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1.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of isolated liver and combined liver and kidney transplantation in a retrospective series of 32 patients with hepatorenal liver and kidney disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study that enrolled patients with polycystic liver disease (PLD) and polycystic liver and kidney disease (PLKD) who were evaluated for transplantation between January 1999 and December 2019 at Hospital Clínic de Barcelona [Clinical Hospital of Barcelona]. RESULTS: Of 53 patients enrolled, 32 (60.3%) had an indication for transplantation, 12 received a single liver transplant and 20 received a double liver and kidney transplant. The mean age was 52 years and 83.9% of the recipients were women. The main indication for liver transplantation was disabling symptomatic hepatomegaly (93.5%). Among the postoperative complications, in the combined liver and kidney transplant group, hepatic artery thrombosis and renal artery thrombosis were detected. In both groups there was an inferior vena cava lesion. Three patients presented acute cellular rejection responding to corticosteroids and one presented humoral rejection which was treated with plasmapheresis. During the follow-up period of 80 (27-121) months, the liver transplant survival rate was 100% and the kidney transplant survival rate was 90%. Two patients in the combined liver and kidney transplant group died (one due to cardiovascular causes and the other due to intestinal adenocarcinoma). CONCLUSIONS: Isolated liver transplantation or combined liver and kidney transplantation in selected patients with polycystic disease yields excellent results, with few complications, very good transplant survival and excellent patient survival (93.8%).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475833

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The NCCN classification of resectability in pancreatic head cancer does not consider preoperative radiological tumour ≤ 180° contact with portal vein/superior mesenteric vein (PV/SMV) as a negative prognostic feature. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether this factor is associated with higher rate of incomplete resection and poorer survival. METHODS: All patients considered for pancreatic resection between 2012 and 2017 at two Spanish referral centres were included. Patients with borderline and locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) according to NCCN classification were excluded. Preoperative CT scans were reviewed by dedicated radiologists to identify radiologic tumour contact with PV/SMV. RESULTS: Out of 302, 71 patients were finally included in this study. Twenty-two (31%) patients showed tumour-PV/SMV contact (group 1) and 49 (69%) did not show any contact (group 2). Patients in group 1 showed a statistically significantly higher rate of R1 and R1-direct margins compared with group 2 (95 vs 28% and 77 vs 10%) and lower median survival (24 vs 41 months, p = 0.02). Preoperative contact with PV/SMV, lymph node metastases, R1-direct margin and NO adjuvant chemotherapy were significantly associated with disease-specific survival at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Preoperative radiological tumour contact with PV/SMV in patients with NCCN resectable PDAC is associated with high rate of pathologic positive margins following surgery and poorer survival.

5.
CVIR Endovasc ; 3(1): 93, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The formation of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in a liver implant is a rare but potentially fatal complication. Fistulization of such pseudoaneurysms into the bile duct is sporadic. The most common causes of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm are infection at the anastomosis site, inadequate surgical technique, and an iatrogenic origin due to minimally invasive procedures. Currently, there is no standardized treatment in neither of these complications, with surgery and various endovascular procedures among the alternatives available. None of these therapeutic approaches has demonstrated a significant increase in long-term liver implant preservation. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man with a two-month liver transplant presented with massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hemobilia shortly after the performance of an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography due to the presence of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with fistulization into the bile duct. This case report describes the successful treatment of both complications, the hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm and the arterio-biliary fistula, using a covered coronary stent placed in the hepatic artery. A year and a half after treatment, the patient maintains a preserved liver implant and a patent hepatic artery. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm with fistulization into bile duct using a covered coronary stent allowed the correct repair of the defect, adequate hemorrhage control, and long-term liver implant preservation.

6.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite concerns that liver transplant (LT) recipients may be at increased risk of unfavorable outcomes from COVID-19 due the high prevalence of co-morbidities, immunosuppression and ageing, a detailed analysis of their effects in large studies is lacking METHODS: Data from adult LT recipients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV2 infection were collected across Europe. All consecutive patients with symptoms were included in the analysis, RESULTS: Between March 1st and June 27th2020, data from 243 adult symptomatic cases from 36 centers and 9 countries were collected. Thirty-nine (16%) were managed as outpatients while 204 (84%) required hospitalization including admission to the ICU (39/204, 19.1%). Forty-nine (20.2%) patients died after a median of 13.5 (10-23) days, respiratory failure was the major cause. After multivariable Cox regression analysis, age > 70 (HR 4.16; 95%CI 1.78-9.73) had a negative effect and tacrolimus (TAC) use (HR 0.55; 95%CI 0.31-0.99) had a positive independent effect on survival. The role of co-morbidities was strongly influenced by the dominant effect of age where comorbidities increased with the increasing age of the recipients. In a second model excluding age, both diabetes (HR 1.95; 95%CI 1.06 - 3.58) and chronic kidney disease (HR 1.97; 95%CI 1.05 - 3.67) emerged as associated with death CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five per cent of patients requiring hospitalization for Covid-19 died, the risk being higher in patients older than 70 and with medical co-morbidities, such as impaired renal function and diabetes. Conversely, the use of TAC was associated with a better survival thus encouraging clinicians to keep TAC at the usual dose.

8.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the optimal time to start oral refeeding in mild and moderate acute pancreatitis (AP) to reduce hospital length-of-stay (LOS) and complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Oral diet is essential in mild and moderate AP. The greatest benefits are obtained if refeeding starts early; however, the definition of "early" remains controversial. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, controlled trial (NCT03829085) included patients with a diagnosis of mild or moderate AP admitted consecutively to 4 hospitals from 2017 to 2019. Patients were randomized into 2 treatment groups: immediate oral refeeding (IORF) and conventional oral refeeding (CORF). The IORF group (low-fat-solid diet initiated immediately after hospital admission) was compared to CORF group (progressive oral diet was restarted when clinical and laboratory parameters had improved) in terms of LOS (primary endpoint), pain relapse, diet intolerance, complications, and, hospital costs. RESULTS: One hundred-thirty-three patients were included for randomization. The mean LOS for the IORF and CORF groups was 3.4 (SD ± 1.7) and 8.8 (SD ± 7.9) days, respectively (P < 0.001). In the CORF group alone, pain relapse rate was 16%. There were fewer complications (8% vs 26%) and health costs were twice as low, with a savings of 1325.7&OV0556;/patient in the IORF than CORF group. CONCLUSIONS: IORF is safe and feasible in mild and moderate AP, resulting in significantly shorter LOS and cost savings, without causing adverse effects or complications.

9.
Transpl Int ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084117

RESUMO

Enteric complications remain a major cause of morbidity in the post-transplant period of pancreas transplantation despite improvements surgical technique. The aim of this single-center study was to analyze retrospectively the early intestinal complications and their potential relation with vascular events. From 2000 to 2016, 337 pancreas transplants were performed with systemic venous drainage. For exocrine secretion, intestinal drainage was done with hand-sewn anastomosis duodenojejunostomy. Twenty-three patients (6.8%) had early intestinal complications. Median age was 39 years (male: 65.2%). Median cold ischemia time was 11 h [IQR: 9-12.4]. Intestinal complications were intestinal obstruction (n = 7); paralytic ileus (n = 5); intestinal fistula without anastomotic dehiscence (n = 3); ischemic graft duodenum (n = 3); dehiscence of duodenojejunostomy (n = 4); and anastomotic dehiscence in jejunum after pancreas transplantectomy (n = 1). Eighteen cases required relaparotomy: adhesiolysis (n = 6); repeated laparotomy without findings (n = 1); transplantectomy (n = 6); primary leak closure (n = 3); re-positioning of the graft (n = 1); and intestinal resection (n = 1). Of the intestinal complications, 4 were associated with vascular thrombosis, resulting in two pancreatic graft losses. Enteric drainage with duodenum-jejunum anastomosis is safe and feasible, with a low rate of intra-abdominal complications. Vascular thrombosis associated with intestinal complications presents a risk factor for the viability of pancreatic grafts, so prevention and early detection is vital.

12.
JHEP Rep ; 2(5): 100145, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939447

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Liver stiffness is increased in advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) and accurately predicts prognosis in this population. Recent data suggest that extracellular matrix stiffness per se may modulate the phenotype of liver cells. We aimed at investigating the effect of matrix stiffness on the phenotype of liver cells of rats with cirrhosis, assessing its influence on their response to antifibrotic strategies and evaluating associated molecular mechanisms. Methods: Hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells were isolated from healthy rats or rats with cirrhosis (carbon tetrachloride or thioacetamide), and cultured on polyacrylamide gels with different physiologically relevant stiffness for 72 h. Results: All cell types of rats with cirrhosis cultured at low stiffness showed a significant phenotype amelioration vs. rigid matrix (assessed by quantitative morphology, mRNA expression, protein synthesis, and electron microscopy imaging). Additionally, stiffness modified the antifibrotic effects of liraglutide in stellate cells of rats with cirrhosis. Finally, evaluation of nuclear morphology revealed that high stiffness induced nuclei deformation in all cell types, an observation confirmed in cells from human livers. Disconnecting the nucleus from the cytoskeleton by cytoskeleton disruption or a defective form of nesprin 1 significantly recovered spherical nuclear shape and quiescent phenotype of cells. Conclusions: The environment's stiffness per se modulates the phenotype of healthy rats and liver cells of rats with cirrhosis by altering the nuclear morphology through cytoskeleton-derived mechanical forces. The reversibility of this mechanism suggests that targeting the stiffness-mediated intracellular mechanical tensions may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for ACLD. Lay summary: During cirrhosis, the liver becomes scarred, stiff, and unable to perform its normal functions efficiently. In this study, we demonstrated that cells from diseased (stiff) livers recovered their functionality when placed in a soft environment (as that of a healthy liver). Furthermore, treatments aimed at tricking liver cells into believing they are in a healthy, soft liver improved their function and could potentially contribute to treat cirrhosis.

13.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in immunocompromised patients are a matter of debate. METHODS: Prospective nationwide study including a consecutive cohort of liver transplant patients with Covid-19 recruited during the Spanish outbreak from February 28th to April 7th, 2020. The primary outcome was severe Covid-19, defined as the need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care, and/or death. Age- and gender-standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR) were calculated using data from the Ministry of Health and the Spanish liver transplant registry. Independent predictors of severe Covid-19 among hospitalized patients were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 111 liver transplant patients were diagnosed with Covid-19 (SIR=191.2 [95%CI 190.3-192.2]). The epidemiological curve and geographic distribution overlapped widely between liver transplant and general populations. After a median follow-up of 23 days, 96 patients (86.5%) were admitted to hospital and 22 patients (19.8%) required respiratory support. Twelve patients were admitted to the ICU (10.8%). The mortality rate was 18%, being lower compared to the matched general population (SMR=95.5 [95%CI 94.2-96.8]). Thirty-five patients (31.5%) met criteria of severe Covid-19. Baseline immunosuppression containing mycophenolate was an independent predictor of severe Covid-19 (RR=3.94; 95%CI 1.59-9.74; p=0.003), particularly at doses higher than 1,000 mg/day (p=0.003). This deleterious effect was not observed with calcineurin inhibitors or everolimus and complete immunosuppression withdrawal showed no benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Being chronically immunosuppressed, liver transplant patients have an increased risk of acquiring Covid-19 but their mortality rates are lower than matched general population. Upon hospital admission, mycophenolate dose reduction or withdrawal could help in preventing severe Covid-19. However, complete immunosuppression withdrawal should be discouraged.

14.
Transplantation ; 104(8): 1542-1552, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732830

RESUMO

Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death (uDCD) refers to donation from persons who die following an unexpected and unsuccessfully resuscitated cardiac arrest. Despite the large potential for uDCD, programs of this kind only exist in a reduced number of countries with a limited activity. Barriers to uDCD are of a logistical and ethical-legal nature, as well as arising from the lack of confidence in the results of transplants from uDCD donors. The procedure needs to be designed to reduce and limit the impact of the prolonged warm ischemia inherent to the uDCD process, and to deal with the ethical issues that this practice poses: termination of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, extension of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation beyond futility for organ preservation, moment to approach families to discuss donation opportunities, criteria for the determination of death, or the use of normothermic regional perfusion for the in situ preservation of organs. Although the incidence of primary nonfunction and delayed graft function is higher with organs obtained from uDCD donors, overall patient and graft survival is acceptable in kidney, liver, and lung transplantation, with a proper selection and management of both donors and recipients. Normothermic regional perfusion has shown to be critical to achieve optimal outcomes in uDCD kidney and liver transplantation. However, the role of ex situ preservation with machine perfusion is still to be elucidated. uDCD is a unique opportunity to improve patient access to transplantation therapies and to offer more patients the chance to donate organs after death, if this is consistent with their wishes and values.


Assuntos
Seleção do Doador/métodos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Aloenxertos/provisão & distribução , Seleção do Doador/ética , Seleção do Doador/legislação & jurisprudência , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Órgãos/ética , Transplante de Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Perfusão/instrumentação , Perfusão/métodos , Ressuscitação/ética , Resultado do Tratamento , Isquemia Quente/efeitos adversos
15.
Updates Surg ; 72(4): 1041-1051, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734578

RESUMO

Laparoscopic hemihepatectomy (LHH) may offer advantages over open hemihepatectomy (OHH) in blood loss, recovery, and hospital stay. The aim of this study is to evaluate our recent experience performing hemihepatectomy and compare complications and costs up to 90 days following laparoscopic versus open procedures. Retrospective evaluation of patients undergoing hemihepatectomy at our center 01/2010-12/2018 was performed. Patient, tumor, and surgical characteristics; 90-day complications; and costs were analyzed. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance covariates. A total of 141 hemihepatectomies were included: 96 OHH and 45 LHH. While operative times were longer for LHH, blood loss and transfusions were less. At 90 days, there were similar rates of liver-specific and surgical complications but fewer medical complications following LHH. Medical complications that arose with greater frequency following OHH were primarily pulmonary complications and urinary and central venous catheter infections. Complications at 90 days were lower following LHH (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ III OHH 23%, LHH 11%, p = 0.130; Comprehensive Complication Index OHH 20.0 ± 16.1, LHH 10.9 ± 14.2, p = 0.001). While operating costs were higher, costs for hospital stay and readmissions were lower with LHH. Patients undergoing LHH experience a significant reduction in postoperative medical complications and costs, resulting in 90-day cost equity compared with OHH.

16.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 405(7): 967-975, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a rare type of liver cancer. "Very early" ICC, defined as a solitary lesion of ≤ 2 cm in diameter, appears to have a favorable outcome. PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcome of patients with "very early" ICC treated with curative surgical resection in an intention-to-treat analysis. METHODS: All patients with ICC undergoing surgical resection at the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona (Spain) between April 2000 and December 2018 were reviewed, and those with evident "very early" ICC in preoperative imaging studies were selected. Results of histopathologic examination of the surgical specimen, postoperative complications, recurrence, and survival were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 89 patients operated for ICC during the study period, 7 (7.9%) met the "very early" criteria at preoperative imaging. Two (TNM 7th) and four (TNM 8th) patients were classified as stage I, following histological examination of their resected specimens. One patient presented with postoperative morbidity (grade II Clavien-Dindo). The median (IQR) hospital stay was 5 days (3-7). After a median follow-up of 23 months (IQR 11.9-80.6), recurrence was diagnosed in one case at 8.3 months after surgery. The overall survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 85.7%, 68.6%, and 68.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Intention-to-treat curative surgery in "very early" ICC is associated with good results in terms of survival and recurrence. However, most patients presented more advanced stages in the definitive pathological analysis, associated with a lower survival. Future prospective multicenter studies are required to validate these encouraging data.

17.
Transpl Int ; 33(10): 1244-1252, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609908

RESUMO

There are scarce data on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on liver transplantation (LT) in Europe. The aim of this study was to obtain a preliminary data on incidence, management, and outcome of COVID-19 in liver transplant recipients and candidates in Europe. An Internet-based survey was sent to the centers affiliated with European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR). One hundred nine out of 149 (73%) of ELTR centers located in 28 European countries (93%) responded. Ninety-four (86%) of the centers tested all donors, and 75 (69%) centers tested all LT recipients for SARS-CoV-2. Seventy-three (67%) centers selected recipients for LT in the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas 33% did not. Eighty-eight centers reported COVID-19 infection in 57 LT candidates and in 272 LT recipients. Overall crude incidence of COVID-19 among LT candidates and recipients was estimated 1.05% (range 0.5-20%) and 0.34% (range 0.1-4.8%), respectively, and it was significantly higher among candidates (P < 0.001). Crude rate of death was 18% (10/57) among candidates and 15% (36/244) among recipients. This first large-scale European snapshot study clearly shows that both LT candidates and recipients are at a high risk for COVID-19. These results plead for an early and pro-active screening of COVID-19 symptoms in these populations.

18.
Transplantation ; 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill cirrhotic patients are increasingly transplanted, but there is no consensus about futile liver transplantation (LT).Therefore, the decision to delay or deny LT is often extensively debated. These debates arise from different opinions of futility among transplant team members. This study aims to achieve a multinational and multidisciplinary consensus on the definition of futility in LT and to develop well-articulated criteria for not proceeding with LT due to futility. METHODS: Thirty-five international experts from anesthesiology/intensive care, hepatology and transplant surgery were surveyed using the Delphi method. More than 70% of similar answers to a question were necessary to define agreement. RESULTS: The panel recommended patient and graft survival at 1 year after LT to define futility. Severe frailty, and persistent fever or less than 72 hours of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in case of ongoing sepsis were considered reasons to delay LT. A simple assessment of the number of organs failing was considered the most appropriate way to decide whether LT should be delayed or denied, with respiratory, circulatory and metabolic failures having the most influence in this decision. The thresholds of severity of organ failures contraindicating LT for which a consensus was achieved were a PaO2/FiO2 ratio<150 mmHg, a norepinephrine dose >1µg/kg/min and a serum lactate level >9 mmol/l. CONCLUSION: Our expert panel provides a consensus on the definition of futile LT and on specific criteria for postponing or denying LT. A framework that may facilitate the decision if a patient is too sick for transplant is presented.

19.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429478

RESUMO

In non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), many lines of investigation have reported a dysregulation in lipid homeostasis, leading to intrahepatic lipid accumulation. Recently, the role of dysfunctional sphingolipid metabolism has also been proposed. Human and animal models of NASH have been associated with elevated levels of long chain ceramides and pro-apoptotic sphingolipid metabolites, implicated in regulating fatty acid oxidation and inflammation. Importantly, inhibition of de novo ceramide biosynthesis or knock-down of ceramide synthases reverse some of the pathology of NASH. In contrast, cell permeable, short chain ceramides have shown anti-inflammatory actions in multiple models of inflammatory disease. Here, we investigated non-apoptotic doses of a liposome containing short chain C6-Ceramide (Lip-C6) administered to human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC), a key effector of hepatic fibrogenesis, and an animal model characterized by inflammation and elevated liver fat content. On the basis of the results from unbiased liver transcriptomic studies from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients, we chose to focus on adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) signaling pathways, which showed an abnormal profile. Lip-C6 administration inhibited hHSC proliferation while improving anti-oxidant protection and energy homeostasis, as indicated by upregulation of Nrf2, activation of AMPK and an increase in ATP. To confirm these in vitro data, we investigated the effect of a single tail-vein injection of Lip-C6 in the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet mouse model. Lip-C6, but not control liposomes, upregulated phospho-AMPK, without inducing liver toxicity, apoptosis, or exacerbating inflammatory signaling pathways. Alluding to mechanism, mass spectrometry lipidomics showed that Lip-C6-treatment reversed the imbalance in hepatic phosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerides species induced by the MCD-fed diet. These results reveal that short-term Lip-C6 administration reverses energy/metabolic depletion and increases protective anti-oxidant signaling pathways, possibly by restoring homeostatic lipid function in a model of liver inflammation with fat accumulation.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 56: 102786, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic patient-derived organoids (PDOs) are a well-established model for studying pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) carcinogenesis and are potential predictors of clinical responses to chemotherapy. Oncolytic virotherapy is envisioned as a novel treatment modality for pancreatic cancer, and candidate viruses are being tested in clinical trials. Here, we explore the feasibility of using PDOs as a screening platform for the oncolytic adenovirus (OA) response. METHODS: Organoids were established from healthy pancreas and PDAC tissues and assessed for infectivity, oncoselectivity, and patient-dependent sensitivity to OA. Antitumour effects were studied in vivo in organoid xenografts. Further evaluation of oncolytic responses was conducted in organoids derived from orthotopic models or metastastic tissues. FINDINGS: Oncolytic adenoviruses display good selectivity, with replication only in organoids derived from PDAC tumours. Furthermore, responses of PDOs to a set of OAs reveal individual differences in cytotoxicity as well as in synergism with standard chemotherapy. Adenoviral cytotoxicity in PDOs is predictive of antitumour efficacy in a subcutaneous xenograft setting. Organoids from orthotopic tumours and metastases in nude mice mirror the viral preference of PDOs, indicating that PDO sensitivity to OAs could be informative about responses in both primary tumours and metastatic foci. INTERPRETATION: Our data imply that pancreatic PDOs can serve as predictive tools for screening for sensitivity to OA.

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