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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17946, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adaptive balance control is often compromised in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Neuromuscular training (NMT) is commonly used in clinical settings to improve neuromuscular control and hence balance performance in these children. However, its effectiveness has not been proven scientifically. This randomized controlled study aimed to explore the effectiveness of NMT for improving adaptive balance performance and the associated leg muscle activation times in children with DCD. METHODS: Eighty-eight children with DCD were randomly assigned to the NMT or control group (44 per group). The NMT group received two 40-minute NMT sessions/week for 3 months, whereas the control group received no intervention. The outcomes were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. The primary outcome was the sway energy score (SES) in both the toes-up and toes-down conditions as derived using the Adaptation Test (ADT). Secondary outcomes included the medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstring, tibialis anterior and rectus femoris muscle activation onset latencies during ADT, measured using surface electromyography and accelerometry. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance based on the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: At 3 months, no significant within-group or between-group differences were noted in the SESs for either group. At 6 months, the toes-down SES decreased by 6.8% compared to the baseline value in exclusively the NMT group (P = .004). No significant time, group or group-by-time interaction effects were observed in any leg muscle activation outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term NMT failed to improve adaptive balance performance and leg muscle activation times in children with DCD. Further studies should explore the clinical applications of longer-term task-specific interventions intended to improve the adaptive balance performance of these children.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/reabilitação , Equilíbrio Postural , Adaptação Fisiológica , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 7536957, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467614

RESUMO

This study examined if imagery ability (i.e., vividness and temporal congruence between imagined and executed knee extensions) and imagery perspective preference were affected by ageing and gender. Ninety-four participants, 31 young, 43 intermediate, and 20 older adults completed the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 and a knee extension temporal congruence test to reflect on their imagery ability and an imagery perspective preference test. Male participants had a better imagery ability than the female participants (F (4, 85) = 2.84, p = .029, η 2 = .118). However, significant age-related changes in imagery ability were not found in the three age groups. Change in imagery perspective preference with a trend towards an external imagery perspective was observed with ageing (F (3, 89) = 3.16, p = .028, η 2 = .096) but not between male and female. The results suggest that imagery ability may be preserved with ageing. As individuals age, their preference for using an imagery perspective shifts from a more internal to a more external perspective. This understanding is important when designing future imagery research and real-life application or clinical intervention.


Assuntos
Imaginação/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(5): 956-979, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of activity-based, nonactivity-based, and combined activity- and nonactivity-based rehabilitative interventions for individuals presenting with unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and hemianopia. DATA SOURCES: We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed from 2006 to 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a score of 6 or more in the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale that examined the effects of activity-based and nonactivity-based rehabilitation interventions for people with USN or hemianopia. Two reviewers selected studies independently. DATA EXTRACTION: Extracted data from the published RCTs. Mean differences (MD) or standardized mean differences (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 20 RCTs for USN and 5 for hemianopia, involving 594 and 206 stroke participants respectively, were identified. Encouraging results were found in relation to activity-based interventions for visual scanning training and compensatory training for hemianopia (MD=5.11; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 0.83-9.4; P=.019; I2=25.16% on visual outcomes), and optokinetic stimulation and smooth pursuit training for USN (SMD=0.49; 95% CI, 0.01-0.97; P=.045; I2=49.35%) on functional performance in activities of daily living, (SMD=0.96; 95% CI, 0.09-1.82; P=.031; I2=89.57%) on neglect. CONCLUSIONS: Activity-based interventions are effective and commonly used in the treatment of USN and hemianopia. Nonactivity-based and combined approaches, for both impairments, have not been refuted, because more studies are required for substantiated conclusions to be drawn.


Assuntos
Hemianopsia/reabilitação , Transtornos da Percepção/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Hemianopsia/etiologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(3): 389-409, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803309

RESUMO

This randomized controlled trial explored the effects of a Ving Tsun (VT) Chinese martial art training program on reactive standing balance performance, postural muscle reflex contraction latency, leg muscle performance, balance confidence and falls in community-dwelling older adults. We randomly assigned 33 healthy older adults to either a VT group (mean age = 67.5 years) or a control group (mean age = 72.1 years). The VT group received two 1-hour VT training sessions per week for three months (24 sessions). Primary outcome measures collected before and after the intervention period were electromyographic muscle activation onset latencies of the hamstring and gastrocnemius and the center of pressure path, length and movement velocity in standing (reactive balance performance). Secondary outcome measures included isometric peak force and time to isometric peak force of the knee extensors and flexors, the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale score, and fall history. Results revealed that the mean gastrocnemius muscle activation onset latency was significantly longer (22.53 ms) in the VT group after the intervention. The peak force of the knee flexors significantly increased (by 1.58 kg) in the control group over time but not in the VT group. The time to reach peak force in the knee flexors was significantly longer (by 0.51 s) in the control group (but not the VT group) at posttest compared with the pretest value. No other significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were noted. We discussed possible reasons for the failure of three months of martial art training to benefit fall risks among these older adults.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Artes Marciais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Tratamento
5.
Foot Ankle Int ; 40(5): 568-577, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to compare the morphomechanical and functional characteristics during maximal isometric, concentric, and eccentric contractions in the legs of patients that underwent unilateral Achilles tendon repair with those in their noninjured control legs. METHODS: Twenty participants (median age = 38.2 years; range, 21.1-57.3 years) who underwent Achilles repair between 3 and 12 months ago were recruited with the following measures: (1) mechanical stiffness of the aponeurosis and (2) electromyography and medial gastrocnemius fascicle angle and length, standing muscle and tendon length, and height of heel rise with isometric contraction. RESULTS: Compared to the noninjured legs, the repaired legs showed less resting fascicle length, standing muscle length, isometric plantarflexion torque, and heel raise distance ( Ps ranged between .044 and <.001). During the concentric and eccentric phases of the raising and lowering test, the repaired legs demonstrated less fascicle length ( P ≤ .028) but greater tendinous tissue length ( Ps ranged between .084 and <.001) and fascicle angle ( Ps ranged between .247 and .008) and fewer change magnitudes of the fascicle length and tendinous tissue length ( P ≤ .003). The change magnitudes of the morphological characteristics showed correlations with the torque or distance. CONCLUSION: Selecting the appropriate surgical repair and rehabilitation for Achilles tendon ruptures is recommended for restoring the length and mechanical strength of the muscle-tendon unit of plantar-flexion muscles. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, comparative study.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiopatologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/cirurgia , Contração Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Tendão do Calcâneo/lesões , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(2): e14134, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633230

RESUMO

In this study, balance performance, agility, eye-hand coordination, and sports performance were compared between amateur badminton players and active controls.Thirty young adult badminton players and 33 active controls participated in the study. Static single-leg standing balance (with eyes closed) was measured using a force platform, and dynamic balance was measured using the Y Balance Test (lower quarter). Agility was measured using a hexagon agility test, and eye-hand coordination was measured using a computerized finger-pointing task. Sports performance was quantified by the number of times a shuttlecock fell in a designated area following a badminton serve.The badminton players had superior accuracy in badminton serving (P < .001) relative to the active controls. However, no significant between-group differences were noted in all other outcome variables (P > .05).Amateur badminton players had more favorable sports performance, but not balance performance, agility, or eye-hand coordination, than controls.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes com Raquete/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Gait Posture ; 68: 388-396, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have leg muscular deficits which negatively affects their dynamic postural stability. Kinesio tape (KT) could enhance muscle activation, postural control and functional activities in healthy individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the usage of KT may address the postural instability problem of children with DCD. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the immediate effect of KT on dynamic postural stability and the associated lower limb muscle activity in children with DCD. METHODS: Forty-nine children with DCD were recruited where twenty-five children were randomly assigned to the KT group (mean age = 8.18 ± 1.16 years) and twenty-four to the control group (mean age = 8.06 ± 0.93 years). KT group received KT application to the rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles whereas the control group received no intervention. Measurements were taken before and after the application of KT. Dynamic balance performance was measured using a lower quartile Y-balance test (YBT-LQ). Leg muscle peak activation and time-to-peak muscle activation of the dominant lower limb during YBT-LQ were measured by surface electromyography. RESULTS: YBT-LQ composite score increased by 6.3% in the KT group at posttest (95% CI: -7.308, -2.480). In addition, a higher rectus femoris peak activation was illustrated for YBT-LQ anterior (32.5%; 95% CI: -48.619, -16.395) and posteromedial (24.6%; 95% CI: -42.631, -6.591) reach directions from pretest values in the KT group. Moreover, KT group exhibited a 38% (95% CI: 0.015, 2.983) longer gastrocnemius medialis time-to-peak duration for YBT-LQ posteromedial reach direction when compared to the control group. SIGNIFICANCE: KT revealed an immediate beneficial effect on YBT-LQ performance. Application of KT also increased rectus femoris peak activation and lengthened the muscle time-to-peak duration for specific reach directions. Incorporating KT as an adjunct with dynamic balance training programme could be beneficial for children with DCD.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/terapia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Criança , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(47): e13258, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461629

RESUMO

This study compared the shoulder muscular performance and lean mass between elite and recreational swimmers.Thirty elite swimmers (mean age ±â€Šstandard deviation = 23.1 ±â€Š3.5 years) and 21 recreational swimmers (mean age ±â€Šstandard deviation = 20.8 ±â€Š2.1 years) participated in the study. Maximum muscle strength and time to maximum muscle strength of shoulder flexor, extensor, abductor, and adductor muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Lean mass of the arms and body (excluding the head) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).Results revealed that compared with recreational swimmers, elite swimmers had higher maximum muscle strength of the shoulder flexor, extensor, abductor, and adductor muscles (all P < .001). The time to reach maximum muscle strength of all shoulder muscles showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). The lean mass values in the left arm (P = .037), right arm (P < .001), and whole body (P = .014) were higher in elite swimmers than recreational swimmers.Elite swimmers had greater shoulder maximum muscle strength compared with recreational swimmers though the time taken to reach maximum muscle strength was similar between the 2 groups. Elite swimmers also showed a higher lean mass in both arms and their entire body when compared with recreational swimmers. The results may be useful for recreational swimmers who intend to advance to professional level, and for talent identification and early development of elite swimmers.


Assuntos
Atletas , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Recreação , Ombro , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Ombro/fisiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10330, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985447

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness of adapted Taekwondo (TKD) training on skeletal development and motor performance in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). One hundred forty-five prepubertal children with DCD were allocated to either the TKD or control groups. Children in the TKD group participated in a weekly 1-hour adapted TKD intervention and daily TKD home exercises for 12 weeks. The primary outcome (delay in skeletal development) and secondary outcomes (Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) total impairment score, eye-hand coordination (EHC) scores, and a standing balance score) were measured at baseline, after the intervention and 3 months after the intervention. Skeletal development improved in both groups over time (p < 0.017). The TKD group had a significant delay in skeletal development at baseline compared to the control group (p = 0.003) but caught up with the controls at 3 months (p = 0.041). Improvements in the MABC scores were also seen in both groups across time (p < 0.017). Only the TKD group had a significant improvement in the EHC movement time at 3 (p = 0.009) and 6 months (p = 0.016). The adapted TKD intervention may be effective in improving the skeletal development and EHC movement time of children with DCD. For motor performance, the effect of maturation might be more profound.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artes Marciais , Movimento , Equilíbrio Postural , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Gait Posture ; 64: 25-29, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29807269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volleyball digging techniques may cause pelvic injuries among female volleyball athletes. Pelvic padding and Kinesiology Taping (KT) may reduce impact force and pain and improve posture during a fall. This study examined the effects of pelvic padding and KT on pain perception, fall kinematics, and kinetics among female volleyball athletes. METHODS: Twenty-four female volleyball athletes were exposed to two pelvic padding scenarios (with and without padding) and two KT conditions (with and without KT applied on the rectus abdominis muscle) during a fall in the forward direction. The maximum impact force during landing and maximum acceleration of the pelvis were registered using a force platform and an accelerometer, respectively. The maximum lumbar (hyper) extension angle, forward reach distance, and total fall time were measured by video analysis. Pain level was quantified using a visual analog scale. RESULTS: The application of pelvic padding (with and without KT) reduced pain when compared to the no padding condition (p < 0.008). Applying KT alone reduced forward reach distance when compared to the 'pelvic padding and KT' condition (p < 0.010). In fact, when both pelvic padding and KT were applied, participants reached further when compared to the 'no pelvic padding and no KT' condition (p < 0.001). No significant main and interaction effects were found in all other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Volleyball shorts with pelvic pads are recommended for female volleyball athletes to reduce pain in the digging maneuver and may help to increase their forward reach distance. However, KT is not recommended as it reduces the forward reach distance and cannot reduce pain or improve fall kinematics and kinetics.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fita Atlética , Percepção da Dor/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Voleibol/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Acidentes por Quedas , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Medição da Dor , Pelve , Postura/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636784

RESUMO

This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants' attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter (p < 0.001). Perceived stress level decreased from baseline to posttest in exclusively the TC group (p = 0.005). Heart rate increased during TC (p < 0.001) and decreased thereafter (p = 0.001). No significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were found in the meditation level, palmar skin temperature, and blood oxygenation outcomes. While a 10-minute TC training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults.

12.
Gait Posture ; 62: 20-26, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501972

RESUMO

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor disorder affecting balance performance. However, few studies have investigated reactive balance performance and the underlying mechanisms in children with DCD. This study aimed to compare the reactive balance performance, lower limb muscle reflex contraction latency and attention level in response to unpredictable balance perturbations between 100 typically developing children and 120 children with DCD (with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder) aged 6-9 years. Reactive balance performance was evaluated using a motor control test (MCT) conducted on a computerized dynamic posturography machine. The lower limb postural muscle responses and attention level before, during and after a MCT were measured using surface electromyography and electroencephalography, respectively. The results revealed that relative to typically developing children, those with DCD had a significantly longer MCT latency score in the backward platform translation condition (p = 0.048) but a significantly shorter latency score in the forward platform translation condition (p = 0.024). The MCT composite latency scores and the corresponding lower limb muscle onset latencies were similar between the groups. Children with DCD also demonstrated a lower attention level during and after sudden backward (p = 0.042) and forward (p = 0.031) platform translations, compared to typically developing children. Children with DCD were less attentive in response to postural threats, and their balance responses were direction-specific. Balance training for children with DCD might require an additional emphasis on sudden posterior-to-anterior balance perturbations, as well as on problems with inattention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/diagnóstico , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/reabilitação , Contração Muscular/fisiologia
13.
Res Dev Disabil ; 73: 87-95, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have a higher body fat and greater gait variability. Little research has investigated the gait muscle activity and lean mass measures in children with DCD. AIMS: To compare the leg muscle activation patterns of the gait cycle and leg lean mass between children with and without DCD. METHODS: Fifty-one children were in the DCD group (38 males and 13 females; 7.95 ±â€¯1.04 years) and fifty-two in the control group (34 males and 18 females; 8.02 ±â€¯1.00 years). Peak muscle activation patterns of treadmill walking in the right leg for the eight-gait phases were measured by means of surface electromyography, an electrogoniometer, and foot contact switches. Leg lean mass measures were evaluated using a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: Children with DCD had a lower leg lean mass and appendicular lean mass index compared to the control group. Furthermore, they exhibited a less-pronounced peak muscle activation during the heel strike (gastrocnemius medialis), early swing (biceps femoris) and late swing phases (gastrocnemius medialis) of gait. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Although lower limb total mass was similar between groups, the DCD group displayed lower lean mass measures than controls. Furthermore, children with DCD illustrated a lower leg peak muscle activation during the heel strike, early swing and late swing phases of gait when walking on a treadmill. Our results emphasize the need to incorporate lower limb phasic muscle strengthening components into gait rehabilitation programs for children with DCD.


Assuntos
Marcha , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Músculos Isquiossurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 17(1): 124-130, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A deterioration in bone strength and balance performance after breast cancer treatment can result in injurious falls. Therefore, interventions need to be developed to improve the bone strength and balance ability of breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the bone mineral density (BMD), balance performance, balance self-efficacy, and number of falls between breast cancer survivors who practiced qigong, breast cancer survivors who did not practice qigong, and healthy individuals. METHODS: The study included 40 breast cancer survivors with more than 3 months of qigong experience, 17 breast cancer survivors with no qigong experience, and 36 healthy controls. All the participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to measure their lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total radius BMDs. The participants also underwent a timed one-leg stand test to measure their single-leg standing balance. The participants' balance self-efficacy was assessed using the activities-specific balance confidence scale, and the number of falls experienced by each participant was assessed in a face-to-face interview. RESULTS: The lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and total radius BMDs were similar between the 3 groups ( P > .05). The breast cancer-qigong group outperformed the breast cancer-control group by 27.3% when they performed the one-leg stand test on a foam surface ( P = .025), and they also had a higher balance self-efficacy score ( P = .006). Nevertheless, the numbers of falls were comparable between the 3 groups ( P > .05). CONCLUSION: Qigong may be a suitable exercise for improving the balance performance and balance self-efficacy of breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Densidade Óssea , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Equilíbrio Postural , Qigong , Absorciometria de Fóton , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoeficácia
15.
Technol Health Care ; 25(5): 867-876, 2017 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJETIVE: A stroke patient with hemiplegic gait is generally described as being slow and asymmetric. Body weight-supported treadmill training and backward gait training are recent additions to therapeutic gait trainings that may help improve gait in stroke patient with hemiplegic gait. Therefore, we examined the effect of progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training on gait in chronic stroke patients with hemiplegic gait. METHODS: Thirty subjects were divided to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group consisted of 15 patients and underwent progressive backward body weight-supported treadmill training. The control group consisted of 15 patients and underwent general treadmill gait training five times per week, for a total of four weeks. The OptoGait was used to analyze gait kinematics, and the dynamic gait index (DGI) and results of the 6-minute walk test were used as the clinical evaluation indicators. A follow-up test was carried out four weeks later to examine persistence of exercise effects. RESULTS: The experimental group showed statistically significant results in all dependent variables week four compared to the control group. However, until the eighth week, only the dependent variables, of affected step length (ASL), stride length (SL), and DGI differed significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study verified that progressive bodyweight-supported treadmill training had a positive influence on the temporospatial characteristics of gait and clinical gait evaluation index in chronic stroke patients.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Marcha/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Percept Mot Skills ; 124(6): 1151-1163, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799866

RESUMO

This study compared the full-body flexibility and joint proprioception (on land and underwater) of (a) 20 elite female synchronized swimmers (mean age ± standard deviation = 18.5 ± 1.9 years) and (b) 20 college female swim team members with no training in synchronized swimming (control participants; mean age ± standard deviation = 20.6 ± 1.3 years). Flexibility of the trunk and upper and lower limbs was measured using plastic tape and a goniometer, respectively. Joint proprioception (joint position sense) of the upper and lower limbs on land and underwater was measured by an active joint angle repositioning test. Principle outcome measures were passive joint range of motion (flexibility) and active joint repositioning error (proprioception). Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that, compared with control swimmers, synchronized swimmers had greater passive joint ranges of motion in the spinal and upper and lower limb joints ( p < .05) and fewer active joint repositioning errors in the shoulder, wrist, and ankle on land ( p < .05) and in the hip and ankle underwater ( p < .05). These results help characterize peak synchronized swimmer capabilities, provide valuable reference details for coaches, and may be useful for talent identification and skill development in this sport.


Assuntos
Propriocepção/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(7): e6146, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This single-blinded, three-armed randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the effects of postexercise ice-water immersion (IWI), room-temperature water immersion (RWI), and no water immersion on the balance performance and knee joint proprioception of amateur rugby players. METHODS: Fifty-three eligible amateur rugby players (mean age ±â€Šstandard deviation: 21.6 ±â€Š2.9 years) were randomly assigned to the IWI group (5.3 °C), RWI group (25.0 °C), or the no immersion control group. The participants in each group underwent the same fatigue protocol followed by their allocated recovery intervention, which lasted for 1 minute. Measurements were taken before and after the fatigue-recovery intervention. The primary outcomes were the sensory organization test (SOT) composite equilibrium score (ES) and the condition-specific ES, which were measured using a computerized dynamic posturography machine. The secondary outcome was the knee joint repositioning error. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the effect of water immersion on each outcome variable. RESULTS: There were no significant within- and between-group differences in the SOT composite ESs or the condition-specific ESs. However, there was a group-by-time interaction effect on the knee joint repositioning error. It seems that participants in the RWI group had lower errors over time, but those in the IWI and control groups had increased errors over time. The RWI group had significantly lower error score than the IWI group at postintervention. CONCLUSION: One minute of postexercise IWI or RWI did not impair rugby players' sensory organization of balance control. RWI had a less detrimental effect on knee joint proprioception to IWI at postintervention.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Hidroterapia/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Gelo , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(4): e5961, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28121945

RESUMO

This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners.Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ±â€Šstandard deviation = 51.8 ±â€Š17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ±â€Šstandard deviation = 58.7 ±â€Š11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively.VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P < 0.001), a 60.8% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of knee flexors (P < 0.001), and a 31.4% shorter time to reach peak torque in the knee flexors (P = 0.001) than the active controls. No significant differences were found in any of the other musculoskeletal outcomes between the 2 groups (P > 0.05).Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
19.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(2): 152-159, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27685604

RESUMO

Research in psychology suggests that provision of an instruction by analogy can enhance acquisition and understanding of knowledge. Limited research has been conducted to test this proposition in motor learning by children. The purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility of analogy instructions in motor skill acquisition by children. Thirty-two children were randomly assigned to one of the two instruction protocols: analogy and explicit instruction protocols for a two-week rope skipping training. Each participant completed a pretest (Lesson 1), three practice sessions (Lesson 2-4), a posttest and a secondary task test (Lesson 5). Children in the analogy protocol displayed better rope skip performance than those in the explicit instruction protocol (p < .001). Moreover, a cognitive secondary task test indicated that children in the analogy protocol performed more effectively, whereas children in the explicit protocol displayed decrements in performance. Analogy learning may aid children to acquire complex motor skills, and have potential benefits related to reduced cognitive processing requirements.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(4): 400-406, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863454

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players and a control group. METHODS: Forty-one amateur rugby players (22 males: 19 females; mean height ± SD = 168.8 ± 8.8 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.9 ± 12.5 kg) and 31 control participants (22 males: 9 females; mean height ± SD = 171.5 ± 10.3 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.8 ± 10.3 kg) completed the study. Their sensory organisation and standing balance performance were evaluated using a sensory organisation test (SOT), and their reactive balance performance was quantified using a motor control test (MCT). The SOT equilibrium scores (ES) and sensory ratios and the MCT motor response latencies were the major outcome measures. RESULTS: The results revealed that compared to the controls, amateur rugby players had lower SOT ESs under different sensory environments (P < .001, [Formula: see text] = 0.142-0.254) and prolonged reactive motor response times in the MCT (P < .001, d = 0.890). The vestibular and visual ratios were also lower in the rugby group (P = .005, [Formula: see text] = 0.107 and 0.108, respectively). No significant difference was found in the somatosensory ratio (P = .853, [Formula: see text] < 0.001) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior standing balance performance compared to their non-trained counterparts. They relied less heavily on vestibular and visual inputs to maintain standing balance under different sensory environments. In addition, they reacted more slowly to postural disturbance, reflecting their suboptimal reactive balance ability in standing.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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