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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the associations between autoantibodies, presentation and outcome among systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. We propose a new SSc classification incorporating antibodies and cutaneous subset. METHODS: Survival analysis was used to assess the effect of antibodies on organ disease and death. RESULTS: The study included 1325 subjects. The ACA+ limited cutaneous (lc)SSc group (n=374) had the highest 20-year survival (65.3%), lowest incidence of clinically-significant pulmonary fibrosis (csPF, 8.5%) and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC, 0.3%), low cardiac SSc incidence (4.9%), while pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequency was similar to the cohort average. The anti-Scl70+ lcSSc (n=138) and diffuse cutaneous (dc)SSc groups (n=149) had the highest csPF incidence (86.1% and 84% at 15 years). The dcSSc group had the lowest survival (32.4%) and the second highest incidence of cardiac SSc (12.9%) at 20 years, while in the lcSSc group other complications were rare, demonstrating the lowest incidence of PH (6.9%) and second highest survival (61.8%). The anti-RNA polymerase+ group (n=147) had the highest incidence of SRC (28.1%). The anti-U3RNP+ group (n=56) had the highest PH (33.8%) and cardiac SSc incidence (13.2%). Among lcSSc patients with other autoantibodies (n=295), risk of SRC and cardiac SSc was low, while other outcomes were similar to the cohort average. DcSSc patients with other antibodies (n=166) had poor prognosis, with the second lowest survival (33.6%) and frequent organ complications. CONCLUSION: We highlight the importance of autoantibodies, cutaneous subset and disease duration when assessing SSc morbidity and mortality. Our classification may benefit disease monitoring and clinical trial design.

3.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TNFSF13B (TNF superfamily member 13b) gene encodes BAFF, a cytokine with a crucial role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. An insertion-deletion variant (GCTGT→A) of this gene, leading to increased levels of BAFF, has been recently implicated in the genetic predisposition to several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the elevated levels of this cytokine found in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), we aimed to assess whether this functional variant also represents a novel genetic risk factor for these two disorders. METHODS: A total of 1,728 biopsy-proven GCA patients from 4 European cohorts, 4,584 SSc patients from 3 European cohorts and 5,160 ethnically-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs374039502, which colocalizes with the genetic variant previously implicated in autoimmunity, was genotyped using a custom TaqMan assay. First, association analysis was conducted in each independent cohort using χ2 test in Plink (v1.9). Subsequently, different case/control sets were meta-analyzed by the inverse variance method. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when allele distributions were compared between cases and controls for any of the analyzed cohorts. Similarly, combined analysis of the different sets evidenced a lack of association of the rs374039502 variant with GCA (P = 0.421; OR (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.75-1.13)) and SSc (P = 0.500; OR (95% CI) = 1.05 (0.91-1.22)). The stratified analysis considering the main clinical subphenotypes of these diseases yielded similar negative results. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the TNFSF13B functional variant does not contribute to the genetic network underlying GCA and SSc.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
4.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(4): 596-601, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several common and rare risk variants have been reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the effector cell(s) mediating the function of these genetic variants remains to be elucidated. While innate immune cells have been proposed as the critical targets to interfere with the disease process underlying SSc, no studies have comprehensively established their effector role. Here we investigated the contribution of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in mediating genetic susceptibility to SSc. METHODS: We carried out RNA sequencing and genome-wide genotyping in MDMs from 57 patients with SSc and 15 controls. Our differential expression and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in SSc was further integrated with epigenetic, expression and eQTL data from skin, monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes. RESULTS: We identified 602 genes upregulated and downregulated in SSc macrophages that were significantly enriched for genes previously implicated in SSc susceptibility (P=5×10-4), and 270 cis-regulated genes in MDMs. Among these, GSDMA was reported to carry an SSc risk variant (rs3894194) regulating expression of neighbouring genes in blood. We show that GSDMA is upregulated in SSc MDMs (P=8.4×10-4) but not in the skin, and is a significant eQTL in SSc macrophages and lipopolysaccharide/interferon gamma (IFNγ)-stimulated monocytes. Furthermore, we identify an SSc macrophage transcriptome signature characterised by upregulation of glycolysis, hypoxia and mTOR signalling and a downregulation of IFNγ response pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our data further establish the link between macrophages and SSc, and suggest that the contribution of the rs3894194 risk variant to SSc susceptibility can be mediated by GSDMA expression in macrophages.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(6): 920-931, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: NKX2-5 is a homeobox transcription factor that is required for the formation of the heart and vessels during development, with significant postnatal down-regulation and reactivation in disease states, characterized by vascular remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate mechanisms that activate NKX2-5 expression in diseased vessels, such as systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc)-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH), and to identify genetic variability that potentially underlies susceptibility to specific vascular complications. METHODS: We explored NKX2-5 expression in biopsy samples from patients with SSc-associated PH and in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) from patients with scleroderma. Disease-associated putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the NKX2-5 locus were cloned and studied in reporter gene assays. SNP function was further examined through protein-DNA binding assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and RNA silencing analyses. RESULTS: Increased NKX2-5 expression in biopsy samples from patients with SSc-associated PH was localized to remodeled vessels and PASMCs. Meta-analysis of 2 independent scleroderma cohorts revealed an association of rs3131917 with scleroderma (P = 0.029). We demonstrated that disease-associated SNPs are located in a novel functional enhancer, which increases NKX2-5 transcriptional activity through the binding of GATA-6, c-Jun, and myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2C. We also characterized an activator/coactivator transcription-enhancer factor domain 1 (TEAD1)/Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) complex, which was bound at rs3095870, another functional SNP, with TEAD1 binding the risk allele and activating the transcription of NKX2-5. CONCLUSION: NKX2-5 is genetically associated with scleroderma, pulmonary hypertension, and fibrosis. Functional evidence revealed a regulatory mechanism that results in NKX2-5 transcriptional activation in PASMCs through the interaction of an upstream promoter and a novel downstream enhancer. This mechanism can act as a model for NKX2-5 activation in cardiovascular disease characterized by vascular remodeling.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(9): 2338-44, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27111665

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases that have similar clinical and immunologic characteristics. To date, several shared SSc-RA genetic loci have been identified independently. The aim of the current study was to systematically search for new common SSc-RA loci through an interdisease meta-genome-wide association (meta-GWAS) strategy. METHODS: The study was designed as a meta-analysis combining GWAS data sets of patients with SSc and patients with RA, using a strategy that allowed identification of loci with both same-direction and opposite-direction allelic effects. The top single-nucleotide polymorphisms were followed up in independent SSc and RA case-control cohorts. This allowed an increase in the sample size to a total of 8,830 patients with SSc, 16,870 patients with RA, and 43,393 healthy controls. RESULTS: This cross-disease meta-analysis of the GWAS data sets identified several loci with nominal association signals (P < 5 × 10(-6) ) that also showed evidence of association in the disease-specific GWAS scans. These loci included several genomic regions not previously reported as shared loci, as well as several risk factors that were previously found to be associated with both diseases. Follow-up analyses of the putatively new SSc-RA loci identified IRF4 as a shared risk factor for these 2 diseases (Pcombined = 3.29 × 10(-12) ). Analysis of the biologic relevance of the known SSc-RA shared loci identified the type I interferon and interleukin-12 signaling pathways as the main common etiologic factors. CONCLUSION: This study identified a novel shared locus, IRF4, for the risk of SSc and RA, and highlighted the usefulness of a cross-disease GWAS meta-analysis strategy in the identification of common risk loci.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 75(8): 1521-6, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338038

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: TYK2 is a common genetic risk factor for several autoimmune diseases. This gene encodes a protein kinase involved in interleukin 12 (IL-12) pathway, which is a well-known player in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Therefore, we aimed to assess the possible role of this locus in SSc. METHODS: This study comprised a total of 7103 patients with SSc and 12 220 healthy controls of European ancestry from Spain, USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy and the UK. Four TYK2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (V362F (rs2304256), P1104A (rs34536443), I684S (rs12720356) and A928V (rs35018800)) were selected for follow-up based on the results of an Immunochip screening phase of the locus. Association and dependence analyses were performed by the means of logistic regression and conditional logistic regression. Meta-analyses were performed using the inverse variance method. RESULTS: Genome-wide significance level was reached for TYK2 V362F common variant in our pooled analysis (p=3.08×10(-13), OR=0.83), while the association of P1104A, A928V and I684S rare and low-frequency missense variants remained significant with nominal signals (p=2.28×10(-3), OR=0.80; p=1.27×10(-3), OR=0.59; p=2.63×10(-5), OR=0.83, respectively). Interestingly, dependence and allelic combination analyses showed that the strong association observed for V362F with SSc, corresponded to a synthetic association dependent on the effect of the three previously mentioned TYK2 missense variants. CONCLUSIONS: We report for the first time the association of TYK2 with SSc and reinforce the relevance of the IL-12 pathway in SSc pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Interleucina-12/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
10.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 57: 314-20, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354270

RESUMO

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with titanium oxide (TiO2) ~10-nm nanoparticles were produced by the melting process and their main properties were evaluated. The nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed in the matrix with a low degree of agglomeration, as seen by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallinity temperature increased ~12% when 5 wt.% of TiO2 was added, showing that the nanoparticles acted as nucleating agents this trend was confirmed by optical images. The elastic modulus increased ~54% compared to neat PLA at 5 wt.% of nanoparticles. Despite these improvements, PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites showed lower shear viscosity than neat PLA, possibly reflecting degradation of the polymer due to the particles. Regarding biocidal properties, after 2h of contact the PLA/TiO2 composites with 8 wt.% TiO2 showed a reduction of Escherichia coli colonies of ~82% under no UVA irradiation compared to pure PLA. This biocidal characteristic can be increased under UVA irradiation, with nanocomposites containing 8 wt.% TiO2 killing 94% of the bacteria. The PLA/TiO2 nanocomposites with 8 wt.% were also 99.99% effective against Aspergillus fumigatus under the UVA irradiation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Láctico/química , Polímeros/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/síntese química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/química , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Nanocompostos/administração & dosagem , Nanocompostos/química , Poliésteres , Titânio/química
12.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(1): R53, 2014 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24524733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We assessed the profile and frequency of malignancy subtypes in a large single-centre UK cohort for patients with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc). We evaluated the cancer risk among SSc patients with different antibody reactivities and explored the temporal association of cancer with the duration between SSc onset and cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a well-characterised cohort of SSc patients attending a large tertiary referral centre, with clinical data collected from our clinical database and by review of patient records. We evaluated development of all cancers in this cohort, and comparison was assessed with the SSc cohort without cancer. The effect of demographics and clinical details, including antibody reactivities, were explored to find associations relevant to the risk for development of cancer in SSc patients. RESULTS: Among 2,177 patients with SSc, 7.1% had a history of cancer, 26% were positive for anticentromere antibodies (ACAs), 18.2% were positive for anti-Scl-70 antibodies and 26.6% were positive for anti-RNA polymerase III (anti-RNAP) antibody. The major malignancy cancer subtypes were breast (42.2%), haematological (12.3%), gastrointestinal (11.0%) and gynaecological (11.0%). The frequency of cancers among patients with RNAP (14.2%) was significantly increased compared with those with anti-Scl-70 antibodies (6.3%) and ACAs (6.8%) (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Among the patients, who were diagnosed with cancer within 36 months of the clinical onset of SSc, there were more patients with RNAP (55.3%) than those with other autoantibody specificities (ACA = 23.5%, P < 0.008; and anti-Scl-70 antibodies = 13.6%, P < 0.002, respectively). Breast cancers were temporally associated with onset of SSc among patients with anti-RNAP, and SSc patients with anti-RNAP had a twofold increased hazard ratio for cancers compared to patients with ACAs (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study independently confirms, in what is to the best of our knowledge the largest population examined to date, that there is an association with cancer among SSc patients with anti-RNAP antibodies in close temporal relationship to onset of SSc, which supports the paraneoplastic phenomenon in this subset of SSc cases. An index of cautious suspicion should be maintained in these cases, and investigations for underlying malignancy should be considered when clinically appropriate.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , RNA Polimerase III/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 16(1): R6, 2014 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24401602

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. METHODS: Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10⁻4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. RESULTS: We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH = 1.90 × 10⁻6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH = 4.30 × 10⁻6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value = 0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH = 5.00 × 10⁻7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(19): 4021-9, 2013 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23740937

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are two archetypal systemic autoimmune diseases which have been shown to share multiple genetic susceptibility loci. In order to gain insight into the genetic basis of these diseases, we performed a pan-meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) together with a replication stage including additional SSc and SLE cohorts. This increased the sample size to a total of 21,109 (6835 cases and 14,274 controls). We selected for replication 19 SNPs from the GWAS data. We were able to validate KIAA0319L (P = 3.31 × 10(-11), OR = 1.49) as novel susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE. Furthermore, we also determined that the previously described SLE susceptibility loci PXK (P = 3.27 × 10(-11), OR = 1.20) and JAZF1 (P = 1.11 × 10(-8), OR = 1.13) are shared with SSc. Supporting these new discoveries, we observed that KIAA0319L was overexpressed in peripheral blood cells of SSc and SLE patients compared with healthy controls. With these, we add three (KIAA0319L, PXK and JAZF1) and one (KIAA0319L) new susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE, respectively, increasing significantly the knowledge of the genetic basis of autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia
15.
PLoS One ; 8(1): e54419, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23372721

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic autoimmune disease in which the genetic component plays an important role. One of the strongest SSc association signals outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region corresponds to interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a major regulator of the type I IFN pathway. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether three different haplotypic blocks within this locus, which have been shown to alter the protein function influencing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, are involved in SSc susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. For that purpose, we genotyped one representative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of each block (rs10488631, rs2004640, and rs4728142) in a total of 3,361 SSc patients and 4,012 unaffected controls of Caucasian origin from Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and United Kingdom. A meta-analysis of the allele frequencies was performed to analyse the overall effect of these IRF5 genetic variants on SSc. Allelic combination and dependency tests were also carried out. The three SNPs showed strong associations with the global disease (rs4728142: P  = 1.34×10(-8), OR  = 1.22, CI 95%  = 1.14-1.30; rs2004640: P  = 4.60×10(-7), OR  = 0.84, CI 95%  = 0.78-0.90; rs10488631: P  = 7.53×10(-20), OR  = 1.63, CI 95%  = 1.47-1.81). However, the association of rs2004640 with SSc was not independent of rs4728142 (conditioned P  = 0.598). The haplotype containing the risk alleles (rs4728142*A-rs2004640*T-rs10488631*C: P  = 9.04×10(-22), OR  = 1.75, CI 95%  = 1.56-1.97) better explained the observed association (likelihood P-value  = 1.48×10(-4)), suggesting an additive effect of the three haplotypic blocks. No statistical significance was observed in the comparisons amongst SSc patients with and without the main clinical characteristics. Our data clearly indicate that the SLE risk haplotype also influences SSc predisposition, and that this association is not sub-phenotype-specific.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/etnologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia
16.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 72(12): 2032-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23444193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated IRAK1 non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism rs1059702 is responsible for the Xq28 association with SSc or whether there are other independent signals in the nearby methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2). METHODS: We analysed a total of 3065 women with SSc and 2630 unaffected controls from five independent Caucasian cohorts. Four tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms of MECP2 (rs3027935, rs17435, rs5987201 and rs5945175) and the IRAK1 variant rs1059702 were genotyped using TaqMan predesigned assays. A meta-analysis including all cohorts was performed to test the overall effect of these Xq28 polymorphisms on SSc. RESULTS: IRAK1 rs1059702 and MECP2 rs17435 were associated specifically with diffuse cutaneous SSc (PFDR=4.12×10(-3), OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.47, and PFDR=5.26×10(-4), OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.48, respectively), but conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the association of IRAK1 rs1059702 with this subtype was explained by that of MECP2 rs17435. On the other hand, IRAK1 rs1059702 was consistently associated with presence of pulmonary fibrosis (PF), because statistical significance was observed when comparing SSc patients PF+ versus controls (PFDR=0.039, OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.58) and SSc patients PF+ versus SSc patients PF- (p=0.025, OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.55). CONCLUSIONS: Our data clearly suggest the existence of two independent signals within the Xq28 region, one located in IRAK1 related to PF and another in MECP2 related to diffuse cutaneous SSc, indicating that both genes may have an impact on the clinical outcome of the disease.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Esclerodermia Difusa/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações
17.
Thorax ; 68(5): 436-41, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23321605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polymorphism (rs35705950) 3 kb upstream of MUC5B, the gene encoding Mucin 5 subtype B, has been shown to be associated with familial and sporadic idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We set out to verify whether this variant is also a risk factor for fibrotic lung disease in other settings and to confirm the published findings in a UK Caucasian IPF population. METHODS: Caucasian UK healthy controls (n=416) and patients with IPF (n=110), sarcoidosis (n=180) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) (n=440) were genotyped to test for association. The SSc and sarcoidosis cohorts were subdivided according to the presence or absence of fibrotic lung disease. To assess correlation with disease progression, time to decline in forced vital capacity and/or lung carbon monoxide transfer factor was used in the IPF and SSc groups, while a persistent decline at 4 years since baseline was evaluated in patients with sarcoidosis. RESULTS: A significant association of the MUC5B promoter single nucleotide polymorphism with IPF (p=2.04 × 10(-17); OR 4.90, 95% CI 3.42 to 7.03) was confirmed in this UK population. The MUC5B variant was not a risk factor for lung fibrosis in patients with SSc or sarcoidosis and did not predict more rapidly progressive lung disease in any of the groups. Rather, a trend for a longer time to decline in forced vital capacity was observed in patients with IPF. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the MUC5B variant association with IPF. We did not observe an association with lung fibrosis in the context of SSc or sarcoidosis, potentially highlighting fundamental differences in genetic susceptibility, although the limited subgroup numbers do not allow a definitive exclusion of an association.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Capacidade Vital/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fibrose Pulmonar/complicações , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 72(4): 602-7, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22896740

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A recent genome-wide association study in European systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients identified three loci (PSORS1C1, TNIP1 and RHOB) as novel genetic risk factors for the disease. The aim of this study was to replicate the previously mentioned findings in a large multicentre independent SSc cohort of Caucasian ancestry. METHODS: 4389 SSc patients and 7611 healthy controls from different European countries and the USA were included in the study. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP): rs342070, rs13021401 (RHOB), rs2233287, rs4958881, rs3792783 (TNIP1) and rs3130573 (PSORS1C1) were analysed. Overall significance was calculated by pooled analysis of all the cohorts. Haplotype analyses and conditional logistic regression analyses were carried out to explore further the genetic structure of the tested loci. RESULTS: Pooled analyses of all the analysed SNPs in TNIP1 revealed significant association with the whole disease (rs2233287 p(MH)=1.94×10(-4), OR 1.19; rs4958881 p(MH)=3.26×10(-5), OR 1.19; rs3792783 p(MH)=2.16×10(-4), OR 1.19). These associations were maintained in all the subgroups considered. PSORS1C1 comparison showed association with the complete set of patients and all the subsets except for the anti-centromere-positive patients. However, the association was dependent on different HLA class II alleles. The variants in the RHOB gene were not associated with SSc or any of its subsets. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirmed the influence of TNIP1 on an increased susceptibility to SSc and reinforced this locus as a common autoimmunity risk factor.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Proteína rhoB de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 72(7): 1233-8, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23172754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 21 (IL-21) locus at chromosome 4q27 has been associated with several autoimmune diseases, and both genes are related to immune system functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the IL-2/IL-21 locus in systemic sclerosis (SSc). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The case control study included 4493 SSc Caucasian patients and 5856 healthy controls from eight Caucasian populations (Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, USA, Italy, Sweden, UK and Norway). Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2069762, rs6822844, rs6835457 and rs907715) were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: We observed evidence of association of the rs6822844 and rs907715 variants with global SSc (pc=6.6E-4 and pc=7.2E-3, respectively). Similar statistically significant associations were observed for the limited cutaneous form of the disease. The conditional regression analysis suggested that the most likely genetic variation responsible for the association was the rs6822844 polymorphism. Consistently, the rs2069762A-rs6822844T-rs6835457G-rs907715T allelic combination showed evidence of association with SSc and limited cutaneous SSc subtype (pc=1.7E-03 and pc=8E-4, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the IL-2/IL-21 locus influences the genetic susceptibility to SSc. Moreover, this study provided further support for the IL-2/IL-21 locus as a common genetic factor in autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esclerodermia Difusa/etnologia , Esclerodermia Difusa/genética , Esclerodermia Limitada/etnologia , Esclerodermia Limitada/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia
20.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 14(6): R273, 2012 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23270786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Potassium voltage-gated channel shaker-related subfamily member 5 (KCNA5) is implicated in vascular tone regulation, and its inhibition during hypoxia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction. Recently, a protective association of the KCNA5 locus with systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was reported. Hence, the aim of this study was to replicate these findings in an independent multicenter Caucasian SSc cohort. METHODS: The 2,343 SSc cases (179 PAH positive, confirmed by right-heart catheterization) and 2,690 matched healthy controls from five European countries were included in this study. Rs10744676 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was genotyped by using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. RESULTS: Individual population analyses of the selected KCNA5 genetic variant did not show significant association with SSc or any of the defined subsets (for example, limited cutaneous SSc, diffuse cutaneous SSc, anti-centromere autoantibody positive and anti-topoisomerase autoantibody positive). Furthermore, pooled analyses revealed no significant evidence of association with the disease or any of the subsets, not even the PAH-positive group. The comparison of PAH-positive patients with PAH-negative patients showed no significant differences among patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support an important role of KCNA5 as an SSc-susceptibility factor or as a PAH-development genetic marker for SSc patients.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Canal de Potássio Kv1.5/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etnologia , Itália , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Países Baixos , Razão de Chances , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etnologia , Espanha , Suécia , Reino Unido
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