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1.
J Health Hum Serv Adm ; 36(2): 208-27, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24350553

RESUMO

Persistent toxic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury accumulate in tissues of fish that are caught and consumed by sport anglers and their families. Unlike commercially-sold fish, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate sport-caught fish that are contaminated with these and other pollutants. Instead, nearly every state in the U.S. develops and issues consumption advice for contaminated sport-caught fish. We examined fish consumption advice issued by states that border and share waters of the Mississippi River. Our examination identified numerous jurisdictional inconsistencies that threaten the receptivity and credibility of consumption advice and, more important, threaten the health of individuals who consume contaminated sport-caught fish.


Assuntos
Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Esportes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Rios/química , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Risk Anal ; 29(5): 729-42, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19220800

RESUMO

The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) has produced Ogaa (walleye-Sander vitreus) consumption advisories since 1996 for Anishinaabe from GLIFWC member tribes in the 1837 and 1842 ceded territories of Wisconsin. GLIFWC's advisory maps were revised in 2005 to address cultural sensitivities (to protect tribal lifeways), to utilize recent mercury exposure information, and to incorporate changes in advisory levels for methyl mercury. Lake-specific, risk-based, culturally sensitive consumption advice was provided on color-coded maps for two groups: children under age 15 years and females of childbearing age, and males 15 years and older and females beyond childbearing age. The maps were distributed to, and a behavioral intervention program developed for, the six GLIFWC member tribes in Wisconsin as well as member tribes in Minnesota and the 1842 ceded territory of Michigan. Tribal fish harvesters, tribal health care providers, women of childbearing age or with young children, tribal leaders, elders, and children were targeted specifically for the behavioral intervention. The efficacy of the behavioral intervention was assessed using surveys of 275 tribal fish harvesters from Wisconsin, 139 tribal harvesters from Michigan and Minnesota, and 156 Wisconsin women of childbearing age. Significant increases in the percentage of survey participants who indicated awareness of advisory maps occurred among Wisconsin harvesters (increase from 60% to 77%), Michigan and Minnesota harvesters (29% to 51%), and women of childbearing age in Wisconsin (40% to 87%). A significant increase in preference for smaller Ogaa occurred among tribal harvesters in Wisconsin (41% to 72%) and tribal harvesters in Michigan and Minnesota (49% to 71%), although not among women of childbearing age. The GLIFWC map-based advisory program did not adversely affect tribal harvest of Ogaa, which increased from 63,000 to 88,000 fish in the three states after the intervention.


Assuntos
Dieta , Índios Norte-Americanos , Percas , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Michigan , Minnesota , Medição de Risco
3.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 4(1): 118-24, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18260209

RESUMO

The Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission produces consumption advisories for methylmercury in walleye (Sander vitreus) harvested by its member tribes in the 1837 and 1842 ceded territories of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, USA. Lake-specific advice is based primarily on regressions of methylmercury concentrations on walleye length and incorporates standard reference doses to generate recommended meal frequencies. The effects of variability and uncertainty are directly incorporated into the consumption advice through confidence bounds for the general population and prediction bounds for the sensitive population. Advice is tailored to the needs of the tribes because harvest and consumption of fish are culturally important. Data were sufficient to provide consumption advice for 293 of the 449 lakes assessed. Most of these carried a recommendation of no more than 4 meals per month for the general population and no more than 1 meal per month for the sensitive population.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Água Doce , Humanos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Grupos Populacionais
5.
Environ Res ; 101(2): 263-74, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16198332

RESUMO

The levels of dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides were determined in farmed salmon for eight regions in Europe, North America, and South America, in salmon fillets purchased in 16 cities in Europe and North America, and in five species of wild Pacific salmon. Upon application of US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methods for developing fish consumption advisories for cancer from mixtures of all of these substance for which USEPA has reported a cancer slope factor, the most stringent recommendation, for farmed salmon from northern Europe, was for consumption of at most one meal every 5 months in order to not exceed an elevated risk of cancer of more than 1 in 100,000. Farmed salmon from North and South America triggered advisories of between 0.4 and one meal per month. Retail market samples, in general, reflected levels found in regionally farmed fish, although much of the US salmon comes from Chile, which had somewhat lower contaminant levels than the North American farmed samples. Upon consideration of all of these organochlorine compounds as a mixture, even wild Pacific salmon triggered advisories of between one and less than five meals per month. The advisories are driven by the non-dioxin-like PCBs and pesticides and not by dioxins/furans and coplanar PCBs. For noncancer effects for contaminants where USEPA has provided a reference dose only endrin and PCBs triggered any significant advisory. For both of these in the worst case, farmed salmon from northern Europe, the advice was not more than three meals per month.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Salmão , Animais , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Furanos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , América do Norte , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 39(22): 8622-9, 2005 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16323755

RESUMO

Levels of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids and lipid-adjusted concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, toxaphene, and dieldrin were determined in 459 farmed Atlantic salmon, 135 wild Pacific salmon, and 144 supermarket farmed Atlantic salmon fillets purchased in 16 cities in North America and Europe. These were the same fish previously used for measurement of organohalogen contaminants. Farmed salmon had greater levels of total lipid (average 16.6%) than wild salmon (average 6.4%). The n-3 to n-6 ratio was about 10 in wild salmon and 3-4 in farmed salmon. The supermarket samples were similar to the farmed salmon from the same region. Lipid-adjusted contaminant levels were significantly higher in farmed Atlantic salmon than those in wild Pacific salmon (F = 7.27, P = 0.0089 for toxaphene; F = 15.39, P = 0.0002 for dioxin; F > or = 21.31, P < 0.0001 for dieldrin and PCBs, with df = (1.64) for all). Levels of total lipid were in the range of 30-40% in the fish oil/fish meal that is fed to farmed salmon. Salmon, especially farmed salmon, are a good source of healthy n-3 fatty acids, but they also contain high concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as PCBs, dioxins, and chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these contaminants may reduce the net health benefits derived from the consumption of farmed salmon, despite the presence of the high level of n-3 fatty acids in these fish.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Lipídeos/análise , Salmão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aquicultura , Oceano Atlântico , Dieldrin/análise , Dioxinas/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Oceano Pacífico , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Toxafeno/análise
7.
J Nutr ; 135(11): 2639-43, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16251623

RESUMO

Contaminants in farmed Atlantic and wild Pacific salmon raise important questions about the competing health benefits and risks of fish consumption. A benefit-risk analysis was conducted to compare quantitatively the cancer and noncancer risks of exposure to organic contaminants in salmon with the (n-3) fatty acid-associated health benefits of salmon consumption. Recommended levels of (n-3) fatty acid intake, as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may be achieved by consuming farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of noncarcinogenic risk. However, the recommended level of EPA+DHA intake cannot be achieved solely from farmed or wild salmon while maintaining an acceptable level of carcinogenic risk. Although the benefit-risk ratio for carcinogens and noncarcinogens is significantly greater for wild Pacific salmon than for farmed Atlantic salmon as a group, the ratio for some subgroups of farmed salmon is on par with the ratio for wild salmon. This analysis suggests that risk of exposure to contaminants in farmed and wild salmon is partially offset by the fatty acid-associated health benefits. However, young children, women of child-bearing age, pregnant women, and nursing mothers not at significant risk for sudden cardiac death associated with CHD but concerned with health impairments such as reduction in IQ and other cognitive and behavioral effects, can minimize contaminant exposure by choosing the least contaminated wild salmon or by selecting other sources of (n-3) fatty acids.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Carcinógenos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Salmão , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ambiental , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 113(5): 552-6, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15866762

RESUMO

We reported recently that several organic contaminants occurred at elevated concentrations in farmed Atlantic salmon compared with concentrations of the same contaminants in wild Pacific salmon [Hites et al. Science 303: 226-229 (2004)]. We also found that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphene, dieldrin, dioxins, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers occurred at higher concentrations in European farm-raised salmon than in farmed salmon from North and South America. Health risks (based on a quantitative cancer risk assessment) associated with consumption of farmed salmon contaminated with PCBs, toxaphene, and dieldrin were higher than risks associated with exposure to the same contaminants in wild salmon. Here we present information on cancer and noncancer health risks of exposure to dioxins in farmed and wild salmon. The analysis is based on a tolerable intake level for dioxin-like compounds established by the World Health Organization and on risk estimates for human exposure to dioxins developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumption of farmed salmon at relatively low frequencies results in elevated exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds with commensurate elevation in estimates of health risk.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Salmão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Oceano Atlântico , Dieta , Humanos , Oceano Pacífico , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 38(19): 4945-9, 2004 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15506184

RESUMO

We have shown recently that levels of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and several chlorinated pesticides) are significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon and that European farm-raised salmon have significantly greater toxic contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America. In this paper, we extend these results to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and show that farm-raised salmon have higher levels of these compounds than wild salmon. We also show that farm-raised salmon from Europe have higher PBDE levels than those raised in North America and that both European and North American farm-raised salmon have higher PBDE levels than those farm-raised in Chile. Among the species of wild salmon, chinook had significantly elevated PBDE levels relative to the other wild species. These elevated PBDE levels may be related to chinook's feeding behavior and trophic level. Among all of the wild species we studied, chinook tend to feed higher in the food web throughout their adult life and grow to be larger individuals.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Contaminação de Alimentos , Bifenil Polibromatos/farmacocinética , Salmão , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Éteres , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , América do Norte , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 23(9): 2108-10, 2004 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15378985

RESUMO

Contamination of fish tissues with organic and inorganic contaminants has been a pervasive environmental and public health problem. The present study reports the concentrations of nine metals in tissues of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and two species of wild-caught salmon (chum [Oncorhynchus keta] and coho [O. kisutch]) analyzed as part of a global survey of contaminants in these fish. Of the nine metals, organic arsenic was significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon, whereas cobalt, copper, and cadmium were significantly higher in wild salmon. None of the contaminants exceeded federal standards or guidance levels.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Metais/análise , Oncorhynchus keta , Oncorhynchus kisutch , Salmo salar , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency/normas , United States Food and Drug Administration/normas
11.
Science ; 303(5655): 226-9, 2004 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14716013

RESUMO

The annual global production of farmed salmon has increased by a factor of 40 during the past two decades. Salmon from farms in northern Europe, North America, and Chile are now available widely year-round at relatively low prices. Salmon farms have been criticized for their ecological effects, but the potential human health risks of farmed salmon consumption have not been examined rigorously. Having analyzed over 2 metric tons of farmed and wild salmon from around the world for organochlorine contaminants, we show that concentrations of these contaminants are significantly higher in farmed salmon than in wild. European-raised salmon have significantly greater contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America, indicating the need for further investigation into the sources of contamination. Risk analysis indicates that consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon may pose health risks that detract from the beneficial effects of fish consumption.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Pesqueiros , Contaminação de Alimentos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Oncorhynchus , Salmo salar , Análise de Variância , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/toxicidade , Animais , Dieldrin/análise , Dieldrin/toxicidade , Dieta , Dioxinas/análise , Dioxinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Europa (Continente) , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/toxicidade , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/toxicidade , América do Norte , Política Nutricional , Oncorhynchus keta , Oncorhynchus kisutch , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , América do Sul , Toxafeno/análise , Toxafeno/toxicidade , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency , United States Food and Drug Administration
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