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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(12): 1900-1906, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679641

RESUMO

Underuse of hydralazine/nitrate (HYD/NIT) in black patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has been previously described, but whether this important treatment gap persists in contemporary practice is unknown. Sacubitril/valsartan has become a part of guideline-directed medical therapy for HFrEF but data on utilization of this therapy in black patients is lacking. This study addressed these issues by assessing the frequency of HYD/NIT and sacubitril/valsartan use in black patients with HFrEF in the Change the Management of Patients with Heart Failure Registry, a multicenter cohort study. The association of race with utilization rates of these agents was also evaluated. Clinical and medication data at baseline and during 12 months of follow-up from black and nonblack registry patients without documented contraindications or intolerance to the medications of interest were analyzed. Data were available from December 2015 to October 2017, in 4,848 HFrEF patients, of whom 853 were black (18%) and 3995 were nonblack. Black patients were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower ejection fractions compared with nonblacks. Only 11% of black patients were receiving HYD/NIT therapy at baseline and 13% at 1 year. The percentage of black patients treated at baseline with sacubitril/valsartan was also low at 18% and remained unchanged at 1 year. After adjustment for covariates, race was independently associated with HYD/NIT use (odds ratio 8.32; 95% confidence interval 6.12 to 11.3; p < 0.0001), but not for sacubitril/valsartan. In conclusion, study findings demonstrate a marked persistent treatment gap for HYD/NIT and similar poor utilization of sacubitril/valsartan in black patients with HFrEF despite current guideline recommendations.

2.
Am Heart J ; 219: 21-30, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and affect prognosis, yet are often undertreated. However, contemporary rates of use of guideline-directed therapies (GDT) for non-AF comorbidities and their association with outcomes are not well described. METHODS: We used the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of AF (ORBIT-AF) to test the association between GDT for non-AF comorbidities and major adverse cardiac or neurovascular events (MACNE; cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke/thromboembolism, or new-onset heart failure), all-cause mortality, new-onset heart failure, and AF progression. Adjustment was performed using Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: Only 6,782 (33%) of the 20,434 patients eligible for 1 or more GDT for non-AF comorbidities received all indicated therapies. Use of all comorbidity-specific GDT was highest for patients with hyperlipidemia (75.6%) and lowest for those with diabetes mellitus (43.1%). Use of "all eligible" GDT was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward lower rates of MACNE (HR 0.90 [0.79-1.02]) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.90 [0.80-1.01]). Use of GDT for heart failure was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0.77 [0.67-0.89]), and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea was associated with a lower risk of AF progression (OR 0.75 [0.62-0.90]). CONCLUSIONS: In AF patients, there is underuse of GDT for non-AF comorbidities. The association between GDT use and outcomes was strongest in heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea patients where use of GDT was associated with lower mortality and less AF progression.

3.
Am Heart J ; 220: 41-50, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770656

RESUMO

Many therapies have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF) in controlled settings, but there are limited data available to inform best practices for hospital and post-discharge quality improvement initiatives. The CONNECT-HF study is a prospective, cluster-randomized trial of 161 hospitals in the United States with a 2×2 factorial design. The study is designed to assess the effect of a hospital and post-discharge quality improvement intervention compared with usual care (primary objective) on HF outcomes and quality-of-care, as well as to evaluate the effect of hospitals implementing a patient-level digital intervention compared with usual care (secondary objective). The hospital and post-discharge intervention includes audit and feedback on HF clinical process measures and outcomes for patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) paired with education to sites and clinicians by a trained, nationally representative group of HF and quality improvement experts. The patient-level digital intervention is an optional ancillary study and includes a mobile application and behavioral tools that are intended to facilitate improved use of guideline-directed recommendations for self-monitoring and self-management of activity and medications for HFrEF. The effects of the interventions will be measured through an opportunity-based composite score on quality and time-to-first HF readmission or death among patients with HFrEF who present to study hospitals with acute HF and who consent to participate. The CONNECT-HF study is evaluating approaches for implementing HF guideline recommendations into practice and is one of the largest HF implementation science trials performed to date.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747132

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and high cardiovascular risk in two large clinical outcome trials: empagliflozin in EMPA-REG OUTCOME and canagliflozin in CANVAS. The scope of eligibility for SGLT-2 inhibitors (empagliflozin and canagliflozin) among patients with type 2 DM and HF, based on clinical trial criteria and current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labelling criteria, remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from the US Get With The Guidelines (GWTG)-Heart Failure registry, we evaluated the proportion of patients with DM and HF eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy based on the clinical trial criteria and the US FDA labelling criteria. The GWTG-HF registry is a quality improvement registry of patients admitted in hospital with HF in the USA. We included GWTG-HF registry participants meeting eligibility criteria hospitalized between August 2014 and 30 June 2017 from sites fully participating in the registry. The initial inclusion time point reflects when both drugs had FDA approval. Among the 139 317 patients (out of 407 317) with DM hospitalized with HF (in 460 hospitals; 2014 to 2017), the median age was 71 years, 47% (n = 65 685) were female, and 43% (n = 59 973) had HF with reduced ejection fraction. Overall, 43% (n = 59 943) were eligible for the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, 45% (n = 62 818) were eligible for the CANVAS trial, and 34% (n = 47 747) of patients were eligible for either SGLT-2 inhibitors based on the FDA labelling criteria. Among the FDA-eligible patients, 91.5% (n = 43 708) were eligible for either the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial or the CANVAS trial. Patients who were FDA eligible, compared with those who were not, were younger (70.0 vs. 72.0 years of age), more likely to be male (57.7 vs. 50.3%), and had less burden of co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with DM who are hospitalized with HF are not eligible for SGLT-2 inhibitor therapies. Ongoing studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of SGLT-2 inhibitors among patients with HF may potentially broaden the population that may benefit from these therapies.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721978

RESUMO

Importance: The Affordability and Real-World Antiplatelet Treatment Effectiveness After Myocardial Infarction Study (ARTEMIS) cluster-randomized trial found that copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors improved 1-year patient persistence in taking that medication. Objective: To assess whether providing copayment reduction for P2Y12 inhibitors increases patient persistence in taking other secondary prevention cardiovascular medications. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of the ARTEMIS trial includes data from 287 hospitals that enrolled patients between June 2015 and September 2016. Patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction were included. Data analysis occurred from May 2018 through August 2019. Interventions: Hospitals randomized to the intervention provided patients vouchers that waived copayments for P2Y12 inhibitors fills for 1 year. Hospitals randomized to usual care did not provide study vouchers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Persistence in taking ß-blocker, statin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker medications at 1 year, defined as the absence of a gap in medication supply of 30 or more days by pharmacy fill data in the intervention-arm (intent-to-treat) population. Results: A total of 131 hospitals (with 5109 patients) were randomized to the intervention, and 156 hospitals (with 3264 patients) randomized to the control group. Patients discharged from intervention hospitals had higher persistence in taking statins (2247 [46.1%] vs 1300 [41.9%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00-1.24]), and ß-blockers (2235 [47.6%] vs 1277 [42.5%]; odds ratio, 1.23 [95% CI, 1.10-1.38]), although the association was smaller than that seen for P2Y12 inhibitors (odds ratio, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.29-1.66]). Persistence in taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II-receptor blockers were also numerically higher among patients in the intervention arm than in the usual-care arm, but this was not significant after risk adjustment (1520 [43.9%] vs 847 [40.5%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.97-1.24]). Patients in the intervention arm reported greater financial burden associated with medication cost than the patients in the usual-care arm at baseline, but these differences were no longer significant at 1 year. Conclusions and Relevance: Reducing patient copayments for 1 medication class increased persistence not only to that therapy class but may also have modestly increased persistence to other post-myocardial infarction secondary prevention medications. These findings have important implications for the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of medication cost-assistance programs. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02406677.

6.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757650

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a disease predominantly affecting adults >60 years of age, a significant proportion of the young population who have different risk profiles, are also affected. We undertook a retrospective analysis using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2010 to 2014 to evaluate gender differences in characteristics, treatments, and outcomes in the younger AMI population. METHODS: The NIS 2010-2014 was used to identify all patient hospitalizations with AMI between 18 to <45 years using ICD-9-CM codes. We demonstrated a gender-based difference of in-hospital all-cause mortality, other complications, and revascularization strategies in the overall AMI population and other subgroups of AMI [anterior wall ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), and non-anterior wall STEMI and non-STEMI (NSTEMI)]. RESULTS: A total of 156,018 weighted records of AMI hospitalizations were identified, of which 111,894 were men and 44,124 were women. Young women had a higher prevalence of anemia, chronic lung disease, obesity, peripheral vascular disease, and diabetes. Conversely, young men had a higher prevalence of dyslipidemia, smoking, and alcohol. Among non-traditional risk factors, women had a higher prevalence of depression and rheumatologic/collagen vascular disease. There was no difference in all-cause in-hospital mortality in women compared to men [2.03% vs 1.48%; OR 1.04, CI (0.84-1.29); P = .68], including in subgroup analysis of NSTEMI, anterior wall STEMI, and non-anterior wall STEMI. Women with AMI were less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention [47.13% vs 61.17%; OR 0.66, 95% CI (0.62-0.70; P < .001] and coronary artery bypass grafting [5.6% vs 6.0%; OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.83; P < .001] compared to men. Women were also less likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention within 24 h of presentation (38.47% vs 51.42%, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Despite higher baseline comorbidities in young women with AMI, there was no difference in in-hospital mortality in women compared to men. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the impact of gender on clinical presentation, treatment patterns, and outcomes of AMI in young patients.

8.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734700

RESUMO

Importance: There are major gaps in use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for patients with heart failure (HF). Patient-reported data outlining patient goals and preferences associated with GDMT are not available. Objective: To survey patients with chronic HF to better understand their experiences and perceptions of living with HF, including their familiarity and concerns with important GDMT therapies. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study participants were recruited from the GfK KnowledgePanel, a probability-sampled online panel representative of the US adult population. English-speaking adults who met the following criteria were eligible if they were (1) previously told by a physician that they had HF; (2) currently taking medications for HF; and (3) had no history of left ventricular assist device or cardiac transplant. Data were collected between October and November 2018. Analysis began in December 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The survey included 4 primary domains: (1) relative importance of disease-related goals, (2) challenges associated with living with HF, (3) decision-making process associated with HF medication use, and (4) awareness and concerns about available HF medications. Results: Of 30 707 KnowledgePanel members who received the initial survey, 15 091 (49.1%) completed the screening questions, 440 were eligible and began the survey, and 429 completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) age was 68 (60-75) years and most were white (320 [74.6%]), male (304 [70.9%]), and had at least a high school education (409 [95.3%]). Most survey responders reported familiarity with ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and diuretics. Overall, 107 (24.9%) reported familiarity with angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors or mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Overall, 136 patients (42.5%) reported have safety concerns regarding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 133 (38.5%) regarding ß-blockers, 35 (37.9%) regarding mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, 38 (36.5%) regarding angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, and 123 (37.2%) regarding diuretics. Between 27.7% (n = 26) and 38.5% (n = 136) reported concerns regarding the effectiveness of ß-blockers, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, or diuretics, while 41% (n = 132) were concerned with the effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, many patients were not familiar with GDMT for HF, with familiarity lowest for angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Among patients not familiar with these therapies, significant proportions questioned their effectiveness and/or safety. Enhanced patient education and shared decision-making support may be effective strategies to improve the uptake of GDMT for HF in US clinical practice.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738371

RESUMO

Importance: In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved 2 new medications for treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine. However, few national data are available examining their contemporary use and associated costs. Objective: To evaluate national patterns of use of sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine and associated therapeutic spending in Medicare Part D and Medicaid. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this US nationwide claims-based study, we analyzed data from the Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Event and Medicaid Utilization and Spending data sets to compare national patterns of use of sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine between 2016 and 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in total spending, per-beneficiary/claim spending, number of beneficiaries, and number of claims between 2016 and 2017 for sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine. Results: The number of Medicare beneficiaries prescribed sacubitril/valsartan increased from 35 423 to 90 606 (156% increase from 2016 to 2017). Medicare beneficiaries prescribed ivabradine increased from 15 856 to 23 213 (46% increase). In 2017, Medicare Part D spent $227 million and $7.3 million on sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine, respectively. This represented increases of 241% and 59% compared with 2016 spending, respectively. The annual Medicare per-beneficiary spending on sacubitril/valsartan and ivabradine was $2512 and $2400. Parallel trends in use patterns and spending were observed among Medicaid beneficiaries. Conclusions and Relevance: Although initial experiences suggested slow uptake after regulatory approval, these national data demonstrate an increase in use of sacubitril/valsartan and, to a lesser degree, ivabradine in the United States. Current annual per-beneficiary expenditures remain less than spending thresholds that have been reported to be cost-effective. Ongoing efforts are needed to promote high-value care while improving affordability and access to established and emerging heart failure therapies.

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(11): 980-992, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606362

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the degree to which U.S. patients enrolled in a heart failure (HF) trial represent patients in routine U.S. clinical practice according to race and sex. BACKGROUND: Black patients and women are frequently under-represented in HF clinical trials. However, the degree to which black patients and women enrolled in trials represent such patients in routine practice is unclear. METHODS: The ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) trial randomized patients hospitalized for HF to receive nesiritide or placebo from May 2007 to August 2010 and was neutral for clinical endpoints. This analysis compared non-Hispanic white (n = 1,494) and black (n = 1,012) patients enrolled in ASCEND-HF from the U.S. versus non-Hispanic white and black patients included in a U.S. hospitalized HF registry (i.e., Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure [GWTG-HF]) during the ASCEND-HF enrollment period and meeting trial eligibility criteria. RESULTS: Among 79,291 white and black registry patients, 49,063 (62%) met trial eligibility criteria (white, n = 37,883 [77.2%]; black, n = 11,180 [22.8%]). Women represented 35% and 49% of the ASCEND-HF and trial-eligible GWTG-HF cohorts, respectively. Compared with trial-enrolled patients, trial-eligible GWTG-HF patients tended to be older with higher blood pressure and higher ejection fraction. Trial-eligible patients had higher in-hospital mortality (2.3% vs. 1.3%), 30-day readmission (20.2% vs. 16.8%), and 180-day mortality (21.2% vs. 18.6%) than those enrolled in the trial (all p < 0.02), with consistent mortality findings by race and sex. After propensity score matching, mortality rates were similar; however, trial-eligible patients continued to have higher rates of 30-day readmission (23.1% vs. 17.3%; p < 0.01), driven by differences among black patients and women (all p for interaction ≤0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HF seen in U.S. practice and eligible for the ASCEND-HF trial had worse clinical outcomes than those enrolled in the trial. After accounting for clinical characteristics, trial-eligible real-world patients continued to have higher rates of 30-day readmission, driven by differences among black patients and women. Social, behavioral, and other unmeasured factors may impair representativeness of patients enrolled in HF trials, particularly among racial/ethnic minorities and women. (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure [ASCEND-HF]; NCT00475852).

12.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606360

RESUMO

The mandatory federal pay-for-performance Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was created to decrease 30-day hospital readmissions by instituting accountability and stimulating quality care and coordination, particularly during care transitions. The HRRP has changed the landscape of hospital readmissions and reimbursement within the United States by imposing substantial Medicare payment penalties on hospitals with higher-than-expected readmission rates. However, the HRRP has been controversial since its inception, particularly in the field of heart failure. Proponents argue that it has reduced national readmission rates, in part by raising awareness and investment in mechanisms to better assist patients during discharge and transitions; opponents contend that it unfairly penalizes hospitals for issues beyond their control, has unintended negative consequences due to incentivizing readmission over survival, that it encourages "gaming" the system, was not tested before implementation, and that it does not specify how hospitals can improve their performance. This paper incorporates the diverse, nuanced, and sometimes divergent interpretations presented during a multifaceted expert clinician discussion regarding the HRRP and heart failure; in cases in which consensus opinions were achieved, they are presented, including regarding potential new iterations of the HRRP for the future. Potential improvements include more comprehensive incorporation of outcomes into the HRRP measure and better risk adjustment to improve equality and fairness.

13.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 34(6): 433-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate self-care is linked to poor health outcomes in heart failure (HF). Self-care depends on decision-making abilities, but links between self-care and brain injury to executive decision-making regulatory areas (prefrontal cortices) are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationships between HF self-care and status of prefrontal cortices. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging-based diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 21 patients with HF (age, 53.8 ± 7.9 years; 15 men; left ventricular ejection fraction, 25.1% ± 6.1%), and self-care and executive function were measured with the Self-care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) and Trail Making Test B. Using diffusion tensor imaging data, mean diffusivity (MD) maps were calculated and region-of-interest analyses were performed on the left and right prefrontal brain areas. Statistical analyses consisted of partial correlations (covariates, age, and gender). RESULTS: The mean ± SD SCHFI scores were 70.78 ± 11.37 for maintenance, 70 ± 17.32 for management, and 74.91 ± 15.76 for confidence. The mean ± SD Trail Making Test B score was 90.2 ± 73.3 seconds. The mean ± SD MD values (higher values indicate tissue injury) of the left and right prefrontal cortices were 1.46 ± 0.16 (×10 mm/s) and 1.44 ± 0.14 (×10 mm/s), respectively. Significant negative correlations emerged between prefrontal MD values and SCHFI maintenance (left/right, r = -0.64/-0.70; P < .003) and SCHFI management (r = -0.93/-0.86; P < .003). Significant positive correlations were observed between prefrontal MD values and Trail Making Test B (r = 0.71/0.74; P < .001). A nonsignificant correlation emerged between prefrontal MD values and SCHFI confidence scores. CONCLUSIONS: Brain tissue integrity in executive function regulatory regions is associated with HF self-care for maintenance and management. The findings indicate that protection and brain injury repair in executive control areas may improve HF self-care.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e012831, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623505

RESUMO

Background Patient characteristics insufficiently explain disparities in cardiovascular outcomes among hospitalized patients, suggesting a role for community or hospital-level factors. Here, we evaluate the association of hospital racial composition and payer mix with all-cause inpatient mortality for patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods and Results Using the National Inpatient Sample, we identified adult hospitalizations from 2014 with a primary diagnosis of ACS (n=550 005). We divided National Inpatient Sample hospitals into quartiles based on percent of minority (black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American race/ethnicity) and low-income payer (Medicaid or uninsured) discharges in 2014. We utilized logistic regression to determine whether hospital minority or low-income payer makeup associated with all-cause inpatient mortality among those admitted for ACS . In adjusted models, ACS patients admitted to hospitals with >12.4% to 25.4% (Quartile 2), >25.4% to 44.3% (Q3), and >44.3% (Q4) minority discharges experienced a 14% (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23), 13% (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.23), and 15% (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.26) increased odds of all-cause inpatient mortality compared with hospitals with ≤12.4% (Q1) minority discharges. ACS patients admitted to hospitals with >18.7% to 25.7% (Q2) and >34.0% (Q4) low-income payer discharges experienced a 9% (OR 1.09, 1.01-1.17) and 9% (OR 1.09, 1.00-1.19) increased odds of all-cause inpatient mortality when compared with hospitals with ≤18.7% (Q1) low-income payer discharges. Conclusions Hospital minority and low-income payer makeup positively associate with odds of all-cause inpatient mortality among patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013384, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630594

RESUMO

Background Chest pain center (CPC) accreditation plays an important role in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, no evidence shows whether the outcomes of AMI patients are improved with CPC accreditation in China. Methods and Results This retrospective analysis is based on a predesigned nationwide registry, CCC-ACS (Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including all-cause death, reinfarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, and heart failure. A total of 15 344 AMI patients, from 40 CPC-accredited hospitals, were enrolled, including 7544 admitted before and 7800 after accreditation. In propensity score matching, 6700 patients in each group were matched. The incidence of 7-day MACE (6.7% versus 8.0%; P=0.003) and all-cause death (1.1% versus 1.6%; P=0.021) was lower after accreditation. In multivariate adjusted mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models, CPC accreditation was associated with significantly decreased risk of MACE (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.91) and all-cause death (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99). The risk of MACE and all-cause death both followed a reverse J-shaped trend: the risk of MACE and all-cause death decreased gradually after achieving CPC accreditation, with minimal risk occurring in the first year, but increased in the second year and after. Conclusions Based on a large-scale national registry data set, CPC accreditation was associated with better in-hospital outcomes for AMI patients. However, the benefits seemed to attenuate over time, and reaccreditation may be essential for maintaining AMI care quality and outcomes.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1790-1796, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627834

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) receptors are primarily located in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. These receptors are responsible for almost 90% to 95% of tubular reabsorption of the glucose in the nephron. In patients with diabetes mellitus, due to upregulation of SGLT2 receptors, glucose reabsorption is further increased. The Food and Drug Administration approved SGLT2 inhibitors, such as canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to their positive effect on blood glucose, additional cardioprotective and renoprotective functions have been demonstrated in major trials such as EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS, DECLARE-TIMI-58, and CREDENCE. Unlike other antihyperglycemic drugs, reduction in hospitalization for heart failure (HF) was also seen as a class effect with this group, mechanisms of which are probably multifactorial. Subgroup analysis from these major trials indicated a reduction in progression of nephropathy and HF readmission with SGLT2 inhibitors. Although this unique property of canagliflozin was further analyzed in the CREDENCE trial, similar trials for empagliflozin (EMPERIAL-Reduced and EMPERIAL-Preserved) and dapagliflozin (DAPA-HF) are currently underway. Recently released phase III results from DAPA-HF trial indicate that dapagliflozin shows significant reduction in death due to cardiovascular causes and hospitalization in HF compared with the placebo, in both diabetics and nondiabetics. In this review article, the authors attempt to explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms and data from existing trials pertaining to the HF related outcomes associated with SGLT2 inhibitors.

19.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(11): 933-941, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the short-term health status benefits of angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: Although therapy with sacubitril/valsartan, a neprilysin inhibitor, improved patients' health status (compared with enalapril) at 8 months in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACE inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) study, the early impact of ARNI on patients' symptoms, functions, and quality of life is unknown. METHODS: Health status was assessed by using the 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) in 3,918 outpatients with HFrEF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% across 140 U.S. centers in the CHAMP-HF (Change the Management of Patients with Heart Failure) registry. ARNI therapy was initiated in 508 patients who were matched 1:2 to 1,016 patients who were not initiated on ARNI (no-ARNI), using a nonparsimonious time-dependent propensity score (6 sociodemographic factors, 23 clinical characteristics), prior KCCQ overall summary (KCCQ-OS) score, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker status. RESULTS: Multivariate linear regression demonstrated a greater mean improvement in KCCQ-OS in patients initiated on ARNI therapy (5.3 ± 19 vs. 2.5 ± 17.4, respectively; p < 0.001) over a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 57 (32 to 104) days. The proportions of ARNI versus no-ARNI groups with ≥10-point (large) and ≥20-point (very large) improvements in KCCQ-OS were 32.7% versus 26.9%, respectively, and 20.5% versus 12.1%, respectively, consistent with numbers needed to treat of 18 and 12, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In routine clinical care, ARNI therapy was associated with early improvements in health status, with 20% experiencing a very large health status benefit compared with 12% who were not started on ARNI therapy. These findings support the use of ARNI to improve patients' symptoms, functions, and quality of life.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(19): e012059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537135

RESUMO

Background When patients require readmission after a recent myocardial infarction (MI), returning to the discharging (index) hospital may be associated with better outcomes as a result of greater continuity in care. However, little evidence exists to answer this frequent patient question. Methods and Results Among Medicare patients aged ≥65 years discharged home alive post-MI from 491 US hospitals in the ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry, we compared reason for readmission, duration of rehospitalization, and 30-day mortality between patients readmitted to the index versus nonindex hospital within 30 days of index MI discharge. Among 53 471 MI patients, 7715 (14%) were readmitted within 30 days, and most readmitted patients (73%) returned to the discharging hospital. Reason for readmission was not significantly associated with location of readmission. In multivariable modeling, the strongest factors associated with readmission to a nonindex hospital were distance from the discharging hospital, transfer-in during the index MI hospitalization, and frequency of nonindex hospital admissions in the year preceding to the index MI. Duration of rehospitalization did not differ significantly between patients readmitted to the index versus nonindex hospital (median, 4 versus 3 days; P=0.17). Mortality risk was also not significantly different between patients readmitted to the index versus nonindex hospital overall (7.4 versus 7.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10) and when stratified by reason for readmission (P for interaction=0.61). Conclusions Post-MI readmissions did not differ in reason for readmission, duration of rehospitalization, or associated mortality when compared between patients who returned to the discharging hospital and those who sought care elsewhere.

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