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1.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597293

RESUMO

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.

2.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 14: 9, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is primarily composed of polar phospho- and sphingolipids, which have established biological effects on neuroplasticity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary MFGM supplementation on the neuromuscular system during post-natal development. METHODS: Growing rats received dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures consisting of complex milk lipids (CML), beta serum concentrate (BSC) or a complex milk lipid concentrate (CMLc) (which lacks MFGM proteins) from post-natal day 10 to day 70. RESULTS: Supplementation with MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids (BSC and CMLc, but not CML) increased the plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) concentration, with no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS) or sphingomyelin (SM). In contrast, muscle PC was reduced in rats receiving supplementation with both BSC and CMLc, whereas muscle PI, PE, PS and SM remained unchanged. Rats receiving BSC and CMLc (but not CML) displayed a slow-to-fast muscle fibre type profile shift (MyHCI → MyHCIIa) that was associated with elevated expression of genes involved in myogenic differentiation (myogenic regulatory factors) and relatively fast fibre type specialisation (Myh2 and Nfatc4). Expression of neuromuscular development genes, including nerve cell markers, components of the synaptogenic agrin-LRP4 pathway and acetylcholine receptor subunits, was also increased in muscle of rats supplemented with BSC and CMLc (but not CML). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that dietary supplementation with bovine-derived MFGM mixtures enriched in polar lipids can promote neuromuscular development during post-natal growth in rats, leading to shifts in adult muscle phenotype.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(32): 6295-305, 2016 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436425

RESUMO

Gangliosides (GA) are found in animal tissues and fluids, such as blood and milk. These sialo-glycosphingolipids have bioactivities in neural development, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune system. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method was validated to characterize and quantitate the GA in beef, chicken, pork, and fish species (turbot, snapper, king salmon, and island mackerel). For the first time, we report the concentration of GM3, the dominant GA in these foods, as ranging from 0.35 to 1.1 mg/100 g and 0.70 to 5.86 mg/100 g of meat and fish, respectively. The minor GAs measured were GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Molecular species distribution revealed that the GA contained long- to very-long-chain acyl fatty acids attached to the ceramide moiety. Fish GA contained only N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) sialic acid, while beef, chicken, and pork contained GD1a/b species that incorporated both NeuAc and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) and hydroxylated fatty acids.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Gangliosídeos/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Peixes , Suínos
4.
Lipids ; 50(11): 1145-54, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26404454

RESUMO

Gangliosides play a critical role in human brain development and function. Human breast milk (HBM) is an important dietary source of gangliosides for the growing infant. In this study, ganglioside concentrations were measured in the breast milk from a cross-sectional sample of Chinese mothers over an 8-month lactation period. The average total ganglioside concentration increased from 13.1 mg/l during the first month to 20.9 mg/l by 8 months of lactation. The average concentration during the typically solely breast-feeding period of 1‒6 months was 18.9 mg/l. This is the first study to report the relative distribution of the individual ganglioside molecular species through lactation for any population group. The ganglioside molecular species are made up of different fatty acid moieties that influence the physical properties of these gangliosides, and hence affect their function. The GM(3) molecular species containing long-chain acyl fatty acids had the most prominent changes, increasing in both concentration and relative distribution. The equivalent long-chain acyl fatty acid GD(3) molecular species typically decreased in concentration and relative distribution. The lactational trends for both concentration and relative distribution for the very long-chain acyl fatty acid molecular species were more varied. The major GM(3) and GD(3) molecular species during lactation were d40:1 and d42:1, respectively. An understanding of ganglioside molecular species distribution in HBM is essential for accurate application of mass spectrometry methods for ganglioside quantification.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Gangliosídeos/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Adulto , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leite Humano/química , Mães
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(14): 6021-8, 2009 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19537729

RESUMO

Although some of the physiological roles of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins are still unclear, there is increasing evidence that the consumption of bovine MFGM proteins has significant nutritional health benefits for humans; therefore, it may be important to be able to estimate the MFGM proteins in complex ingredients. In this study, the absolute quantification (AQUA) technique, which is typically used for the quantification of proteins in proteomic studies, was applied for the quantification of bovine MFGM proteins in butter milk protein concentrate. Six MFGM proteins (fatty acid binding protein, butyrophilin, PAS 6/7, adipophilin, xanthine oxidase, and mucin 1) were simultaneously quantified using high-resolution selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Samples were rehydrated in 6.7 M urea buffer prior to dilution to 2.2 M before tryspin digestion. Direct rehydration in 2.2 M urea buffer or 2.2 M urea/20% acetonitilrile buffer reduced peptide yield digestion. Isotopically labeled peptides were used as internal standards. The coefficient of variation ranged from 5 to 15%, with a recovery of 84-105%. The limit of detection was in the range of 20-40 pg.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Manteiga/análise , Butirofilinas , Bovinos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/análise , Glicolipídeos/química , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Proteínas de Membrana , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Proteínas do Leite/química , Mucina-1/análise , Peptídeos/análise , Perilipina-2 , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tripsina/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/análise
6.
J AOAC Int ; 85(3): 682-91, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12083261

RESUMO

Vitamin K1 was determined in a variety of foods by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a C30 column followed by post-column reduction to the fluorescent hydroquinone derivatives. Lipids were removed by lipase digestion, followed by single extraction into hydrocarbon, and the protocol was extended to selected natural and processed foods. Biologically active trans- and inactive ci-vitamin K1 isomers were measured individually to evaluate the true nutritional status of the products. Method performance parameters confirmed the validity of the technique. The use of the triacontyl-bonded C30 phase for selective phylloquinone isomer measurement extends previously validated AOAC Method 999.15 for vitamin K1 in milk and infant formula to a wider range of foods important in the human diet. The cis-vitamin K1 isomer contributes up to about 15% of total phylloquinone in certain foods.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Vitamina K 1/análise
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