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1.
J Emerg Med ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common cause of presentation to the Emergency Department (ED). High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has been introduced as an alternative way to administer oxygen. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing HFNC with conventional oxygen therapy (COT) and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) exclusively in the ED setting. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on adults with ARF admitted to the ED, investigating HFNC vs. COT or other modes of ventilation. Trials that compared HFNC support outside the ED, were published as an abstract, or nonrandomized were excluded. RESULTS: Four RCTs comparing HFNC with COT and one HFNC to NIV met the criteria. Overall, 775 patients were included. The meta-analysis of the studies comparing HFNC and COT showed no differences in intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, or mortality. Intolerance was significantly higher with HFNC (risk ratio 6.81 95% confidence interval 1.18-39.19; p = 0.03). In the only available RCT comparing HFNC with NIV, no difference was found for intubation rate, treatment failure, tolerance, and dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find any benefit of HFNC compared with COT and NIV in terms of intubation requirement, treatment failure, hospitalization, and mortality; COT was better tolerated.

2.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 128(5): 971-980, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896601

RESUMO

Awake fiberoptic intubation is one of the recommended strategies for surgical patients with anticipated difficult airway, especially when concurrent difficult ventilation is expected. We performed the first systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing different protocols for awake fiberoptic intubation in anticipated difficult airway, including studies investigating elective awake fiberoptic intubation for scheduled surgery; randomized controlled trials comparing different methods for performing awake fiberoptic intubation; and adult patients with anticipated difficult airway. We excluded studies in the nonoperating theater settings, randomized controlled trials comparing awake fiberoptic intubation with other techniques, and studies based on simulation. Primary outcomes were success rate and death; secondary outcomes were major adverse events. Thirty-seven randomized controlled trials evaluating 2045 patients and 4 areas were identified: premedication, local anesthesia, sedation, and ancillary techniques to facilitate awake fiberoptic intubation. Quality of evidence was moderate-low and based on small-sampled randomized controlled trials. Overall, 12 of 2045 intubation failures (0.59%) and 7 of 2045 severe adverse events (0.34%) occurred, with no permanent consequences or death. All evaluated methods to achieve local anesthesia performed similarly well. No differences were observed in success rate with different sedatives. Dexmedetomidine resulted in fewer desaturation episodes compared to propofol and opioids with or without midazolam (relative risk, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28-0.95]; P = .03); occurrence of desaturation was similar with remifentanil versus propofol, while incidence of apnoea was lower with sevoflurane versus propofol (relative risk, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.81]; P = .01). A high degree of efficacy and safety was observed with minimal differences among different protocols; dexmedetomidine might offer a better safety profile compared to other sedatives.

4.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
5.
Artif Organs ; 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156308

RESUMO

The CytoSorb adsorber, a blood purification therapy, is able to remove molecules in the 5-60 kDa range which comprises the majority of inflammatory mediators and some endogenous molecules. We aimed to evaluate CytoSorb therapy on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. A retrospective case series study, from February 2016 to May 2017, was performed in 40 patients with multiple organ failure who received CytoSorb treatment. There were 28 patients with cardiogenic shock, 2 with septic shock, 9 with acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 1 with liver failure. Nineteen patients (47%) underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 11 (27%) had an intra-aortic balloon pump, 9 (22%) were implanted with Impella, 6 (15%) had a ventricular assist device, and 18 (45%) were treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration. After CytoSorb treatment, total bilirubin decreased from 11.6 ± 9.2 to 6.8 ± 5.1 mg/dL (P = 0.005), lactate from 12.1 ± 8.7 to 2.9 ± 2.5 mmol/L (P < 0.001), CPK from 2416 (670-8615) to 281 (44-2769) U/L (P <0.001) and LDH from 1230 (860-3157) to 787 (536-1148) U/L (P <0.001). The vasoactive-inotropic score after 48 h of treatment was reduced to 10 points, P = 0.009. Thirty-day mortality was 55% and ICU mortality was 52.5% at expected ICU mortality of 80%. Our study shows that CytoSorbTM treatment is effective in reducing bilirubin, lactate, CPK and LDH, in critically ill patients mainly due to cardiogenic shock. There is a need for randomized controlled trials to conclude on the potential benefits blood purification with CytoSorb in critically ill patients.

6.
Crit Care Med ; 46(8): e742-e750, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use in high-risk cardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: A single-center randomized controlled trial and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Heart Institute of São Paulo University. PATIENTS: High-risk patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTION: Patients were randomized to receive preskin incision intra-aortic balloon pump insertion after anesthesia induction versus no intra-aortic balloon pump use. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of 30-day mortality and major morbidity (cardiogenic shock, stroke, acute renal failure, mediastinitis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and a need for reoperation). A total of 181 patients (mean [SD] age 65.4 [9.4] yr; 32% female) were randomized. The primary outcome was observed in 43 patients (47.8%) in the intra-aortic balloon pump group and 42 patients (46.2%) in the control group (p = 0.46). The median duration of inotrope use (51 hr [interquartile range, 32-94 hr] vs 39 hr [interquartile range, 25-66 hr]; p = 0.007) and the ICU length of stay (5 d [interquartile range, 3-8 d] vs 4 d [interquartile range, 3-6 d]; p = 0.035) were longer in the intra-aortic balloon pump group than in the control group. A meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials confirmed a lack of survival improvement in high-risk cardiac surgery patients with perioperative intra-aortic balloon pump use. CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the perioperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump did not reduce the occurrence of a composite outcome of 30-day mortality and major complications compared with usual care alone.

7.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 133, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative goal-directed hemodynamic therapy (GDHT) has been advocated in high-risk patients undergoing noncardiac surgery to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that using cardiac index (CI)-guided GDHT in the postoperative period for patients undergoing high-risk surgery for cancer treatment would reduce 30-day mortality and postoperative complications. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, superiority trial was performed in a tertiary oncology hospital. All adult patients undergoing high-risk cancer surgery who required intensive care unit admission were randomly allocated to a CI-guided GDHT group or to a usual care group. In the GDHT group, postoperative therapy aimed at CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m2 using fluids, inotropes and red blood cells during the first 8 postoperative hours. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of 30-day all-cause mortality and severe postoperative complications during the hospital stay. A meta-analysis was also conducted including all randomized trials of postoperative GDHT published from 1966 to May 2017. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients (64 in each group) were randomized. The primary outcome occurred in 34 patients of the GDHT group and in 28 patients of the usual care group (53.1% vs 43.8%, absolute difference 9.4 (95% CI, - 7.8 to 25.8); p = 0.3). During the 8-h intervention period more patients in the GDHT group received dobutamine when compared to the usual care group (55% vs 16%, p < 0.001). A meta-analysis of nine randomized trials showed no differences in postoperative mortality (risk ratio 0.85, 95% CI 0.59-1.23; p = 0.4; p for heterogeneity = 0.7; I2 = 0%) and in the overall complications rate (risk ratio 0.88, 95% CI 0.71-1.08; p = 0.2; p for heterogeneity = 0.07; I2 = 48%), but a reduced hospital length of stay in the GDHT group (mean difference (MD) - 1.6; 95% CI - 2.75 to - 0.46; p = 0.006; p for heterogeneity = 0.002; I2 = 74%). CONCLUSIONS: CI-guided hemodynamic therapy in the first 8 postoperative hours does not reduce 30-day mortality and severe complications during hospital stay when compared to usual care in cancer patients undergoing high-risk surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov , NCT01946269 . Registered on 16 September 2013.

8.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(2): 762-770, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is experimental evidence that phosphocreatine (PCr) can decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury of the heart. The authors investigated if PCr would improve heart performance as compared with standard treatment in cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The ability of PCr to improve cardiac outcomes as compared with standard treatment was investigated. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANGFANG DATA, and VIP Paper Check System were searched to March 1 2017. The authors included 26 randomized controlled trials comprising 1,948 patients. Random and fixed-effects models were used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). PCr use was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support (27% v 44%; OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.35-0.61; p < 0.001), major arrhythmias (16% v 28%; OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.69; p < 0.001), as well as increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm immediately after aortic declamping (50% v 34%; OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.82-3.30; p < 0.001) as compared with standard treatment. The use of PCr decreased myocardial damage and augmented left ventricular ejection fraction in the postoperative period; however, MD for these outcomes were small and do not seem to be clinically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In randomized trials, PCr administration was associated with reduced rates of intraoperative inotropic support and major arrhythmias, and increased spontaneous recovery of the cardiac rhythm after aortic declamping. Large multicenter evidence is needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Fosfocreatina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia
9.
Crit Care ; 22(1): 6, 2018 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29351759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill. METHODS: We searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS: We identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation, while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials. CONCLUSIONS: The limited available evidence supports a beneficial role of pre-oxygenation with NIV and HFNC before intubation of critically ill patients. Recruitment maneuvers may increase post-intubation oxygenation. Ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts; thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects and videolaryngoscopy might favor adverse events.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Intubação Intratraqueal/normas , Adulto , Cânula/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Laringoscopia/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/normas
10.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Congressos como Assunto/tendências , Consenso , Humanos , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
11.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(1): 225-235, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-37196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:A careful choice of perioperative care strategies is pivotal to improve survival in cardiac surgery. However, there is no general agreement or particular attention to which nonsurgical interventions can reduce mortality in this setting. The authors sought to address this issue with a consensus-based approach.DESIGN:A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.SETTING:A web-based international consensus conference.PARTICIPANTS:More than 400 physicians from 52 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference.INTERVENTIONS:The authors identified all studies published in peer-reviewed journals that reported on interventions with a statistically significant effect on mortality in the setting of cardiac surgery through a systematic Medline/PubMed search and contacts with experts. These studies were discussed during a consensus meeting and those considered eligible for inclusion in this study were voted on by clinicians worldwide.MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Eleven interventions finally were selected: 10 were shown to reduce mortality (aspirin, glycemic control, high-volume surgeons, prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump, levosimendan, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, vacuum-assisted closure, and volatile agents), whereas 1 (aprotinin) increased mortality. A significant difference in the percentages of agreement among different countries and a variable gap between agreement and clinical practice were found for most of the interventions.CONCLUSIONS:This updated consensus process identified 11 nonsurgical interventions with possible survival implications for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This list of interventions may help cardiac anesthesiologists and intensivists worldwide in their daily clinical practice and can contribute to direct future research in the field.(AU)


Assuntos
Período Perioperatório/mortalidade , Período Perioperatório/métodos
12.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 59: 38-43, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28533194

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is initial evidence that the use of volatile anesthetics can reduce the postoperative release of cardiac troponin I, the need for inotropic support, and the number of patients requiring prolonged hospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Nevertheless, small randomized controlled trials have failed to demonstrate a survival advantage. Thus, whether volatile anesthetics improve the postoperative outcome of cardiac surgical patients remains uncertain. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial appears desirable. DESIGN: Single blinded, international, multicenter randomized controlled trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. SETTING: Tertiary and University hospitals. INTERVENTIONS: Patients (n=10,600) undergoing coronary artery bypass graft will be randomized to receive either volatile anesthetic as part of the anesthetic plan, or total intravenous anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary end point of the study will be one-year mortality (any cause). Secondary endpoints will be 30-day mortality; 30-day death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (composite endpoint); cardiac mortality at 30day and at one year; incidence of hospital re-admission during the one year follow-up period and duration of intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The sample size is based on the hypothesis that volatile anesthetics will reduce 1-year unadjusted mortality from 3% to 2%, using a two-sided alpha error of 0.05, and a power of 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: The trial will determine whether the simple intervention of adding a volatile anesthetic, an intervention that can be implemented by all anesthesiologists, can improve one-year survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Adulto , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Anestesia em Procedimentos Cardíacos/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Inalatórios/química , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Volatilização
13.
Anesth Analg ; 124(5): 1740-1741, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426588
14.
Anesth Analg ; 124(3): 1014, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207455
15.
Crit Care Med ; 45(5): 766-773, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28240687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a restrictive strategy of RBC transfusion reduces 28-day mortality when compared with a liberal strategy in cancer patients with septic shock. DESIGN: Single center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Adult cancer patients with septic shock in the first 6 hours of ICU admission. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to the liberal (hemoglobin threshold, < 9 g/dL) or to the restrictive strategy (hemoglobin threshold, < 7 g/dL) of RBC transfusion during ICU stay. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were randomized to the liberal (n = 149) or to the restrictive transfusion strategy (n = 151) group. Patients in the liberal group received more RBC units than patients in the restrictive group (1 [0-3] vs 0 [0-2] unit; p < 0.001). At 28 days after randomization, mortality rate in the liberal group (primary endpoint of the study) was 45% (67 patients) versus 56% (84 patients) in the restrictive group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.53-1.04; p = 0.08) with no differences in ICU and hospital length of stay. At 90 days after randomization, mortality rate in the liberal group was lower (59% vs 70%) than in the restrictive group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53-0.97; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a survival trend favoring a liberal transfusion strategy in patients with septic shock when compared with the restrictive strategy. These results went in the opposite direction of the a priori hypothesis and of other trials in the field and need to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/terapia , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27693206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedures every year, more than 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. The authors have updated a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 500 clinicians from 61 countries. INTERVENTIONS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature about nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. A consensus conference of experts discussed eligible papers. The interventions identified by the conference then were submitted to colleagues worldwide through a web-based survey. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors identified 11 interventions contributing to increased survival (perioperative hemodynamic optimization, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive ventilation, tranexamic acid, selective decontamination of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin for tight glycemic control, preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, leuko-depleted red blood cells transfusion, levosimendan, volatile agents, and remote ischemic preconditioning) and 2 interventions showing increased mortality (beta-blocker therapy and aprotinin). Interventions then were voted on by participating clinicians. Percentages of agreement among clinicians in different countries differed significantly for 6 interventions, and a variable gap between evidence and clinical practice was noted. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified 13 nonsurgical interventions that may decrease or increase perioperative mortality, with variable agreement by clinicians. Such interventions may be optimal candidates for investigation in high-quality trials and discussion in international guidelines to reduce perioperative mortality.


Assuntos
Consenso , Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
18.
Anesth Analg ; 124(3): 743-752, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To better understand the role of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in a surgical setting with high risk of bleeding, we analyzed all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the setting of cardiac surgery that compared ANH with standard intraoperative care. The aim was to assess the incidence of ANH-related number of allogeneic red blood cell units (RBCu) transfused. Secondary outcomes included the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and estimated total blood loss. METHODS: Twenty-nine RCTs for a total of 2439 patients (1252 patients in the ANH group and 1187 in the control group) were included in our meta-analysis using PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and EMBASE. RESULTS: Patients in the ANH group received fewer allogeneic RBCu transfusions (mean difference = -0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.25 to -0.34; P = .001; I = 95.1%). Patients in the ANH group were overall transfused less with allogeneic blood when compared with controls (356/845 [42.1%] in the ANH group versus 491/876 [56.1%] in controls; risk ratio = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.87; P < .0001; I = 72.5%), and they experienced less postoperative blood loss (388 mL in ANH versus 450 mL in control; mean difference = -0.64; 95% CI, -0.97 to -0.31; P < .0001; I = 91.8%). CONCLUSIONS: ANH reduces the number of allogeneic RBCu transfused in the cardiac surgery setting together with a reduction in the rate of patients transfused with allogeneic blood and with a reduction of bleeding.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/tendências , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/tendências , Hemodiluição/tendências , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/métodos , Hemodiluição/métodos , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Transplante Homólogo/tendências
20.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 31(2): 719-730, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-34731

RESUMO

Objective: Out of the 230 million patients undergoing major surgical procedure every year, morethan 1 million will die within 30 days. Thus, any nonsurgical interventions that help reduce perioperative mortality might save thousands of lives. We decided to update a previous consensus process to identify all the nonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence, that may help reduce perioperative mortality. Design and Setting: A web-based international consensus conference. Participants: 500 hundred clinicians from 61 countries. Interventions: A systematic literature search was performed to identify published literature aboutnonsurgical interventions, supported by randomized evidence showing a statistically significant impact on mortality. Eligible papers were discussed by a Consensus Conference of experts. The interventions identified by the conference were then submitted to colleagues worldwide through aweb-based survey...(AU)


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória , Mortalidade , Anestesia , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos
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