.
Headache ; 60(5): 946-953, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200562

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the association between migraine headache and incident dementia. BACKGROUND: Migraine is a risk factor for white matter hyperintensities and ischemic stroke, which are both associated with increased risk of dementia. However, it is unknown whether migraine is independently associated with dementia. METHODS: History of migraine was ascertained via questionnaire. Adjudicated cases of dementia were identified using cognitive tests, neuropsychological exams, and clinician review of suspected cases. Incident dementia was identified using adjudicated cases, follow-up calls, and surveillance of hospital and death codes. We assessed hazards of incident dementia by migraine status. Sex differences were also examined and stratified results were presented. RESULTS: Analysis included 12,495 White and African American participants ages 51-70 with a median follow-up time of 21 years. Prevalence of dementia was 18.5% (1821/9955) among those with no migraine history, 15.8% (196/1243) among those with severe non-migraine heading, and 16.7% (233/1397) among migraineurs. There was no association between migraine and incident dementia [hazard ratio: 1.04 (0.91, 1.20)]. There was also no statistically significant interaction between sex and migraine status on risk of dementia. CONCLUSION: Despite evidence of brain abnormalities in migraineurs, there was no association between migraine and incident dementia in this prospective cohort.

14.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(2): 238-246, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110754

RESUMO

Background/Objectives: Higher resting heart rate is a risk factor for arterial cardiovascular diseases. We assessed whether higher heart rate is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: In a prospective epidemiologic cohort, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we associated resting heart rate by electrocardiogram with physician-validated incident hospitalized VTE through 2015. We also examined whether lower heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic imbalance, might be a risk factor for VTE. Results: Resting heart rate at Visit 1 (1987-1989), when participants were 45 to 64 years old (mean, 54 years), was not associated with incidence of VTE (n = 882 cases). However, heart rate at Visit 4 (1996-1998; mean age, 63 years) was associated positively with VTE (n = 557 cases). The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of VTE across Visit 4 heart rate categories of <60, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and ≥80 bpm were 1 (reference), 1.22 (1.01-1.49), 1.39 (1.09-1.78), and 1.44 (1.01-2.06), respectively, and when evaluated continuously 1.11 (1.02-1.21) per 10 bpm greater heart rate. For the most part, HRV indices were not associated with VTE or associations were explained by inverse correlations of HRV indices with heart rate. Conclusion: We found a significant positive and independent association of resting heart rate at ARIC Visit 4 with incidence of VTE. The reason why high heart rate is a risk marker for VTE warrants further exploration.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(2): 148-158, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) hospitalization places patients at increased short-term risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Long-term risk for VTE associated with incident HF, HF subtypes, or structural heart disease is unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) cohort, VTE risk associated with incident HF, HF subtypes, and abnormal echocardiographic measures in the absence of clinical HF was assessed. METHODS: During follow-up, ARIC identified incident HF and subcategorized HF with preserved ejection fraction or reduced ejection fraction. At the fifth clinical examination, echocardiography was performed. Physicians adjudicated incident VTE using hospital records. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between HF or echocardiographic exposures and VTE. RESULTS: Over a mean of 22 years in 13,728 subjects, of whom 2,696 (20%) developed incident HF, 729 subsequent VTE events were identified. HF was associated with increased long-term risk for VTE (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.13; 95% confidence interval: 2.58 to 3.80). In 7,588 subjects followed for a mean of 10 years, the risk for VTE was similar for HF with preserved ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.71; 95% CI: 2.94 to 7.52) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (adjusted hazard ratio: 5.53; 95% confidence interval: 3.42 to 8.94). In 5,438 subjects without HF followed for a mean of 3.5 years, left ventricular relative wall thickness and mean left ventricular wall thickness were independent predictors of VTE. CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective population-based study, incident hospitalized HF (including both heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and reduced ejection fraction), as well as echocardiographic indicators of left ventricular remodeling, were associated with greatly increased risk for VTE, which persisted through long-term follow-up. Evidence-based strategies to prevent long-term VTE in patients with HF, beyond time of hospitalization, are needed.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia
16.
Atherosclerosis ; 294: 62-71, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is usually considered large artery disease. Interestingly, retinal microvascular findings were shown to predict PAD progression in diabetes. However, it is unknown whether retinal microvascular parameters are associated with incident PAD and its severe form, critical limb ischemia (CLI), in a community-based cohort. METHODS: Among 9371 ARIC participants (aged 49-72 years) free of a history of PAD, we quantified the associations of several retinal measures by retinal photography during the period 1993-1995 with PAD risk using Cox models. Incident PAD was defined as the first hospitalization with PAD diagnosis or leg revascularization (considered CLI if an additional diagnosis of ulcer, gangrene, or amputation). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 18.8 years, 303 participants developed PAD (including 91 CLI cases). Although generalized retinal arteriolar narrowing was not associated with PAD, most measures of retinopathy demonstrated strong associations with PAD beyond potential confounders including diabetes, with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 3.26 (95% CI 2.18-4.90) for blot-shaped hemorrhages, 3.11 (1.83-5.29) for hard exudates, and 2.18 (1.62-2.95) for any retinopathy. Adjusted HRs were significantly greater for CLI (ranging from 3.2 to 5.9) than for PAD (all p-values <0.05). Retinopathy measures showed particularly strong associations in participants with diabetes (p-value for interaction [vs. those without diabetes] <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Several retinopathy measures were strongly associated with PAD, especially with CLI and in diabetes. Our results support the contribution of microvascular abnormalities to the development and progression of PAD and would have implications on its preventive and therapeutic approaches.

17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 52-60, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum magnesium (Mg) concentrations have been associated with higher coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. A previous Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study article that evaluated the Mg-CAD association, based on 319 events occurring over 4-7 y, identified a sex-interaction whereby the inverse Mg-CAD association was much stronger among women than men. More than 1700 additional ARIC CAD events have since accrued. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that serum Mg is inversely and independently associated with long-term CAD risk in ARIC and in a meta-analysis with other prospective studies. METHODS: A total of 14,446 ARIC study participants (baseline mean ± SD age: 54 ± 6 y, 57% women, 27% African American) were followed for incident CAD through 2017. CAD events were defined by myocardial infarction or CAD mortality. Serum Mg was modeled as quintiles based on mean visit 1 (1987-1989) and visit 2 (1990-1992) concentrations. Cox regression models were used. We also conducted a random-effects meta-analysis incorporating these contemporary ARIC findings. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 27 y, 2131 incident CAD cases accrued. Overall, low serum Mg was associated with higher CAD risk after adjustment for demographics, lifestyle factors, and other CAD risk factors than was higher serum Mg (HR Q1 compared with Q5: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.47; P-linear trend <0.001). The association was stronger among women (HR Q1 compared with Q5: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.92) than men (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.34) (P-interaction = 0.05). In the meta-analysis including 5 studies, the pooled RR (95% CI) for CAD in the lowest compared with the highest circulating Mg category was 1.18 (1.06, 1.31) (I2 = 22%, P-heterogeneity = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: In this large community-based cohort and updated meta-analysis, low circulating Mg was associated with higher CAD risk than was higher Mg. Whether increasing Mg concentrations within healthy limits is a useful strategy for CAD prevention remains to be seen.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(2): 445-453, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare coding mutations underlying deficiencies of antithrombin and proteins C and S contribute to familial venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is uncertain whether rare variants play a role in the etiology of VTE in the general population. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a deep whole-exome sequencing (WES) study to investigate the associations between rare coding variants and the risk of VTE in two population-based prospective cohorts. PATIENTS/METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE), which combines the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (316 incident VTE events among 3159 African Americans [AAs] and 458 incident VTEs among 7772 European Americans [EAs]) and the Cardiovascular Healthy Study (CHS; 60 incident VTEs among 1751 EAs). We performed gene-based tests of rare variants (allele frequency < 1%, exome-wide significance P < 1.47 × 10-6 ) separately in each study and ancestry group, and meta-analyzed the results for the EAs in ARIC and CHS. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of EAs, we identified one gene, PROC, in which the burden of rare, coding variants was significantly associated with increased risk of VTE (HR = 5.42 [3.11, 9.42] for carriers versus non-carriers, P = 2.27 × 10-9 ). In ARIC EAs, carriers of the PROC rare variants had on average 0.75 standard deviation (SD) lower concentrations of plasma protein C and 0.28 SD higher D-dimer (P < .05) than non-carriers. Adjustment for low protein C status did not eliminate the association of PROC burden with VTE. In AAs, rare coding PROC variants were not associated with VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variants in PROC contribute to increased VTE risk in EAs in this general population sample.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(1): 34-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Former smokers now outnumber current smokers in many developed countries, and current smokers are smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Some data suggest that lung function decline normalises with smoking cessation; however, mechanistic studies suggest that lung function decline could continue. We hypothesised that former smokers and low-intensity current smokers have accelerated lung function decline compared with never-smokers, including among those without prevalent lung disease. METHODS: We used data on six US population-based cohorts included in the NHLBI Pooled Cohort Study. We restricted the sample to participants with valid spirometry at two or more exams. Two cohorts recruited younger adults (≥17 years), two recruited middle-aged and older adults (≥45 years), and two recruited only elderly adults (≥65 years) with examinations done between 1983 and 2014. FEV1 decline in sustained former smokers and current smokers was compared to that of never-smokers by use of mixed models adjusted for sociodemographic and anthropometric factors. Differential FEV1 decline was also evaluated according to duration of smoking cessation and cumulative (number of pack-years) and current (number of cigarettes per day) cigarette consumption. FINDINGS: 25 352 participants (ages 17-93 years) completed 70 228 valid spirometry exams. Over a median follow-up of 7 years (IQR 3-20), FEV1 decline at the median age (57 years) was 31·01 mL per year (95% CI 30·66-31·37) in sustained never-smokers, 34·97 mL per year (34·36-35·57) in former smokers, and 39·92 mL per year (38·92-40·92) in current smokers. With adjustment, former smokers showed an accelerated FEV1 decline of 1·82 mL per year (95% CI 1·24-2·40) compared to never-smokers, which was approximately 20% of the effect estimate for current smokers (9·21 mL per year; 95% CI 8·35-10·08). Compared to never-smokers, accelerated FEV1 decline was observed in former smokers for decades after smoking cessation and in current smokers with low cumulative cigarette consumption (<10 pack-years). With respect to current cigarette consumption, the effect estimate for FEV1 decline in current smokers consuming less than five cigarettes per day (7·65 mL per year; 95% CI 6·21-9·09) was 68% of that in current smokers consuming 30 or more cigarettes per day (11·24 mL per year; 9·86-12·62), and around five times greater than in former smokers (1·57 mL per year; 1·00-2·14). Among participants without prevalent lung disease, associations were attenuated but were consistent with the main results. INTERPRETATION: Former smokers and low-intensity current smokers have accelerated lung function decline compared with never-smokers. These results suggest that all levels of smoking exposure are likely to be associated with lasting and progressive lung damage. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, and US Environmental Protection Agency.

20.
Cancer ; 126(5): 1041-1050, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) cancer prevention recommendations is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in whites, but only 1 previous study has reported on this link in African Americans. This study assessed the association between the 2018 WCRF/AICR guidelines and CRC incidence in African Americans (26.5%) and whites (73.5%) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities prospective cohort (n = 13,822). METHODS: A total of 368 incident CRC cases (268 among whites and 100 among African Americans) were identified between the baseline (1987) and 2012. A baseline adherence score was created for 7 WCRF/AICR guidelines (each contributing 0, 0.5, or 1 point to the score, with higher scores corresponding to greater adherence). Adherence scores were also categorized as tertiles (0.0-3.0, 3.5-4.0, and 4.5-7.0). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the total cohort and with stratification by race. RESULTS: After adjustments for age, sex, race, center, smoking, education, intake of aspirin, calcium, total calories, diabetes status, and, in women, hormone replacement therapy, greater adherence was associated with decreased CRC risk. The HRs per 1-unit increment in score were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.97) for the whole cohort, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.73-1.09) for African Americans, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77-0.99) for whites. Similar associations between higher adherence scores and decreased cancer risk were observed for men and women and for colon cancer but not for rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations appears to be associated with decreased CRC risk for both African Americans and whites.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto/normas , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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