Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 60
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Nanotechnology ; 30(40): 405703, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242464

RESUMO

Cathodoluminescence (CL) and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopies are employed to investigate effects of structural defects on carrier recombination in GaNAsP nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si substrates. In the NWs with a low N content of 0.08%, these defects are found to promote non-radiative (NR) recombination, which causes spatial variation of the CL peak position and its intensity. Unexpectedly, these detrimental effects can be suppressed even by a small increase in the nitrogen composition from 0.08% to 0.12%. This is attributed to more efficient trapping of excited carriers/excitons to the localized states promoted by N-induced localization and also the presence of other NR channels. At room temperature, the structural defects no longer dominate in carrier recombination even in the NWs with the lower nitrogen content, likely due to increasing importance of other recombination channels. Our work underlines the need in eliminating important thermally activated NR defects, other than the structural defects, for future optoelectronic applications of these NWs.

2.
Nano Lett ; 19(6): 3396-3408, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039314

RESUMO

The lack of mirror symmetry in binary semiconductor compounds turns them into polar materials, where two opposite orientations of the same crystallographic direction are possible. Interestingly, their physical properties (e.g., electronic or photonic) and morphological features (e.g., shape, growth direction, and so forth) also strongly depend on the polarity. It has been observed that nanoscale materials tend to grow with a specific polarity, which can eventually be reversed for very specific growth conditions. In addition, polar-directed growth affects the defect density and topology and might induce eventually the formation of undesirable polarity inversion domains in the nanostructure, which in turn will affect the photonic and electronic final device performance. Here, we present a review on the polarity-driven growth mechanism at the nanoscale, combining our latest investigation with an overview of the available literature highlighting suitable future possibilities of polarity engineering of semiconductor nanostructures. The present study has been extended over a wide range of semiconductor compounds, covering the most commonly synthesized III-V (GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InN, InP, InAs, InSb) and II-VI (ZnO, ZnTe, CdS, CdSe, CdTe) nanowires and other free-standing nanostructures (tripods, tetrapods, belts, and membranes). This systematic study allowed us to explore the parameters that may induce polarity-dependent and polarity-driven growth mechanisms, as well as the polarity-related consequences on the physical properties of the nanostructures.

3.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5833-5840, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038924

RESUMO

III-V integration on Si(100) is a challenge: controlled vertical vapor liquid solid nanowire growth on this platform has not been reported so far. Here we demonstrate an atypical GaAs vertical nanostructure on Si(100), coined nanospade, obtained by a nonconventional droplet catalyst pinning. The Ga droplet is positioned at the tip of an ultrathin Si pillar with a radial oxide envelope. The pinning at the Si/oxide interface allows the engineering of the contact angle beyond the Young-Dupré equation and the growth of vertical nanospades. Nanospades exhibit a virtually defect-free bicrystalline nature. Our growth model explains how a pentagonal twinning event at the initial stages of growth provokes the formation of the nanospade. The optical properties of the nanospades are consistent with the high crystal purity, making these structures viable for use in integration of optoelectronics on the Si(100) platform.

4.
Chem Rev ; 119(15): 8958-8971, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998006

RESUMO

Nanowires are filamentary crystals with a tailored diameter that can be obtained using a plethora of different synthesis techniques. In this review, we focus on the vapor phase, highlighting the most influential achievements along with a historical perspective. Starting with the discovery of VLS, we feature the variety of structures and materials that can be synthesized in the nanowire form. We then move on to establish distinct features such as the three-dimensional heterostructure/doping design and polytypism. We summarize the status quo of the growth mechanisms, recently confirmed by in situ electron microscopy experiments and defining common ground between the different synthesis techniques. We then propose a selection of remaining defects, starting from what we know and going toward what is still to be learned. We believe this review will serve as a reference for neophytes but also as an insight for experts in an effort to bring open questions under a new light.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524064

RESUMO

Series resistance in solar cells limit their maximum conversion efficiency and thus should be minimized. Generally, such losses originate from deficiencies at the contact or absorber level. Quantifying them is the first step for tacking its reduction. In this work, we provide a new way to assess the series resistance in nanowire-based solar cells, which significantly underperforms predicted theoretical efficiency. We illuminate the devices at different levels of light intensity (from 1 to 1000 suns), which gives us insight in the carrier transport and series losses mechanism. We demonstrate the method on a device obtained by self-assembled GaAs nanowire p-n junction arrays on silicon. This analysis method provides a platform to distinguish the intrinsic response of the nanowire p-n junction from the series resistance effects. More generally, we provide a mean of optimizing the efficiency in next generation solar cells where contacts still have to be developed.

6.
Nanoscale ; 10(36): 17080-17091, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179246

RESUMO

Compound semiconductors exhibit an intrinsic polarity, as a consequence of the ionicity of their bonds. Nanowires grow mostly along the (111) direction for energetic reasons. Arsenide and phosphide nanowires grow along (111)B, implying a group V termination of the (111) bilayers. Polarity engineering provides an additional pathway to modulate the structural and optical properties of semiconductor nanowires. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the growth of Ga-assisted GaAs nanowires with (111)A-polarity, with a yield of up to ∼50%. This goal is achieved by employing highly Ga-rich conditions which enable proper engineering of the energies of A and B-polar surfaces. We also show that A-polarity growth suppresses the stacking disorder along the growth axis. This results in improved optical properties, including the formation of AlGaAs quantum dots with two orders or magnitude higher brightness. Overall, this work provides new grounds for the engineering of nanowire growth directions, crystal quality and optical functionality.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(38): 32588-32596, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160109

RESUMO

Today, silicon is the most used material in photovoltaics, with the maximum conversion efficiency getting very close to the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction devices. Integrating silicon with higher band-gap ternary III-V absorbers is the path to increase the conversion efficiency. Here, we report on the first monolithic integration of Ga xIn(1- x)P vertical nanowires, and the associated p-n junctions, on silicon by the Au-free template-assisted selective epitaxy (TASE) method. We demonstrate that TASE allows for a high chemical homogeneity of ternary alloys through the nanowires. We then show the influence of doping on the chemical composition and crystal phase, the latter previously attributed to the role of the contact angle in the liquid phase in the vapor-liquid-solid technique. Finally, the emission of the p-n junction is investigated, revealing a shift in the energy of the intraband levels due to the incorporation of dopants. These results clarify some open questions on the effects of doping on ternary III-V nanowire growth and provide the path toward their integration on the silicon platform in order to apply them in next-generation photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

8.
Nano Lett ; 18(6): 3703-3710, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717874

RESUMO

InAsSb nanowires are promising elements for thermoelectric devices, infrared photodetectors, high-speed transistors, as well as thermophotovoltaic cells. By changing the Sb alloy fraction the mid-infrared bandgap energy and thermal conductivity may be tuned for specific device applications. Using both terahertz and Raman noncontact probes, we show that Sb alloying increases the electron mobility in the nanowires by over a factor of 3 from InAs to InAs0.65Sb0.35. We also extract the temperature-dependent electron mobility via both terahertz and Raman spectroscopy, and we report the highest electron mobilities for InAs0.65Sb0.35 nanowires to date, exceeding 16,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 10 K.

9.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2393-2401, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578722

RESUMO

Tuning light emission in bulk and quantum structures by strain constitutes a complementary method to engineer functional properties of semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate the tuning of light emission of GaAs nanowires and their quantum dots up to 115 meV by applying strain through an oxide envelope. We prove that the strain is highly anisotropic and clearly results in a component along the NW longitudinal axis, showing good agreement with the equations of uniaxial stress. We further demonstrate that the strain strongly depends on the oxide thickness, the oxide intrinsic strain, and the oxide microstructure. We also show that ensemble measurements are fully consistent with characterizations at the single-NW level, further elucidating the general character of the findings. This work provides the basic elements for strain-induced band gap engineering and opens new avenues in applications where a band-edge shift is necessary.

10.
Nano Lett ; 18(4): 2666-2671, 2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579392

RESUMO

Topological qubits based on Majorana Fermions have the potential to revolutionize the emerging field of quantum computing by making information processing significantly more robust to decoherence. Nanowires are a promising medium for hosting these kinds of qubits, though branched nanowires are needed to perform qubit manipulations. Here we report a gold-free templated growth of III-V nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy using an approach that enables patternable and highly regular branched nanowire arrays on a far greater scale than what has been reported thus far. Our approach relies on the lattice-mismatched growth of InAs on top of defect-free GaAs nanomembranes yielding laterally oriented, low-defect InAs and InGaAs nanowires whose shapes are determined by surface and strain energy minimization. By controlling nanomembrane width and growth time, we demonstrate the formation of compositionally graded nanowires with cross-sections less than 50 nm. Scaling the nanowires below 20 nm leads to the formation of homogeneous InGaAs nanowires, which exhibit phase-coherent, quasi-1D quantum transport as shown by magnetoconductance measurements. These results are an important advance toward scalable topological quantum computing.

11.
Nano Lett ; 18(1): 49-57, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257895

RESUMO

Achieving quantum confinement by bottom-up growth of nanowires has so far been limited to the ability of obtaining stable metal droplets of radii around 10 nm or less. This is within reach for gold-assisted growth. Because of the necessity to maintain the group III droplets during growth, direct synthesis of quantum sized structures becomes much more challenging for self-assisted III-V nanowires. In this work, we elucidate and solve the challenges that involve the synthesis of gallium-assisted quantum-sized GaAs nanowires. We demonstrate the existence of two stable contact angles for the gallium droplet on top of GaAs nanowires. Contact angle around 130° fosters a continuous increase in the nanowire radius, while 90° allows for the stable growth of ultrathin tops. The experimental results are fully consistent with our model that explains the observed morphological evolution under the two different scenarios. We provide a generalized theory of self-assisted III-V nanowires that describes simultaneously the droplet shape relaxation and the NW radius evolution. Bistability of the contact angle described here should be the general phenomenon that pertains for any vapor-liquid-solid nanowires and significantly refines our picture of how nanowires grow. Overall, our results suggest a new path for obtaining ultrathin one-dimensional III-V nanostructures for studying lateral confinement of carriers.

12.
ACS Photonics ; 4(9): 2235-2241, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28966933

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowires are promising building blocks for next-generation photonics. Indirect proofs of large absorption cross sections have been reported in nanostructures with subwavelength diameters, an effect that is even more prominent in vertically standing nanowires. In this work we provide a three-dimensional map of the light around vertical GaAs nanowires standing on a substrate by using fluorescence confocal microscopy, where the strong long-range disruption of the light path along the nanowire is illustrated. We find that the actual long-distance perturbation is much larger in size than calculated extinction cross sections. While the size of the perturbation remains similar, the intensity of the interaction changes dramatically over the visible spectrum. Numerical simulations allow us to distinguish the effects of scattering and absorption in the nanowire leading to these phenomena. This work provides a visual understanding of light absorption in semiconductor nanowire structures, which is of high interest for solar energy conversion applications.

13.
Nano Lett ; 17(7): 4101-4108, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613909

RESUMO

Reproducible integration of III-V semiconductors on silicon can open new path toward CMOS compatible optoelectronics and novel design schemes in next generation solar cells. Ordered arrays of nanowires could accomplish this task, provided they are obtained in high yield and uniformity. In this work, we provide understanding on the physical factors affecting size uniformity in ordered GaAs arrays grown on silicon. We show that the length and diameter distributions in the initial stage of growth are not much influenced by the Poissonian fluctuation-induced broadening, but rather are determined by the long incubation stage. We also show that the size distributions are consistent with the double exponential shapes typical for macroscopic nucleation with a large critical length after which the nanowires grow irreversibly. The size uniformity is dramatically improved by increasing the As4 flux, suggesting a new path for obtaining highly uniform arrays of GaAs nanowires on silicon.

14.
Nanoscale ; 9(23): 7839-7846, 2017 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555685

RESUMO

Precise control over the electrical conductivity of semiconductor nanowires is a crucial prerequisite for implementation of these nanostructures into novel electronic and optoelectronic devices. Advances in our understanding of doping mechanisms in nanowires and their influence on electron mobility and radiative efficiency are urgently required. Here, we investigate the electronic properties of n-type modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires via optical pump terahertz (THz) probe spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy over the temperature range 5 K-300 K. We directly determine an ionization energy of 6.7 ± 0.5 meV (T = 52 K) for the Si donors within the AlGaAs shell that create the modulation doping structure. We further elucidate the temperature dependence of the electron mobility, photoconductivity lifetime and radiative efficiency, and determine the charge-carrier scattering mechanisms that limit electron mobility. We show that below the donor ionization temperature, charge scattering is limited by interactions with interfaces, leading to an excellent electron mobility of 4360 ± 380 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 5 K. Above the ionization temperature, polar scattering via longitudinal optical (LO) phonons dominates, leading to a room temperature mobility of 2220 ± 130 cm2 V-1 s-1. In addition, we show that the Si donors effectively passivate interfacial trap states in the nanowires, leading to prolonged photoconductivity lifetimes with increasing temperature, accompanied by an enhanced radiative efficiency that exceeds 10% at room temperature.

15.
Nanoscale ; 9(21): 7179-7188, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513695

RESUMO

The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN nanowires implicates sensitivity of the optical and electrical properties of the nanowires to their surroundings. The implementation of an (Al,Ga)N shell with a larger band gap around the GaN nanowire core is a promising geometry to seal the GaN surface. We investigate the luminescence and structural properties of selective area-grown GaN-(Al,Ga)N core-shell nanowires grown on Si and diamond substrates. While the (Al,Ga)N shell allows a suppression of yellow defect luminescence from the GaN core, an overall intensity loss due to Si-related defects at the GaN/(Al,Ga)N interface has been observed in the case of Si substrates. Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate a superior crystal quality of the (Al,Ga)N shell along the nanowire side facets compared to the (Al,Ga)N cap at the top facet. A nucleation study of the (Al,Ga)N shell reveals a pronounced bowing of the nanowires along the c-direction after a short deposition time which disappears for longer growth times. This is assigned to an initially inhomogeneous shell nucleation. A detailed study of the proceeding shell growth allows the formulation of a strain-driven self-regulating (Al,Ga)N shell nucleation model.

16.
Nano Lett ; 17(2): 747-754, 2017 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045536

RESUMO

Next-generation optoelectronic devices and photonic circuitry will have to incorporate on-chip compatible nanolaser sources. Semiconductor nanowire lasers have emerged as strong candidates for integrated systems with applications ranging from ultrasensitive sensing to data communication technologies. Despite significant advances in their fundamental aspects, the integration within scalable photonic circuitry remains challenging. Here we report on the realization of hybrid photonic devices consisting of nanowire lasers integrated with wafer-scale lithographically designed V-groove plasmonic waveguides. We present experimental evidence of the lasing emission and coupling into the propagating modes of the V-grooves, enabling on-chip routing of coherent and subdiffraction confined light with room-temperature operation. Theoretical considerations suggest that the observed lasing is enabled by a waveguide hybrid photonic-plasmonic mode. This work represents a major advance toward the realization of application-oriented photonic circuits with integrated nanolaser sources.

17.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 12(2): 150-155, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27749834

RESUMO

Self-assembled nanowire (NW) crystals can be grown into nearly defect-free nanomechanical resonators with exceptional properties, including small motional mass, high resonant frequency and low dissipation. Furthermore, by virtue of slight asymmetries in geometry, a NW's flexural modes are split into doublets oscillating along orthogonal axes. These characteristics make bottom-up grown NWs extremely sensitive vectorial force sensors. Here, taking advantage of its adaptability as a scanning probe, we use a single NW to image a sample surface. By monitoring the frequency shift and direction of oscillation of both modes as we scan above the surface, we construct a map of all spatial tip-sample force derivatives in the plane. Finally, we use the NW to image electric force fields distinguishing between forces arising from the NW charge and polarizability. This universally applicable technique enables a form of atomic force microscopy particularly suited to mapping the size and direction of weak tip-sample forces.

18.
Nano Lett ; 16(11): 7098-7106, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766884

RESUMO

We demonstrate the selective area growth of GaN-(Al,Ga)N core-shell nanowire heterostructures directly on Si(111). Photoluminescence spectroscopy on as-grown nanowires reveals a strong blueshift of the GaN band gap from 3.40 to 3.64 eV at room temperature. Raman measurements relate this shift to compressive strain within the GaN core. On the nanoscale, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy prove the homogeneity of strain-related luminescence along the nanowire axis and the absence of significant fluctuations within the shell, respectively. A comparison of the experimental findings with numerical simulations indicates the absence of a significant defect-related strain relaxation for all investigated structures, with a maximum compressive strain of -3.4% for a shell thickness of 50 nm. The accurate control of the nanowire dimensions, namely, core diameter, shell thickness, and nanowire period, via selective area growth allows a specific manipulation of the resulting strain within individual nanowires on the same sample. This, in turn, enables a spatially resolved adjustment of the GaN band gap with an energy range of 240 meV in a one-step growth process.

19.
Nano Lett ; 16(6): 3507-13, 2016 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168031

RESUMO

In this letter, we demonstrate the formation of unique Ga/GaAs/Si nanowire heterostructures, which were successfully implemented in nanoscale light-emitting devices with visible room temperature electroluminescence. Based on our recent approach for the integration of InAs/Si heterostructures into Si nanowires by ion implantation and flash lamp annealing, we developed a routine that has proven to be suitable for the monolithic integration of GaAs nanocrystallite segments into the core of silicon nanowires. The formation of a Ga segment adjacent to longer GaAs nanocrystallites resulted in Schottky-diode-like I/V characteristics with distinct electroluminescence originating from the GaAs nanocrystallite for the nanowire device operated in the reverse breakdown regime. The observed electroluminescence was ascribed to radiative band-to-band recombinations resulting in distinct emission peaks and a low contribution due to intraband transition, which were also observed under forward bias. Simulations of the obtained nanowire heterostructure confirmed the proposed impact ionization process responsible for hot carrier luminescence. This approach may enable a new route for on-chip photonic devices used for light emission or detection purposes.

20.
ACS Nano ; 10(4): 4219-27, 2016 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26959350

RESUMO

Controlled doping of GaAs nanowires is crucial for the development of nanowire-based electronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, we present a noncontact method based on time-resolved terahertz photoconductivity for assessing n- and p-type doping efficiency in nanowires. Using this technique, we measure extrinsic electron and hole concentrations in excess of 10(18) cm(-3) for GaAs nanowires with n-type and p-type doped shells. Furthermore, we show that controlled doping can significantly increase the photoconductivity lifetime of GaAs nanowires by over an order of magnitude: from 0.13 ns in undoped nanowires to 3.8 and 2.5 ns in n-doped and p-doped nanowires, respectively. Thus, controlled doping can be used to reduce the effects of parasitic surface recombination in optoelectronic nanowire devices, which is promising for nanowire devices, such as solar cells and nanowire lasers.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA