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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419385

RESUMO

Background - Antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) can be associated with both proarrhythmic and noncardiovascular toxicities. Practice guidelines recommend tailored AAD therapy for AF based on patient-specific characteristics, such as coronary artery disease and heart failure, to minimize adverse events. However, current prescription patterns for specific AADs and the degree to which these guidelines are followed in practice are unknown. Methods - Patients enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-AFIB registry with a primary diagnosis of AF discharged on an AAD between 1/2014 and 11/2018 were included. We analyzed rates of prescription of each AAD in several subgroups including those without structural heart disease. We classified AAD use as guideline-concordant or non-guideline concordant based on six criteria derived from the AHA/ACC/HRS AF Guidelines. Guideline concordance for amiodarone was not considered applicable, since its use is not specifically contraindicated in the guidelines for reasons such as structural heart disease or renal function. We analyzed guideline-concordant AAD use by specific patient and hospital characteristics, and regional and temporal trends. Results - Among 21,921 patients from 123 sites, the median age was 69 years, 46% female, and 51% had paroxysmal AF. The most commonly prescribed AAD was amiodarone (38%). Sotalol (23.2%) and dofetilide (19.2%) were each more commonly prescribed than either flecainide (9.8%) or propafenone (4.8%). Overall guideline-concordant AAD prescription at discharge was 84%. Guideline-concordant AAD use by drug was as follows: dofetilide 93%, sotalol 66%, flecainide 68%, propafenone 48%, and dronedarone 80%. There was variability in rate of guideline-concordant AAD use by hospital and geographic region. Conclusions - Amiodarone remains the most commonly prescribed AAD for AF followed by sotalol and dofetilide. Rates of guideline-concordant AAD use were high and there was significant variability by specific drugs, hospitals, and regions, highlighting opportunities for additional quality improvement.

3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(1): 92-96, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902560

RESUMO

Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapies are a cornerstone of prevention in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. With the introduction of generic formulations and the release of new therapies, including proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, contemporary Medicare utilization of these therapies remains unknown. Objective: To determine trends in utilization and spending on brand-name and generic LDL-C-lowering therapies and to estimate potential savings if all Medicare beneficiaries were switched to available therapeutically equivalent generic formulations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed prescription drug utilization and cost trend data from the Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Event data set from 2014 to 2018 for LDL-C-lowering therapies. A total of 11 LDL-C-lowering drugs with 25 formulations, including 16 brand-name and 9 generic formulations, were included. Data were collected and analyzed from October 2019 to June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number of Medicare Part D beneficiaries, annual spending, and spending per beneficiary for all formulations. Results: The total number of Medicare Part D beneficiaries ranged from 37 720 840 in 2014 to 44 249 461 in 2018. The number of Medicare beneficiaries taking LDL-C-lowering therapies increased by 23% (from 20.5 million in 2014 to 25.2 million in 2018), while the associated Medicare expenditure decreased by 46% (from $6.3 billion in 2014 to $3.3 billion in 2018). Lower expenditure was driven by greater uptake of generic statin and ezetimibe and a concurrent rapid decline in the use of their brand-name formulations. Medicare spent $9.6 billion on brand-name statins and ezetimibe and could have saved $2.1 billion and $0.4 billion, respectively, if brand-name formulations were switched to equivalent generic versions when available. The number of beneficiaries using PCSK9 inhibitors since their introduction in 2015 has been modest, although use has increased by 144% (from 25 569 in 2016 to 62 476 in 2018) and total spending has increased by 199% (from $164 million in 2016 to $491 million in 2018). Conclusions and Relevance: Between 2014 and 2018, LDL-C-lowering therapies were used by 4.8 million more Medicare beneficiaries annually, with an associated $3.0 billion decline in Medicare spending. This cost reduction was driven by the rapid transition from brand-name formulations to lower-cost generic formulations of statins and ezetimibe. Use of PCSK9 inhibitions, although low, increased over time and could have broad implications on future Medicare spending.

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 140: 91-94, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147430

RESUMO

Impella devices are increasingly utilized for hemodynamic support in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention or cardiogenic shock despite a lack of randomized clinical trial data showing clinical benefit and newer observational data suggesting harm. In this retrospective analysis, our aim was to determine the most common adverse events associated with Impella usage reported annually to the Food and Drug Administration Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database and to estimate via the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database the number of percutaneous ventricular assist devices utilized and associated with inpatient mortality since introduction of the Impella. Among the 885 complete reports submitted to the MAUDE database from 2008 to 2019 related to Impella usage, there were 1,206 complications coded; 88.2% of reports occurred from 2016 to 2019. Among patients with adverse events reported, bleeding (32.8%), device deployment or retrieval issues (18.2%), vascular complications (15.8%), and death (12.4%) were the most common, and 7.9% of all complications were attributable to operator decision-making or technique. From 2007 to 2017 there was a >100-fold increase in percutaneous ventricular assist devices use with an increase and plateau in in-hospital mortality to 31% from 2012 to 2016 based on NIS data. In conclusion, Impella use has increased substantially over the last decade but remains associated with high inpatient mortality and serious complications based on data from the NIS and MAUDE databases. These findings emphasize the need for high quality randomized controlled trials to determine the clinical utility of Impella in high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention and cardiogenic shock.

5.
Am J Cardiol ; 138: 26-32, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068540

RESUMO

The purpose of this analysis was to assess implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) utilization and its association with mortality among patients ≥65 years of age after coronary revascularization. Patients in the National Cardiovascular Database Registry Chest Pain-Myocardial Infarction (MI) Registry who presented with MI from January 2, 2009 to December 31, 2016, had a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and underwent in-hospital revascularization (10,014 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 1,647 coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)) were linked with Medicare claims to determine rates of 1-year ICD implantation. The association between ICD implantation and 2-year mortality was assessed. Of 11,661 included patients, an ICD was implanted in 1,234 (10.6%) within 1 year of revascularization (1,063 (10.6%) PCI and 171 (10.4%) CABG). Among PCI-treated patients, in-hospital ventricular arrhythmia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34 to 1.92), 2-week cardiology follow-up (aHR 1.48, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.70), readmission for heart failure (aHR 3.21, 95% CI 2.73 to 3.79), and readmission for MI (aHR 2.18, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.85) were positively associated with ICD implantation. Among CABG-treated patients, in-hospital ventricular arrhythmia (aHR 2.33, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.91), and heart failure readmission (aHR 3.14, 95% CI 1.96 to 5.04) were positively associated with ICD implantation. Women were less likely to receive an ICD, regardless of the revascularization strategy. ICD implantation was associated with lower 2-year all-cause mortality (aHR 0.74, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.86). In conclusion, only 1 in 10 Medicare patients with low ejection fraction received an ICD within 1 year after revascularization. Contact with the healthcare system after discharge was associated with higher likelihood of ICD implantation. ICD implantation was associated with lower mortality following revascularization for MI.

6.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 28-38, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the association of heart failure hospitalization (HFH) with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) prescribing patterns among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: HFH represents an important opportunity to titrate GDMT among patients with HFrEF. METHODS: The CHAMP-HF (Change the Management of Patients With Heart Failure) registry is a prospective registry of adults with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%). Using data from the CHAMP-HF registry (N = 4,365), adjusted time-to-event models were created to study the association of HFH with GDMT prescribing patterns. RESULTS: HFH (compared with no HFH) was positively associated with initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, beta-blocker, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). HFH positively associated with dose escalation of ACE inhibitor/ARB (probability ratio: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36 to 2.16) and MRA (probability ratio: 8.71, 95% CI: 4.19 to 18.10). In those on prior therapy, HFH was associated with discontinuation and de-escalation of all classes of GDMT. ACE inhibitor/ARB, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, beta-blocker, and MRA de-escalation/discontinuation after HFH was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality with hazard ratios of 3.82 (95% CI: 2.42 to 6.03), 4.76 (95% CI: 2.06 to 11.03), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.04 to 4.25), and 4.81 (95% CI: 2.61 to 8.87), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HFH positively associated with changes in GDMT, including initiation, dose escalation, discontinuation, and dose de-escalation. De-escalation/discontinuation of GDMT after HFH associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Educational endeavors are needed to ensure GDMT is not inappropriately held in the setting of HFH. For those in whom GDMT must be held/decreased, improvement tools at discharge and post-discharge titration clinics may help ensure lifesaving GDMT regimens remain optimized.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 1-12, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309582

RESUMO

The treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has changed considerably over time, particularly with the sequential development of therapies aimed at antagonism of maladaptive biologic pathways, including inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. The sequential nature of earlier HFrEF trials allowed the integration of new therapies tested against the background therapy of the time. More recently, multiple heart failure therapies are being evaluated simultaneously, and the number of therapeutic choices for treating HFrEF has grown considerably. In addition, implementation science has lagged behind discovery science in heart failure. Furthermore, given there are currently >200 ongoing clinical trials in heart failure, further complexities are anticipated. In an effort to provide a decision-making framework in the current era of expanding therapeutic options in HFrEF, the Heart Failure Collaboratory convened a multi-stakeholder group, including patients, clinicians, clinical investigators, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, industry, and payers who met at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration campus on March 6, 2020. This paper summarizes the discussions and expert consensus recommendations.

8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(12): 2674-2683, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden in hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of coronavirus from the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified hospitalized adults with a diagnosis of coronavirus in a large US administrative database, the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, from January 1, 2016, to December 3, 2017, to study patient demographic characteristics, clinical comorbidities, and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and health care resource utilization) based on the presence or absence of CVD. RESULTS: A total of 21,300 hospitalized adults with a diagnosis of coronavirus in 2016 and 2017 from all across the United States were included in the final analysis; the mean age was 63.6 years, 11,033 (51.8%) were female, and 15,911 (74.7%) had public insurers. Among these hospitalized patients, 11,930 (56.0%) had a diagnosis of CVD. Compared with those without CVD, the patients with CVD were older (70.1 vs 55.4 years) and had higher Charlson comorbidity index scores (2.5 vs 1.6) and Elixhauser comorbidity index scores (4.3 vs 2.4) (all P<.001). After multivariable risk adjustment, patients with CVD had higher mortality than those without CVD (5.3% [632 of 11,930] vs 1.5% [140 of 9370]; adjusted odds ratio, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2 to 3.4]; P=.008). The mean length of hospital stay (6.9 vs 6.1 days; P=.003), hospital charges ($78,377 vs $66,538; P=.002), and discharge to nursing home (24.6% [2945 of 11,930] vs 12.9% [1208 of 9370]; P<.001) were higher in those with CVD compared with the patients without CVD. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular disease was present in a notable proportion of hospitalized patients with coronavirus in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 era in United States and was associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality and health care resource utilization.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105399, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited real-world data are available on outcomes following non-cardioembolic minor ischemic stroke (IS) or high-risk transient ischemic attack (TIA), particularly in the United States (US). We examined outcomes and Medicare payments following any severity IS or TIA as well as the subgroup with minor IS or high-risk TIA. METHODS: Medicare beneficiaries >65 years were identified using US nationwide Get with the Guidelines (GWTG)-Stroke Registry linked to Medicare claims data. The cohort consisted of patients enrolled in Medicare fee-for-service plan, hospitalized with non-cardioembolic IS or TIA between 2011 and 2014, segmenting a subgroup with minor IS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] ≤5) or high-risk TIA (ABCD2-score ≥6) compatible with the THALES clinical trial population. Outcomes included functional status at discharge, clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke, individually and as a composite), hospitalizations, and population average inpatient Medicare payments following non-cardioembolic IS or TIA. RESULTS: The THALES-compatible cohort included 62,518 patients from 1471 hospitals. At discharge, 37.0% were unable to ambulate without assistance, and 96.2% were prescribed antiplatelet therapy. Cumulative incidences at 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year for the composite outcome were 3.7%, 7.6%, and 17.2% and 2.4%, 4.0%, and 7.3% for subsequent stroke. The mean Medicare payment for the index hospitalization was $7951. The cumulative all-cause inpatient Medicare spending per patient (with or without any subsequent admission) at 30 days and 1 year from discharge was $1451 and $8105, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of illness for minor IS/high-risk TIA patients indicates an important unmet need. Improved therapeutic options may offer a significant impact on both patient outcomes and Medicare spending.


Assuntos
Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/economia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Medicare/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/mortalidade , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
12.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 212, 2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a common and devastating complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Prompt recognition of heart failure may avert hospitalization, facilitate use of guideline-directed therapies, and impact choice of T2D medications. We sought to determine the rate and factors associated with heart failure documentation in T2D patients with evidence of volume overload requiring loop diuretics. METHODS: DCR is an on-going, prospective US registry of outpatient T2D patients from > 5000 cardiology, endocrinology, and primary care clinicians (current analysis used data from 2013-2019). Among T2D patients receiving loop diuretics, we examined the rate of chart documentation of heart failure. We used a 3-level hierarchical logistic regression model (patients nested within physician within practice) to examine factors associated with heart failure diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 1,322,640 adults with T2D, 225,125 (17.0%) were receiving a loop diuretic, of whom 91,969 (40.9%) had documentation of heart failure. Male sex, lower body mass index, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease were associated with greater odds of heart failure diagnosis. After accounting for patient factors, patients seen by cardiologists were the most likely to have HF documented followed by PCPs and then endocrinologists. CONCLUSIONS: Among US outpatients with T2D, 17% of patients had evidence of volume overload-defined by loop diuretic prescription-of whom fewer than half had a clinical diagnosis of heart failure. While there may be non-heart failure indications for loop diuretics, our data suggest that a substantial proportion of T2D patients may have unrecognized heart failure and therefore could be missing opportunities for targeted therapies that could alter the clinical course of heart failure.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(12): e007150, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. To assist hospitals in providing faster thrombolytic treatment, the American Heart Association launched target: stroke quality initiative in January 2010 which disseminated feasible strategies to shorten door-to-needle times for thrombolytic therapy. This study aimed to examine whether target: stroke was associated with improved door-to-needle times and 1-year outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years receiving intravenous thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic stroke at 1490 Get With The Guidelines-Stroke hospitals during January 2006 and December 2009 (preintervention, n=10 804) and January 2010 and December 2014 (postintervention, n=31 249). The median age was 80 years and 42.7% were male. RESULTS: The median door-to-needle times decreased from 80 minutes for the preintervention to 68 minutes for the postintervention (P<0.001). The proportion of patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis with door-to-needle times 45 minutes and 60 minutes increased from 9.6% and 24.8% for preintervention to 17.1% and 40.6% for postintervention, respectively (P<0.001). The annual rate of increase in the door-to-needle times of 60 minutes or less accelerated from 0.20% (95% CI, -0.43% to 0.83%) per each 4 quarters for preintervention to 5.68% (95% CI, 5.23%-6.13%) for postintervention (P<0.001) which was further confirmed in piecewise multivariable generalized estimating analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.19-1.35]). Cox proportional hazards analysis, after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics and within-hospital clustering, showed that target: stroke was associated with lower all-cause readmission (40.4% versus 44.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.88-0.95]), cardiovascular readmission (19.7% versus 22.9%; hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.89]), and composite of all-cause mortality or readmission (56.0% versus 58.4%; hazard ratio, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.93-1.00]). The risk decline in all-cause mortality dissipated after risk adjustment (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.94-1.02]). CONCLUSIONS: Target: stroke quality initiative was associated with faster thrombolytic treatment times for acute ischemic stroke and modestly lower 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular readmissions.

15.
Am Heart J ; 232: 154-163, 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postdischarge mortality following hospitalization for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has remained high and unchanged over the past 2 decades, despite effective therapies for HFrEF. We aimed to explore whether these patterns could in part be explained by changes in longitudinal risk profile and HF severity over time. METHODS: Among patients hospitalized for HF in the GWTG-HF registry from January 2005 to December 2018 with available data, we evaluated GWTG-HF and ADHERE risk scores, observing in-hospital mortality per-year. The risk profiles and outcomes were described overall and by subgroups based on ejection fraction (EF), diabetes mellitus (DM), sex, and age. RESULTS: Overall, 335,735 patients were included (50% HFrEF, 46% DM, 48% female, mean age 74 years). In-hospital mortality increased by 2.0% per year from 2005 to 2018. There was no significant change in mean GWTG-HF risk score overall or when stratified by EF groups (P = 0.46 HFrEF, p = 0.26 HF mid-range EF [HFmrEF], and P = 0.72 HF preserved EF [HFpEF]), age, sex, or presence of DM. The observed/expected ratio based on the GWTG-HF risk score was 0.93 (0.91-0.96), 0.83 (0.77-0.90), 0.92 (0.89-95) for HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF, respectively. Similar findings were seen when risk was assessed using ADHERE risk score. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in average risk profiles among hospitalized HF patients over the study duration. These data do not support the notion that worsening risk profile explains the lack of improved outcomes despite therapeutic advances, underscoring the importance of aggressive implementation of guideline-recommended therapies and investigation of novel treatments.

16.
Am J Med ; 2020 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with versus without a prescription for loop diuretics balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age, 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (p for interaction, <0.001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction p, <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369719

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia and gout have been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease, stroke, hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, possibly through a proinflammatory milieu. However, not all the drugs used in gout treatment improve CV outcomes; colchicine has shown improved CV outcomes in patients with recent myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease independent of lipid-lowering effects. There is resurging interest in colchicine following publication of the COLCOT, LoDoCo, LoDoCo2, LoDoCo-MI trials, and COLCORONA trial which will shed light on its utility in COVID-19. Our aim is to review the CV use of colchicine beyond pericardial diseases, as well as CV outcomes of the available gout therapies, including allopurinol and febuxostat. The CARES trial and its surrounding controversies, which lead to the US FDA 'black box' warning on febuxostat, in addition to the recent FAST trial which contradicts this and finds febuxostat to be non-inferior, are discussed in this paper.

18.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 403, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the overlapping clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza, parallels are often drawn between the two diseases. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at a higher risk for severe manifestations of both illnesses. Considering the high transmission rate of COVID-19 and with the seasonal influenza approaching in late 2020, the dual epidemics of COVID-19 and influenza pose serious cardiovascular implications. This review highlights the similarities and differences between influenza and COVID-19 and the potential risks associated with coincident pandemics. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 has a higher mortality compared to influenza with case fatality rate almost 15 times more than that of influenza. Additionally, a significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes has been noted in patients with CVD, with ~ 15 to 70% of COVID-19 related deaths having an underlying CVD. The critical care need have ranged from 5 to 79% of patients hospitalized due to COVID-19, a proportion substantially higher than with influenza. Similarly, the frequency of vascular thrombosis including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism is markedly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with influenza in which vascular complications are rarely seen. Unexpectedly, while peak influenza season is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations, a decrease of ~ 50% in cardiovascular hospitalizations has been observed since the first diagnosed case of COVID-19, owing in part to deferred care. CONCLUSION: In the coming months, increasing efforts towards evaluating new interventions will be vital to curb COVID-19, especially as peak influenza season approaches. Currently, not enough data exist regarding co-infection of COVID-19 with influenza or how it would progress clinically, though it may cause a significant burden on an already struggling health care system. Until an effective COVID-19 vaccination is available, high coverage of influenza vaccination should be of utmost priority.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007492, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161766

RESUMO

Background The Affordable Care Act expanded Medicaid eligibility allowing low-income individuals greater access to health care. However, the uptake of state Medicaid expansion has been variable. It remains unclear how the Medicaid expansion was associated with the temporal trends in use of evidence-based cardiovascular drugs. Methods We used the publicly available Medicaid Drug Utilization and Current Population Survey to extract filled prescription rates per 1000 Medicaid beneficiaries of statins, antihypertensives, P2Y12 inhibitors, and direct oral anticoagulants. We defined expander states as those who expanded Medicaid on or before January 1, 2014, and nonexpander states as those who had not expanded by December 31, 2018. Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were performed to compare the association of the Medicaid expansion with per-capita cardiovascular drug prescription rates in expander versus nonexpander states. Results Between 2011 and 2018, the total number of prescriptions among all Medicaid beneficiaries increased, with gains of 89.7% in statins (11.0 to 20.8 million), 76% in antihypertensives (35.3 to 62.2 million), and 37% in P2Y12 inhibitors (1.7 to 2.3 million). Medicaid expansion was associated with significantly greater increases in quarterly prescriptions (per 1000 Medicaid beneficiaries) of statins (DID estimate [95% CI]: 22.5 [16.5-28.6], P<0.001), antihypertensives (DID estimate [95% CI]: 63.2 [47.3-79.1], P<0.001), and P2Y12 inhibitors (DID estimate [95% CI]: 1.7 [1.2-2.2], P<0.001). Between 2013 and 2018, >75% of the expander states had increases in prescription rates of both statins and antihypertensives. In contrast, 44% of nonexpander states saw declines in statins and antihypertensives. The Medicaid expansion was not associated with higher direct oral anticoagulants prescription rates (DID estimate [95% CI] 0.9 [-0.3 to 2.1], P=0.142). Conclusions The 2014 Medicaid expansion was associated with a significant increase in per-capita utilization of cardiovascular prescription drugs among Medicaid beneficiaries. These gains in utilization may contribute to long-term cardiovascular benefits to lower-income and previously underinsured populations.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242210, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 50% of hospital readmissions due to heart failure are preventable, with lack of adherence to prescribed self-care as a driving factor. Remote tracking and reminders issued by mobile health devices could help to promote self-care, which could potentially reduce these readmissions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate two factors: (1) feasibility of enrolling heart failure patients in a remote monitoring regimen that uses wireless sensors and patient-reported outcome measures; and (2) their adherence to using the study devices and completing patient-reported outcome measures. METHODS: Twenty heart failure patients participated in piloting a remote monitoring regimen. Data collection included: (1) physical activity using wrist-worn activity trackers; (2) body weight using bathroom scales; (3) medication adherence using smart pill bottles; and (4) patient -reported outcomes using patient-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: We evaluated 150 hospitalized heart failure patients and enrolled 20 individuals. Two factors contributed to 50% (65/130) being excluded from the study: smartphone ownership and patient discharge. Over the course of the study, 60.0% of the subjects wore the activity tracker for at least 70% of the hours, and 45.0% used the scale for more than 70% of the days. The pill bottle was used less than 10% of the days by 55.0% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our method of recruiting heart failure patients prior to hospital discharge may not be feasible as the enrollment rate was low. Once enrolled, the majority of subjects maintained a high adherence to wearing the activity tracker but low adherence to using the pill bottle and completing the follow-up surveys. Scale usage was fair, but it received positive reviews from most subjects. Given the observed usage and feedback, we suggest mobile health-driven interventions consider including an activity tracker and bathroom scale. We also recommend administering a shorter survey more regularly and through an easier interface.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Autorrelato , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tecnologia sem Fio
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