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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(20): 9188-9208, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Narrative discourse (ND) refers to one's ability to verbally reproduce a sequence of temporally and logically-linked events. Impairments in ND may occur in subjects with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but correlates across this function, neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers remain understudied. OBJECTIVES: We sought to measure correlates among ND, Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) indexes and AD CSF biomarkers in patients within the AD spectrum. RESULTS: Groups differed in narrative production (NProd) and comprehension. aMCI and AD presented poorer inference abilities than controls. AD subjects were more impaired than controls and aMCI regarding WB (p<0.01). ROIs DTI assessment distinguished the three groups. Mean Diffusivity (MD) in the uncinate, bilateral parahippocampal cingulate and left inferior occipitofrontal fasciculi negatively correlated with NProd. Changes in specific tracts correlated with T-tau/Aß1-42 ratio in CSF. CONCLUSIONS: AD and aMCI patients presented more ND impairments than controls. Those findings were associated with changes in ventral language-associated and in the inferior parahippocampal pathways. The latest were correlated with biomarkers' levels in the CSF. METHODS: AD (N=14), aMCI (N=31) and Control (N=39) groups were compared for whole brain (WB) and regions of interest (ROI) DTI parameters, ND and AD CSF biomarkers.

2.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Search for reliability and validity evidence for the Montreal Communication Evaluation Brief Battery (MEC B) for adults with right brain damage. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four healthy adults and 26 adults with right brain damage, aged 19-75 years, with two or more years of education were evaluated with MEC B. The MEC B Battery contains nine tasks that aim to evaluate communicative abilities as discourse, prosody, lexical-semantic and pragmatic process. Two sources of reliability evidence were used: internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and interrater reliability. Construct validity was evaluated comparing the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery (MEC), expanded version and MEC B tasks. RESULTS: Internal consistence was satisfactory and the interrater reliability was considered excellent, as were correlations between MEC Battery and MEC B Battery tasks. CONCLUSION: The MEC B Battery showed satisfactory reliability and validity evidences. It can be used as outcome measure of intervention programs and assist speech therapists to plan rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fonoterapia/métodos
3.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; : 1-12, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530030

RESUMO

The Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST) is a widely used variation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. It is faster to administer, less frustrating for respondents and less ambiguous in its scoring but has been criticized for its task impurity and low discriminability between control participants and clinical groups prone to executive dysfunction. This study aimed to examine the executive functions (EF) underlying traditional (number of categories completed, perseverative errors) and novel scores for the MCST, and compare their ability to differentiate between control and clinical samples. Novel and traditional MCST scores were compared between 94 control participants, 87 with bipolar disorder and 64 with major depression. The relationship between MCST scores and traditional EF tasks was examined through correlation and regression analyses. All MCST scores were associated with at least one measure of EF, the most common of which were the Trail Making or Hayling Tests. IQ predicted most scores on the MCST, save for nonperseverative errors and categorizing efficiency. Traditional and novel scores differentiated between clinical and control groups. These findings support the utility of the MCST in detecting executive dysfunction and highlight the importance of new scoring methods in increasing the specificity and interpretability of this task.

4.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(1): 53-71, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989678

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Conversational discourse (CD) is among the most complex tasks in everyday life and relies on multiple cognitive domains (communicative and executive abilities). Alterations in discourse comprehension and production are often present in pathological aging. However, there is still a need to identify changes in healthy aging. Objective: This study aimed to compare young and older adults for the frequency of impaired communicative behaviors on a CD task. Performance was scored according to the Complementary Procedure of Conversational Discourse Analysis (CPCDA), developed based on the CD task from the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery. Methods: A total of 95 participants (54 young-adults and 41 older adults) were evaluated. The frequency of communicative behaviors was compared between groups using MANCOVA and Chi-square tests. Results: Young adults showed fewer impairments in expression, pragmatics, cohesion, coherence, comprehension and emotional prosody. Older adults showed higher levels of verbal initiative and had fewer word finding difficulties. Communicative behaviors associated with planning and self-monitoring (e.g. repetition of information and syllabic false starts) appear to be common in the speech of healthy individuals in general. Conclusion: Studies which evaluate both discursive and cognitive skills are required to identify age-related changes. This would allow for the development of screening tools for CD assessment and preventive programs.


RESUMO: O discurso conversacional (DC) está entre as tarefas diárias mais complexas e dependentes de múltiplos domínios cognitivos (habilidades comunicativas e executivas). Alterações na compreensão e produção do discurso são relatadas classicamente durante o envelhecimento patológico. No entanto, ainda é necessário esclarecer mudanças no envelhecimento saudável. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar jovens adultos e idosos quanto à frequência de comportamento comunicativo desviante em uma tarefa de DC utilizando o Procedimento Complementar de Análise do Discurso Conversacional (PCADC), inspirado na tarefa de DC da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação. Métodos: Um total de 95 indivíduos (54 adultos jovens e 41 idosos) foram avaliados. A frequência dos comportamentos comunicativos desviantes foi comparadas entre os grupos usando análise MANCOVA e Qui-quadrado. Resultados: Adultos jovens apresentaram melhor desempenho nas habilidades comunicativas referentes à: expressão, pragmática, coesão, coerência, compreensão e linguística prosódica e emocional. O grupo de idosos obteve melhor desempenho nas variáveis: "falta de iniciativa verbal" e "procura ou troca palavra" do que os jovens. Itens associados ao planejamento da fala e auto-monitoramento (ex: "repete informações" e "realiza false start"), parecem estar associados a um comportamento comum na fala de indivíduos saudáveis em geral. Conclusão: Estudos que avaliem habilidades discursivas e cognitivas são necessários para identificar mudanças ​​influenciadas pela idade. Dessa forma, seria possível propor uma ferramenta de triagem para avaliação discursiva, bem como programas de intervenção preventiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento Saudável , Comportamento Verbal , Idoso , Transtornos da Comunicação/prevenção & controle
5.
Psico USF ; 24(2): 245-257, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012778

RESUMO

Este estudo teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento do Subteste de Leitura da segunda edição do Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE-II). Este estudo envolveu a seleção de itens, análise de juízes e a validação que contou com a participação de 661 estudantes de 1º a 9º ano do ensino fundamental. O subteste foi dividido em duas versões: a versão A para estudantes de 1º a 4º ano e a versão B para 5º a 9º ano. A análise fatorial exploratória indicou que ambas as versões são unidimensionais com um fator explicando 57% da versão A e um fator explicando 38% da variância compartilhada pelos itens da versão B. Análises via Teoria de Resposta ao Item indicou níveis de discriminação e dificuldade adequados para mensurar o construto. Os resultados revelaram evidências relacionadas ao conteúdo e à estrutura interna do teste. Em relação à fidedignidade, as versões do Subteste de Leitura cobrem de forma precisa as habilidades, sugerindo que o subteste apresenta boas propriedades psicométricas para avaliação da leitura. (AU)


This study aimed at the development of the Reading Subtest of the second edition of the School Performance Test (TDE-II). This study consisted in items selection, analysis by experts, and validation in which a sample of 661 students from the first to the ninth grades of Elementary School participated. The Subtest was divided in two versions: version A for students from the first to the fourth grades and version B for students from the fifth to ninth grades. Exploratory factor analysis indicated unidimensionality with one factor explaining 57% of the shared items variance for version A and 38% for version B. Item Response Theory analysis indicated appropriate levels of discrimination and difficulty for measuring the construct. Results suggest sources of validity in relation to test content, and internal structure. In terms of reliability, both versions covered the range of ability with high precision, thus suggesting that the Subtest presents good psychometric properties for reading evaluation. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo desarrollar el Sub-test de Lectura de la segunda edición del Test de Desempeño escolar (TDE-II). El estudio consistió en la selección de ítems, análisis de jueces y una validación que contó con la participación de 661 alumnos de primer a noveno año de Enseñanza Primaria. El Sub-test se dividió en dos versiones: la versión A para estudiantes de primer a cuarto año y la versión B para alumnos de quinto a noveno año. El análisis factorial exploratorio indicó que las dos versiones son unidimensionales con un factor explicando el 57% de la versión A y 38% de la varianza compartida por los ítems de la versión B. Análisis vía Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem (TRI) indicaron niveles de discriminación y dificultad adecuados para medir el constructo. Los resultados mostraron evidencias relacionadas a contenido y a estructura interna del test. Con relación a la fidedignidad, las versiones del Sub-test de Lectura abarcan de manera precisa las habilidades, sugiriendo que el Sub-test presenta buenas propiedades psicométricas para evaluación de la lectura. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Leitura , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial
6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 360-367, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984338

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Verbal fluency (VF) is a widely used tool in neuropsychological assessment. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of age and educational level on clustering and switching in three VF modalities: phonemic (PVF), semantic (SVF) and unconstrained (UVF). We evaluated type of cluster, mean cluster size, and quantity of clusters, intersections, and returns. A total of 260 healthy subjects were assessed. Methods: Participants were divided into three age groups: young adults (18 to 39 years), middle-aged adults (40 to 59 years) and older adults (60 to 80 years) and into two groups of educational level: 1-8 years (low), 9 years or more (high). A two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to analyze the effect of age and educational level and its interactions. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to verify the performance during the task. Results: A main effect of age was detected on the UVF and SVF scores for total switches, taxonomic clusters, and for the total semantic clusters on the SVF. There was a greater effect of educational level on total switches (UVF, PFV and SVF), taxonomic clusters (UVF and SVF), thematic clusters and total semantic cluster (UVF), phonemic and mixed clusters (PVF), mean cluster size (UVF and SVF) and intersections (SVF). Educational level had a greater effect on all three VF tasks.


RESUMO Fluência verbal (FV) são ferramentas amplamente utilizadas na avaliação neuropsicológica. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi investigar a influência da idade e do nível de escolaridade no agrupamento e alternância em três modalidades de fluência verbal: fonêmica (FVF), semântica (FVS) e livre (FVL). Métodos: Avaliamos o tipo, tamanho médio e quantidade de agrupamentos, alternâncias, intersecções e retornos. Foram divididos 260 indivíduos, em três grupos etários: jovens adultos (18 a 39 anos), adultos de idade intermediária (40 a 59 anos) e idosos (60 a 80 anos) e dois grupos de escolaridade 1-8 (baixa), 9 ou mais (alto). Uma análise ANOVA de dois fatores foi conduzida para analisar o efeito da idade e do nível educacional e suas interações, além de uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas para verificar o desempenho ao longo da tarefa. Resultados: Encontrou-se efeito principal da idade nas tarefas de FVL e FVS nos seguintes escores: total de alternâncias, agrupamento taxonômicos e no total de agrupamentos semânticos na FVS. Houve um efeito principal do nível educacional no total de alternâncias (FVL, FVF e FVS), agrupamento taxonômicos (FVL e FVS), agrupamento temáticos e cluster semântico total (FVL), clusters fonêmicos e mistos (FVF), tamanho médio de cluster (FVL e FVS) e, finalmente, interseções (FVS). O nível educacional teve efeito maior nas três tarefas de FV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal , Escolaridade , Grupos Etários
7.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 12(3): 272-283, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425791

RESUMO

Acquired language impairments may accompany different conditions. Most recent studies have shown that there is an important relationship between language and cognitive functions, such as executive functions (EF). Therefore, we aimed to investigate which main EF components appear to have the greatest impact in the most prevalent acquired communication disorders in adults, and which neuropsychological tests are being used to evaluate them. In addition, we sought to characterize the relationship between the executive functions and language in these conditions. Working memory (WM) was the most frequently chosen cognitive measure, being evaluated by different span tasks. A relationship between WM and narrative and conversational discourse, writing abilities and grammatical comprehension was found. Other currently used cognitive tests included the Trail Making, Wisconsin, Stroop and Verbal Fluency tests. Language and EF have a complex relationship; hence, a complete assessment should reflect the dynamic processing of cognitive brain functions.

8.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; : 1-12, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295547

RESUMO

There is evidence of an association between childhood maltreatment and lifelong cognitive impairment. Few studies investigate cognitive functioning in maltreated children. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in executive processing between maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Additionally, clinical symptoms were compared between groups and possible associations between clinical symptoms, and deficits in executive functions were investigated. The sample consisted of 55 children (8-12 years), 30 with a history of maltreatment and 25 with no history of maltreatment. An interview was conducted with the child's legal guardian and instruments were administered: Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). The following clinical instruments were administered to the children: JVQ, Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC), and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Children underwent neuropsychological assessment. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups for clinical and cognitive variables. Differences were found between the groups in all executive functions. Most clinical symptomatology scales showed differences between the groups. Few associations were found between clinical and executive impairment profiles. Cognitive stimulation interventions, focused on inhibitory control, should be proposed in combination with psychotherapy.

9.
Trends Psychol ; 26(4): 1907-1919, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-986174

RESUMO

Resumo Estabelecer o continuum de declínio cognitivo e funcional no envelhecimento normal para o patológico é desafiador. Nesta transição está o Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve (CCL), definido por prejuízo sutil na cognição e funcionalidade. Quando o prejuízo funcional aumenta preenche critérios para demência. Assim, determinar a acurácia diagnóstica da avaliação funcional é imprescindível. Com isso o objetivo foi comparar o desempenho funcional através da avaliação direta versus indireta e avaliar a acurácia do desempenho destas avaliações entre controles, pacientes com CCL e com doença de Alzheimer (DA). Participaram 90 indivíduos (n=27 controles, n=35 pacientes com CCL e n=28 com DA). Foram utilizadas a Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) e a Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). Foram realizadas MANCOVA para comparar o desempenho funcional direto entre os participantes e curvas ROC para verificar a acurácia diagnóstica das escalas entre os grupos. O desempenho da avaliação direta demonstrou diferenciar controles de CCL e CCL de DA. Ambas as escalas mostraram diferenciar CCL e DA, e a DAFS-R controles de CCL. Assim, a DAFS-R evidenciou melhor acurácia do desempenho funcional nestes grupos.


Resumen Establecer el deterioro cognitivo y funcional en el envejecimiento normal y de la enfermedad es desafiador. Esta transición es el Deterioro Cognitivo Leve (DCL), definido por deterioro sutil en la cognición y la funcionalidad. Cuando aumenta el deterioro funcional cumple con los criterios para la demencia. Por lo tanto, para determinar la exactitud diagnóstica de evaluación funcional es esencial. Por lo tanto, el objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento funcional a través de directa frente a la evaluación indirecta, verificar la relación de estas actuaciones, evaluar la exactitud de los resultados de estas evaluaciones entre los controles, los pacientes con DCL y enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Participaron 90 sujetos (n = 27 controles, n = 35 pacientes DCL y n = 28 EA). Se utilizaron Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) y Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). Se realizaron MANCOVA para comparar el rendimiento funcional directo entre los participantes y las curvas ROC para verificar la precisión diagnóstica de las escalas entre los grupos. El rendimiento de la evaluación directa mostró diferenciar los controles de DCL, y DCL de EA. Ambas escalas mostraron diferenciar DCL y EA, y DAFS-R controles de DCL. Por lo tanto, DAFS-R mostró una mejor precisión del rendimiento funcional en estos grupos.


Abstract It is challenging to establish the continuum of cognitive and functional decline in normal to pathological aging. In this transition is the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), defined by subtle impairment in cognition and functionality. When functional impairment increases, it meets the criteria for dementia. Thus, it is essential to determine an accurate diagnosis from the functional evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare functional performance through direct versus indirect assessments, verify the relationship between them, and evaluate the accuracy of it within the control group, MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Ninety subjects (n = 27 controls, n = 35 MCI and n = 28 AD) participated in the study. We used the Activities of the Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). MANCOVA was performed to compare the direct functional performance, and ROC curves were used to verify the diagnostic accuracy of the scales among groups. The performance of the direct assessment showed differences between the controls and MCI, and between MCI and AD subjects. Both scales showed differences between MCI and AD, and DAFS-R showed differences between controls and MCI. Thus, DAFS-R demonstrated better accuracy of functional performance in these groups.

10.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(3): 272-283, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-952977

RESUMO

Abstract Acquired language impairments may accompany different conditions. Most recent studies have shown that there is an important relationship between language and cognitive functions, such as executive functions (EF). Therefore, we aimed to investigate which main EF components appear to have the greatest impact in the most prevalent acquired communication disorders in adults, and which neuropsychological tests are being used to evaluate them. In addition, we sought to characterize the relationship between the executive functions and language in these conditions. Working memory (WM) was the most frequently chosen cognitive measure, being evaluated by different span tasks. A relationship between WM and narrative and conversational discourse, writing abilities and grammatical comprehension was found. Other currently used cognitive tests included the Trail Making, Wisconsin, Stroop and Verbal Fluency tests. Language and EF have a complex relationship; hence, a complete assessment should reflect the dynamic processing of cognitive brain functions.


Resumo Distúrbios de linguagem adquiridas podem acompanhar diferentes quadros. Estudos recentes mostram que existe uma relação importante entre linguagem e funções cognitivas, como as funções executivas (FE). Portanto, visou-se investigar quais os principais componentes das FE parecem ter um maior impacto nos quadros com transtornos de comunicação adquiridos mais prevalentes em adultos e quais testes neuropsicológicos estão sendo mais utilizados para avaliá-los. Além disso, buscamos caracterizar qual a relação entre as funções executivas e a linguagem nesses quadros. A memória de trabalho (MT) foi a medida cognitiva mais frequentemente citada, sendo avaliada por diferentes tarefas de Span. Encontrou-se relação entre MT e discurso narrativo e conversacional, habilidades de escrita e compreensão gramatical. Outros testes cognitivos usados incluem os testes Trail Making, Wisconsin, Stroop e Verbal Fluency. Linguagem e EF têm uma relação complexa e, portanto, uma avaliação completa desses pacientes deve refletir o dinâmico processamento do funcionamento cognitivo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem , Cognição , Função Executiva , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 40(1): 29-37, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-904601

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Decision making (DM) is among the most important abilities for everyday functioning. However, the most widely used measures of DM come from behavioral paradigms, whose ecological validity and standalone use has been criticized in the literature. Though these issues could be addressed by the use of DM questionnaires as a complementary assessment method, no such instruments have been validated for use in Brazilian Portuguese. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct the translation and validation of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) for use in a Brazilian population. Methods: The adaptation of the MDMQ involved the following steps: translation, back-translation, expert review and pilot study. These steps were followed by factor analysis and internal consistency measurements, which led to the exclusion of 4 items from the scale. The 18-item version of the MDMQ was then administered to a validation sample consisting of healthy adults, as well as patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Results: The instrument displayed good internal consistency, with the hypervigilance subscale showing the lowest, though still acceptable, Cronbach's alpha value. Its factor structure was comparable to that of the original MDMQ according to confirmatory factor analysis. Nevertheless, the MDMQ was sensitive to both depression severity and the presence of MDD and BD, both of which are known to have an impact on DM ability. Conclusion: The version of the MDMQ produced in the present study may be an important addition to neuropsychological assessment batteries with a focus on DM and related abilities


Resumo Introdução: A tomada de decisão (TD) é uma das habilidades mais relevantes para a funcionalidade. No entanto, esta habilidade é geralmente avaliada por meio de tarefas comportamentais, cuja validade ecológica tem sido questionada. De acordo com a literatura, a avaliação da TD deve ser complementada por questionários ou escalas, instrumentos estes que não estão disponíveis no português brasileiro. Desta forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi a tradução e validação de uma versão do Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ), o instrumento mais amplamente utilizado na avaliação da TD, para uso em português. Métodos: A adaptação da MDMQ foi realizada através da tradução, retrotradução, avaliação por painel de juízes e estudo piloto. A versão da escala produzida neste processo foi submetida a análise fatorial e avaliação de consistência interna, levando a exclusão de 4 itens da escala original. A versão resultante da MDMQ, contando com 18 itens no total, foi então utilizada em estudo de validação, em que a TD foi comparada entre adultos saudáveis e portadores de depressão e transtorno bipolar. Resultados: O instrumento demonstrou consistência interna satisfatória, apesar da obtenção de alfas de Cronbach relativamente baixos para a subescala de hipervigilância. A estrutura fatorial do questionário traduzido foi semelhante a observada no instrumento original. Todas as medidas derivadas da MDMQ, mostraram-se discriminativas na comparação entre adultos saudáveis e portadores de transtornos mentais. Conclusão: A versão da MDMQ produzida neste estudo poderá realizar uma importante contribuição para a prática clínica e pesquisa neuropsicológica acerca da TD.

12.
Compr Psychiatry ; 82: 89-94, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reliably identified an association between suicide attempts and executive functions such as decision making (DM) and inhibitory control (IC) in patients with mood disorders. As such, the present study aimed to investigate the association between inhibition, DM, impulsivity and the history of suicide attempts in individuals with bipolar (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD), identifying which assessment instruments may be most strongly associated with suicide in clinical samples. METHODS: The sample included 80 control subjects and two groups of patients with BD and MDD, matched by age and education (26 with a history of suicide attempts [MD+], and 26 with no such history [MD-]). Participants completed behavioral and self-report measures of DM and IC, which were compared between groups using ANCOVA, followed by logistic regression for patients with mood disorders only, and the presence or absence of a history of suicide as the outcome. RESULTS: Cognitive performance did not differ between groups. The MD+ group showed significantly higher motor and attentional impulsivity on the BIS-11 than the MD- and control groups. A regression analysis containing these scores showed that motor impulsivity was the only significant predictor of a history of suicide (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.00-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported motor impulsivity was a significant predictor of suicide. These findings underscore the importance of self-report measures in neuropsychological assessment, and their contributions to the management and prognosis of patients with mood disorders. Lastly, they point to the role of impulsivity as a target for interventions and public policy on suicide prevention.

13.
Pediatrics ; 141(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Many children in low- and middle-income countries fail to reach their developmental potential. We sought to determine if a parenting program focused on the promotion of reading aloud enhanced parent-child interactions and child development among low-income families in northern Brazil. METHODS: This was a cluster-randomized study of educational child care centers randomly assigned to receive an additional parenting program (intervention) or standard child care without a parenting component (control). Parent-child dyads were enrolled at the beginning of the school year and were assessed at enrollment and at the end of the school year. Families in intervention centers could borrow children's books on a weekly basis and could participate in monthly parent workshops focused on reading aloud. We compared parents and children in intervention and control centers 9 months after the start of the intervention on measures of parent-child interaction and child language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty-six parent-child dyads (279 intervention; 287 control) in 12 child care clusters (26-76 children per cluster) were assessed at enrollment; 464 (86%) contributed follow-up data. Parents in the intervention group engaged in significantly greater cognitive stimulation (Cohen's d = 0.43) and higher quantity and quality of reading interactions (d = 0.52-0.57) than controls; children in the intervention scored significantly higher than controls on receptive vocabulary (d = 0.33), working memory (d = 0.46), and IQ (d = 0.33). CONCLUSIONS: An innovative program focused on the promotion of parent-child reading aloud resulted in benefits to parent-child interactions and to child language and cognitive development that were greater than those provided by educational child care alone. This promising approach merits further evaluation at scale.

14.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 40(1): 29-37, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29211117

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Decision making (DM) is among the most important abilities for everyday functioning. However, the most widely used measures of DM come from behavioral paradigms, whose ecological validity and standalone use has been criticized in the literature. Though these issues could be addressed by the use of DM questionnaires as a complementary assessment method, no such instruments have been validated for use in Brazilian Portuguese. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct the translation and validation of the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ) for use in a Brazilian population. METHODS: The adaptation of the MDMQ involved the following steps: translation, back-translation, expert review and pilot study. These steps were followed by factor analysis and internal consistency measurements, which led to the exclusion of 4 items from the scale. The 18-item version of the MDMQ was then administered to a validation sample consisting of healthy adults, as well as patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). RESULTS: The instrument displayed good internal consistency, with the hypervigilance subscale showing the lowest, though still acceptable, Cronbach's alpha value. Its factor structure was comparable to that of the original MDMQ according to confirmatory factor analysis. Nevertheless, the MDMQ was sensitive to both depression severity and the presence of MDD and BD, both of which are known to have an impact on DM ability. CONCLUSION: The version of the MDMQ produced in the present study may be an important addition to neuropsychological assessment batteries with a focus on DM and related abilities.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Testes Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Tradução
15.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; 7(3): 277-285, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426248

RESUMO

Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
Appl Neuropsychol Adult ; 25(3): 274-282, 2018 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272901

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the performance of patients with right hemisphere damage (RHD) with or without hemispatial neglect (HN) on a cancellation task. The study involved 31 control participants and 31 patients with RHD, matched by age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits. The numbers of omission and random errors as well as the mean time to task completion were compared between adults with and without RHD, as well as between patients with and without HN. The latter made more left-sided omission errors, and more overall omission errors, than patients with RHD and no HN. The location of the first target canceled differed between subjects with RHD and control participants, as well as between patients with and without hemineglect. The use of organized vs. disorganized search strategies did not differ between groups. Further studies are required to investigate the performance of patients with HN of different levels of severity.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Transtornos da Percepção/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Encefalopatias/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtornos da Percepção/etiologia
17.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; 7(1): 61-81, 2018 Jan-Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27779428

RESUMO

This systematic review aimed to characterize empirical studies on neuropsychological interventions to stimulate executive functions in children with typical development. Searches were conducted according to the PRISMA method. Nineteen (19) studies on the analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs in pre-school and school children were obtained. There was a predominance of studies that used computerized cognitive training, most of them involving the stimulation of working memory. Others used pen and paper forms, or hybrid tasks, and some programs used a school curriculum approach aiming to improve self-regulation. Results provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of such on the executive performance in children with typical development. Each executive component, as well as each type of intervention has its peculiarities. Computerized trainings and pen and paper tasks tend to improve the targeted executive functions, but transfer effects are still inconsistent. Regarding the effects of programs using school curriculum approach, they seem to be more generalizable, with functionality gains accomplishing mainly socio-emotional regulation. Multimodal approaches may be even more effective. Follow-up studies should be targeted in order to track the maintenance of direct and transfer effects regarding mainly cognitive and social development associated to school achievement.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Psico USF ; 23(1): 95-108, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-906111

RESUMO

Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o uso do NEUPSILIN-Inf num modelo de avaliação neuropsicológica breve em crianças atendidas em um serviço assistencial. As etapas seguidas no modelo de avaliação neuropsicológica breve são: sala de espera, grupo de crianças e avaliação neuropsicológica individual. A análise da aplicabilidade do NEUPSILIN-Inf na detecção de déficits cognitivos foi realizada comparando o desempenho de 171 crianças com possíveis transtornos do neurodesenvolvimento a 358 crianças da amostra de normatização, tendo a média marginal do escore ajustado pela idade. Em todas as tarefas do NEUPSILIN-Inf, o grupo clínico mostrou desempenho inferior. O conjunto de dados do modelo de avaliação pode gerar hipóteses diagnósticas, como deficiência intelectual, possíveis quadros de transtornos da aprendizagem ou específicos de linguagem. Frente à alta escassez de atendimento público para crianças com possíveis transtornos do neurodesenvolvimento, este pode ser um modelo economicamente eficiente para centros de saúde em diversas regiões do Brasil. (AU)


This study aimed to analyze the use of NEUPSILIN-Inf in a model of brief neuropsychological assessment for children attending a helthcare service. The steps followed in the brief neuropsychological assessment model are waiting room, children's group, and individual assessment. The analysis of this model's efficacy in detecting cognitive deficits through NEUPSILIN-Inf was conducted by comparing the performance of 171 children with possible developmental disorders to 358 children from the normative sample of NEUPSILIN-Inf. The clinical group showed lower performance in all NEUPSILIN-Inf 's tasks. The set of data derived from the evaluation model can underlie diagnostic hypotheses, such as intellectual disabilities, learning disorders or specific language impairment. Taking into account the restrictive public care for children with possible developmental disorders, this model can be considered a cost-effective possibility to be accomplished by health centers in different Brazilian regions. (AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el uso de NEUPSILIN-Inf como un modelo de evaluación neuropsicológica breve para niños, atendidos en un servicio de asistencia pública. Las etapas seguidas para evaluación neuropsicológica breve fueron: sala de espera, grupo de niños, evaluación neuropsicológica individual. El análisis de aplicabilidad NEUPSILIN-Inf para detectar déficits cognitivos, fue realizado comparando el rendimiento de 171 niños con posibles trastornos de neuro-desarrollo y 358 niños de la muestra de normalización, obteniendo la media marginal del resultado, ajustado por la edad. En todas las tareas del NEUPSILIN-Inf, el grupo clínico tuvo un rendimiento inferior. El conjunto de datos del modelo de evaluación puede generar hipótesis diagnósticas, como deficiencia intelectual, posibles trastornos de aprendizaje o específicos de lenguaje. Ante la escasez de atendimiento público para niños con posibles trastornos de neurodesarrollo, este modelo puede ser eficiente desde el punto de vista económico en centros de salud en varias regiones de Brasil. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Neuropsicologia , Centros de Saúde
19.
Psico USF ; 23(2): 319-332, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-955542

RESUMO

Resumo Neste estudo, investigaram-se efeitos de idade e escolaridade e suas interações no desempenho de adultos no Instrumento de Avaliação Neuropsicológica Breve NEUPSILIN, que avalia orientação têmporo-espacial, atenção, percepção, memória, linguagem, calculias, praxias e funções executivas. Participaram 627 adultos saudáveis (19 a 90 anos), divididos em três grupos, conforme escolaridade (1 a 4, 5 a 8 e 9 anos ou mais de estudo) e em quatro grupos por idade (19 a 39, 40 a 59, 60 a 75 e 76 a 90 anos). Encontraram-se efeitos de idade e escolaridade em atenção, percepção, memória (de trabalho, verbal episódica, semântica, visual e prospectiva), linguagem oral e escrita, praxias e funções executivas. Interações entre idade e escolaridade foram encontradas em atenção, memória verbal, linguagem oral e escrita. Os resultados destacam que o envelhecimento e a escolaridade impactam de forma heterogênea nas funções cognitivas, assim como os testes neuropsicológicos brasileiros devem sempre considerar a influência dessas variáveis para produzir seus dados normativos.


Abstract This study investigated the effects of age and schooling and their interactions on the performance of adults in the NEUPSILIN Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Instrument, which evaluates time and space orientation, attention, perception, memory, language, calculation, motor functions, and executive functions. The sample was composed of 627 healthy adults (19 to 90 years), who were divided into three groups according to education range (1 to 4, 5 to 8 and 9 or more years of study) and into four groups by age range (19-39, 40-59, 60-75 and 76-90 years). We identified age and schooling effects in attention, perception, memory (working, verbal episodic, semantic, visual and prospective memory), oral and written language, motor functions, and executive functions. Interactions between age and schooling were observed in attention, verbal memory, and oral and written language tasks. The results highlighted that aging and schooling impact cognitive functions heterogeneously, and that Brazilian neuropsychological tests should always consider the influence of these variables to produce their normative data.


Resumen En este estudio se investigaron los efectos de edad y escolaridad, y las interacciones en el desempeño de adultos en el Instrumento de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Breve NEUPSILIN que evalúa la orientación espacio-temporal, atención, percepción, memoria, lenguaje, cálculos, prácticas y funciones ejecutivas. Participaron 627 adultos que gozaban de buena salud (19-90 años), divididos en tres grupos según el nivel educativo (1 a 4, 5 a 8 y 9 o más años de estudio) y cuatro grupos por edad (19 a 39, 40 a 59, 60 a 75 y 76 a 90 años). Se encontraron efectos de la edad y de educación en atención, percepción, memoria (de trabajo, episódica, semántica, visual y futura) lenguaje, oral y escrita, prácticas y funciones ejecutivas. Interacciones entre edad y escolaridad fueron encontradas en atención, memoria verbal, lenguaje oral y escrita. Los resultados destacan que el envejecimiento y la escolaridad impactan de forma heterogénea en las funciones cognitivas, y que los tests neuropsicológicos brasileños deben considerar siempre la influencia de estas variables para producir datos normativos.

20.
Aval. psicol ; 17(1): 28-36, 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-963721

RESUMO

The Bells Test (BT) is widely used to aid in the diagnosis of heminegligence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the convergent validity of the BT, comparing it with tools that evaluate similar constructs, and to investigate its test-retest reliability. The sample included 66 healthy adults age 19-75 years. The reliability was evaluated through a test-retest procedure, with correlations and t-tests for paired samples, while validity was investigated through comparisons between the performance on the BT and scores in the Concentrated Attention test (CA-15), the Sustained Attention test (SA), and the WAIS-III Symbols and Codes subtests. Positive correlations were found between test and retest in both BT versions, as well as between the number of BT omissions and other attention measures. These results corroborate the validity and reliability of the two BT versions in the Brazilian population. (AU)


O Teste de Cancelamento dos Sinos (TCS) é amplamente utilizado para auxiliar o diagnóstico de heminegligência. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a validade convergente do TCS, comparando-o a ferramentas que avaliam construtos similares, e investigar sua fidedignidade teste-reteste. A amostra incluiu 66 adultos saudáveis com idades entre 19 e 75 anos. A fidedignidade foi avaliada por meio de procedimento teste-reteste, com correlações e testes t para amostras pareadas, enquanto a validade foi investigada através de comparações entre o desempenho no TCS e escores no teste de Atenção Concentrada (AC-15), teste de Atenção Sustentada (AS) e os subtestes Símbolos e Códigos do WAIS-III. Correlações positivas foram encontradas entre teste e reteste nas duas versões do TCS, assim como entre o número de omissões no TCS e demais medidas de atenção. Esses resultados corroboram a validade e fidedignidade das duas versões do TCS na população Brasileira. (AU)


El Test de las Campanas (TC) es un instrumento ampliamente utilizado para auxiliar en el diagnóstico de heminegligencia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la validez convergente del TCS, comparándolo con otras herramientas que evalúan constructos similares, e investigar su confiabilidad test-retest. La muestra incluyó 66 adultos con buena salud, de 19 a 75 años. La confiabilidad fue evaluada a través de procedimientos de test-retest, con correlaciones y tests-t para muestras pareadas, y la validez fue investigada a través de comparaciones entre el desempeño del TCS y los resultados en el test de Atención Concentrada (AC-15), test de Atención Sostenida (AS) y los sub-tests Símbolos y Códigos del WAIS-III. Correlaciones positivas fueron encontradas entre test y retest en las dos versiones del TCS así como entre el número de omisiones en el TCS y otras medidas de atención. Estos resultados corroboran validez y confiabilidad de las dos versiones del TCS en la población brasileña. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Atenção , Escalas de Wechsler , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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