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1.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 72, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored the role of air pollution in neurodegenerative processes, especially various types of dementia. Our aim was to evaluate the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and first hospitalization for dementia subtypes in a large administrative cohort. METHODS: We selected 350,844 subjects (free of dementia) aged 65-100 years at inclusion (21/10/2001) and followed them until 31/12/2013. We selected all subjects hospitalized for the first time with primary or secondary diagnoses of various forms of dementia. We estimated the exposure at residence using land use regression models for nitrogen oxides (NOx, NO2) and particulate matter (PM) and a chemical transport model for ozone (O3). We used Cox models to estimate the association between exposure and first hospitalization for dementia and its subtypes: vascular dementia (Vd), Alzheimer's disease (Ad) and senile dementia (Sd). RESULTS: We selected 21,548 first hospitalizations for dementia (7497 for Vd, 7669 for Ad and 7833 for Sd). Overall, we observed a negative association between exposure to NO2 (10 µg/m3) and dementia hospitalizations (HR = 0.97; 95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and a positive association between exposure to O3, NOx and dementia hospitalizations, (O3: HR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.09 per 10 µg/m3; NOx: HR = 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00-1.02 per 20 µg/m3).H. Exposure to NOx, NO2, PM2.5, and PM10 was positively associated with Vd and negatively associated with Ad. Hospitalization for Sd was positively associated with exposure to O3 (HR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.15-1.24 per 10 µg/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed a positive association between exposure to NOx and O3 and hospitalization for dementia and a negative association between NO2 exposure and hospitalization for dementia. In the analysis by subtype, exposure to each pollutants (except O3) demonstrated a positive association with vascular dementia, while O3 exposure was associated with senile dementia. The results regarding vascular dementia are a clear indication that the brain effects of air pollution are linked with vascular damage.

2.
Environ Int ; 132: 105030, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large steel plant close to the urban area of Taranto (Italy) has been operating since the sixties. Several studies conducted in the past reported an excess of mortality and morbidity from various diseases at the town level, possibly due to air pollution from the plant. However, the relationship between air pollutants emitted from the industry and adverse health outcomes has been controversial. We applied a variant of the "difference-in-differences" (DID) approach to examine the relationship between temporal changes in exposure to industrial PM10 from the plant and changes in cause-specific mortality rates at area unit level. METHODS: We examined a dynamic cohort of all subjects (321,356 individuals) resident in the Taranto area in 1998-2010 and followed them up for mortality till 2014. In this work, we included only deaths occurring on 2008-2014. We observed a total of 15,303 natural deaths in the cohort and age-specific annual death rates were computed for each area unit (11 areas in total). PM10 and NO2 concentrations measured at air quality monitoring stations and the results of a dispersion model were used to estimate annual average population weighted exposures to PM10 of industrial origin for each year, area unit and age class. Changes in exposures and in mortality were analyzed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: We estimated an increased risk in natural mortality (1.86%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.06, 3.83%) per 1 µg/m3 annual change of industrial PM10, mainly driven by respiratory causes (8.74%, 95% CI: 1.50, 16.51%). The associations were statistically significant only in the elderly (65+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The DID approach is intuitively simple and reduces confounding by design. Under the multiple assumptions of this approach, the study indicates an effect of industrial PM10 on natural mortality, especially in the elderly population.

5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(2-3 Suppl 1): 1-208, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This volume provides an update of the health status of the populations living in the National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs) included in the SENTIERI Project. This update is part of an epidemiological surveillance programme carried out in NPCSs, promoted by the Italian Ministry of Health as a further step of a project started in 2006, when the health status of residents in contaminated sites was first addressed within the National Strategic Program "Environment and Health". The Report focuses on five health outcomes: mortality, cancer incidence, hospital discharges, congenital anomalies, and children, adolescents and young adults' health. A key element of SENTIERI project is the a priori evaluation of the epidemiological evidence of a causal association between the considered cause of disease and the exposure. When an a priori evidence is identified, it is given a greater importance in the comment of the study findings. METHODS: The present update of the SENTIERI Project concerns 45 NPCSs including in all 319 Italian Municipalities (out of over 8,000 Municipalities), with an overall population of 5,900,000 inhabitants at the 2011 Italian Census. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios (SHRs), referring to a time window of 2006-2013, were computed for all the 45 NPCSs, using as a reference the corresponding mortality and hospitalization rates of the Regions where each NCPS is located. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed by the Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) for the 22 NPCSs served by a Cancer Registry. AIRTUM covers about 56% of Italy, with partly different time-windows. SIRs have been estimated using as reference population the 4 macroareas in which Italy is divided (North-West, North-East, Centre, South). Prevalence of congenital anomalies was computed for 15 NPCSs. RESULTS: An all-cause excess of 5,267 and 6,725 deaths was observed, respectively, in men and women; the cancer death excess was of 3,375 in men and 1,910 in women. It was estimated an excess of cancer incidence of 1,220 case in men and 1,425 in women over a five-year time window. With regard to the diseases with an a priori environmental aetiological validity, an excess for malignant mesothelioma, lung, colon, and gastric cancer, and for non-malignant respiratory diseases was observed. Cancer excess mainly affected NPCSs with presence of chemical and petrochemical plants, oil refineries, and dumping hazardous wastes. An excess of non-malignant respiratory disease was also detected in NPCSs in which steel industries and thermoelectric plants were present. An excess of mesothelioma was observed in NPCSs characterized by presence of asbestos and fluoro-edenite; it was also observed where the presence of asbestos was not reported in the legislative national decrees which define the NPCS areas. It is worth noting that, even if the presence of asbestos is not reported in many NPCSs legislative decrees, petrochemical plants and steel industries, for instance, are often characterized by the presence of a large amount of this mineral that, in the past, was extensively used as an insulating material. For the first time, the present Report includes a focus on the health status of children and adolescents (1,160,000 subjects, aged 0-19 years), and young adults (660,000 subjects, aged 20-29 years). Among infants (0-1 year), an excess of 7,000 hospitalizations was observed, 2,000 of which due to conditions of perinatal origin. In the age class 0-14, an excess of 22,000 hospitalizations for all causes was observed; 4,000 of them were due to acute respiratory diseases, and 2,000 to asthma. Data on cancer incidence for subjects aged 0-24 years were derived from general population cancer registries for twenty NPCSs, and from children cancer registries (age group: 0-19 years) for six NPCSs; 666 cases where diagnosed in the age group 0-24 years, corresponding to an excess of 9%. The main contributions to this excess are from soft tissue sarcomas in children (aged 0-14 years), acute myeloid leukaemia in children (aged 0-14 years) and in the age group 0-29 years, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer in young adults (aged 20-29 years). In seven out of 15 NPCSs, an excess prevalence rate of overall congenital anomalies at birth was observed. Congenital anomalies excesses included the following sites: genital organs, heart, limbs, nervous system, digestive system, and urinary system. CONCLUSIONS: The main findings of SENTIERI Project have been the detection of excesses for the diseases which showed an a priori epidemiological evidence of a causal association with the environmental exposures specific for each considered NPCS. These observations are valuable within public health, because they contribute to priority health promotion activities. Looking ahead, the health benefits of an improved environmental quality might be appreciated in terms of reduction of the occurrence of adverse health effects attributable to each Site major pollutant agents. Due to the methodological approach of the present study, it was not possible to adjust for several confounding factors reported to be risk factors for the studied diseases (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity). Even if excesses of mortality, hospitalization, cancer incidence, and prevalence of congenital anomalies were found in several NPCSs, the study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered diseases do not permit, for all of them, to draw conclusions in terms of causal links with environmental contamination. Moreover, it must be taken into consideration that economic factors and the availability of health services may also play a relevant role in a diseases outcome. A few observations regarding some methodological limitations of SENTIERI Project should be made. There is not a uniform environmental characterisation of the studied NPCSs in term of quality and detection of the pollutants, because this information is present in different databases which at present are not adequately connected. Moreover, the recognition of a contaminated site as a National Priority Site is based on soil and groundwater pollution, and the available information on air quality is currently sparse and not homogenous. Another limitation, in term of statistical power, is the small population size of many NPCSs and the low frequency of several health outcomes. A special caution must be paid in data interpretation when considering the correspondence between the contaminated areas and the municipality boundaries, as they do not always coincide perfectly: in some cases, a small municipality with a large industrial site, while in other settings only a part of the municipality is exposed to the sources of pollution. Furthermore, all available health information systems are currently accessible at municipality level. The real breakthrough is essentially comprised of the development and fostering of a networking system involving all local health authorities and regional environmental protection agencies operating in the areas under study. The possibility to integrate the geographic approach of SENTIERI Project with a set of ad hoc analytic epidemiological investigations, such as residential cohort studies, case control studies, children health surveys, biomonitoring surveys, and with socioepidemiological studies, might greatly contribute to the identification of health priorities for environmental remediation activities. Finally, as discussed in the last section of the report, there is a need to adopt, in each NPCS, a two-way oriented communication plan involving public health authorities, scientific community, and resident population, taking into account that the history, the cultural frame and the network of relationships specific of each local context play a major role in the risk perception perspective.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(6): 67004, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between particulate matter (PM) exposure and adverse health outcomes has been widely evaluated using large cohort studies. However, the possibility of residual confounding and lack of information about the health effects of PM in rural and suburban areas are unsolved issues. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the effect of annual PM≤10µg (PM10) exposure on cause-specific mortality in the Latium region (central Italy, of which Rome is the main city) during 2006-2012 using a difference-in-differences approach. METHODS: We estimated daily PM10 concentrations for each 1 km2 of the region from 2006 to 2012 by use of satellite data, land-use predictors, and meteorological parameters. For each of the 378 regional municipalities and each year, we averaged daily PM10 values to obtain annual mean PM10 exposures. We applied a variant of the difference-in-differences approach to estimate the association between PM10 and cause-specific mortality by focusing on within-municipality fluctuations of mortality rates and annual PM exposures around municipality means, therefore controlling by design for confounding from all spatial and temporal potential confounders. Analyses were also stratified by population size of the municipalities to obtain effect estimates in rural and suburban areas of the region. RESULTS: In the period 2006-2012, we observed deaths due to three causes: 347,699 nonaccidental; 92,787 cardiovascular; and 16,509 respiratory causes. The annual average (standard deviation, SD) PM10 concentration was 21.9 (±4.9) µg/km3 in Latium. For each 1-µg/m3 increase in annual PM10 we estimated increases of 0.8% (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.2%, 1.3%), 0.9% (0.0%, 1.8%), and 1.4% (-0.4%, 3.3%) in nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Similar results were found when we excluded the metropolitan area of Rome from the analysis. Higher effects were estimated in the smaller municipalities, e.g., those with population < 5,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a significant association of annual PM10 exposure with nonaccidental and cardiorespiratory mortality in the Latium region, even outside Rome and in suburban and rural areas. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3759.

8.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
9.
Med Lav ; 110(1): 3-10, 2019 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oil refinery workers are exposed to several well-established carcinogens and working in this type of industry has been classified by IARC as probable carcinogen to humans (Group 2A). OBJECTIVES: To examine the mortality experience of workers employed in four Italian oil refineries. METHODS: The cohort included 5112 male workers ever employed between 1949 and 2011. The average follow-up period was 49 years. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using as reference age-gender-calendar specific regional rates. Analyses by duration of employment and latency were performed. RESULTS: In the whole cohort, pleural cancer (6 deaths, SMR 1.59; 95% CI 0.71-3.53), brain cancer (14 deaths, SMR 1.47; 95% CI 0.87-2.49) and lymphatic leukemia (LL) (8 deaths, SMR 1.81; 95% CI 0.91-3.62) showed increased risks. All pleural cancers occurred after 10 years of latency and the highest risk was observed among workers with duration ≥20 years; the brain cancer excess was confined in the shortest duration and latency. The LL (and chronic lymphatic leukemia in particular) excess regarded workers with latency and duration longer than 20 years. Four deaths from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were observed and all occurred after 20 years of latency (SMR 1.55, 95% CI 0.58-4.12); a two-fold-increased risk was observed in the longest duration. No increased risk for skin cancer has been observed in our study population. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with recent evidence of an increased mortality from pleural and hematopoietic malignancies (AML and LL) among oil refinery workers. However, the lack of individual quantitative exposure data and the small number of observed events prevent the identification of the possible causal role of individual chemicals, including benzene, especially at the current very low exposure levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais
10.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(2): 27002, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in areas with higher levels of surrounding greenness and access to urban green areas have been associated with beneficial health outcomes. Some studies suggested a beneficial influence on mortality, but the evidence is still controversial. OBJECTIVES: We used longitudinal data from a large cohort to estimate associations of two measures of residential greenness exposure with cause-specific mortality and stroke incidence. METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of 1,263,721 residents in Rome aged [Formula: see text], followed from 2001 to 2013. As greenness exposure, we utilized the leaf area index (LAI), which expresses the tree canopy as the leaf area per unit ground surface area, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within 300- and [Formula: see text] buffers around home addresses. We estimated the association between the two measures of residential greenness and the outcomes using Cox models, after controlling for relevant individual covariates and contextual characteristics, and explored potential mediation by air pollution [fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]] and road traffic noise. RESULTS: We observed 198,704 deaths from nonaccidental causes, 81,269 from cardiovascular diseases [CVDs; 29,654 from ischemic heart disease (IHD)], 18,090 from cerebrovascular diseases, and 29,033 incident cases of stroke. Residential greenness, expressed as interquartile range (IQR) increase in LAI within [Formula: see text], was inversely associated with stroke incidence {hazard ratio (HR) 0.977 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.961, 0.994]} and mortality for nonaccidental [HR 0.988 (95% CI: 0.981, 0.994)], cardiovascular [HR 0.984 (95% CI: 0.974, 0.994)] and cerebrovascular diseases [HR 0.964 (95% CI: 0.943, 0.985)]. Similar results were obtained using NDVI with 300- or [Formula: see text] buffers. CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener areas was associated with better health outcomes in our study, which could be partly due to reduced exposure to environmental hazards. Further research is required to understand the underlying mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2854.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Roma , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415436

RESUMO

Asthma prevalence in children varies substantially around the world, but the contribution of known risk factors to this international variation is uncertain. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two studied 8-12 year old children in 30 centres worldwide with parent-completed symptom and risk factor questionnaires and aeroallergen skin prick testing. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to investigate the effect of adjustment for individual and ecological risk factors on the between-centre variation in prevalence of recent wheeze. Adjustment for single individual-level risk factors changed the centre-level variation from a reduction of up to 8.4% (and 8.5% for atopy) to an increase of up to 6.8%. Modelling the 11 most influential environmental factors among all children simultaneously, the centre-level variation changed little overall (2.4% increase). Modelling only factors that decreased the variance, the 6 most influential factors (synthetic and feather quilt, mother's smoking, heating stoves, dampness and foam pillows) in combination resulted in a 21% reduction in variance. Ecological (centre-level) risk factors generally explained higher proportions of the variation than did individual risk factors. Single environmental factors and aeroallergen sensitisation measured at the individual (child) level did not explain much of the between-centre variation in wheeze prevalence.

14.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

15.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(5-6): 316-325, 2018 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30370733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to test the validity of algorithms to identify diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension, and hypothyroidism from routinely collected health data using information from self-reported diagnosis and laboratory or functional test. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: clinical or self-reported diagnosis from three surveys conducted in Lazio Region (Central Italy) between year 2010 and 2014 were assumed as gold standard and compared to the results of the algorithms application to administrative data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: prevalence resulted from administrative data and from information available in the surveys were compared. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and positive likelihood ratio of algorithms with respect to self-reported diagnosis, laboratory or functional test, assumed as gold standards, were calculated. RESULTS: we analyzed data of 7,318 subjects (1,545 for diabetes, 1,783 for COPD, 2,448 for hypertension, and 1,542 for hypothyroidism). For hypertension and hypothyroidism, we observed a higher prevalence from laboratory or functional test compared to self-reported diagnosis (54.5% vs. 44.9% and 7.5% vs. 1.5%). Sensitivity of administrative data with respect to self-reported diagnosis resulted 90.9%, 38.5%, 88.3%, and 47.8%, respectively, for diabetes, COPD, hypertension, and hypothyroidism. Respectively, specificity was 97.4%, 91.7%, 84.8% and 91.8%; positive predictive value was 70,9%, 38.1%, 82.6% and 8.1%. All values of positive likelihood ratio resulted moderate (about 5), with exception of the diabetes algorithm and the disease-specific payment exemptions register for hypertension (respectively 35.5 and 17.4). CONCLUSION: hypertension and hypothyroidism resulted markedly underdiagnosed from self-reported data. Case identification algorithms are highly specific, allowing their utilization for selection of cohort of subject affected by chronic diseases. The sub-optimal sensitivity observed for COPD and hypothyroidism could limit the utilization of the algorithms for prevalence estimation.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9592-9597, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181279

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions about equivalent exposure and toxicity. We relax these contentious assumptions by constructing a PM2.5-mortality hazard ratio function based only on cohort studies of outdoor air pollution that covers the global exposure range. We modeled the shape of the association between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality using data from 41 cohorts from 16 countries-the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). We then constructed GEMMs for five specific causes of death examined by the global burden of disease (GBD). The GEMM predicts 8.9 million [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.5-10.3] deaths in 2015, a figure 30% larger than that predicted by the sum of deaths among the five specific causes (6.9; 95% CI: 4.9-8.5) and 120% larger than the risk function used in the GBD (4.0; 95% CI: 3.3-4.8). Differences between the GEMM and GBD risk functions are larger for a 20% reduction in concentrations, with the GEMM predicting 220% higher excess deaths. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be related to additional causes of death than the five considered by the GBD and that incorporation of risk information from other, nonoutdoor, particle sources leads to underestimation of disease burden, especially at higher concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Occup Environ Med ; 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Residents near industrial areas are exposed to several toxins from various sources and the assessment of the health effects is difficult. The area of Civitavecchia (Italy) has several sources of environmental contamination with potential health effects. We evaluated the association between exposure to pollutants from multiple sources and mortality in a cohort of people living in the area. METHODS: All residents of the area in 1996 were enrolled (from municipal registers) and followed until 2013. Long-term exposures to emissions from industrial sources (PM10) and traffic (NOx) at the residential addresses were assessed using a dispersion model. Residence close to the harbour was also considered. Cox survival analysis was conducted including a linear term for industrial PM10 and NOx exposure and a dichotomous variable to indicate residence within 500 m of the harbour. Age, sex, calendar period, occupation and area-based socioeconomic position (SEP) were considered (HRs, 95% CI). RESULTS: 71 362 people were enrolled (52% female, 43% low SEP) and 14 844 died during the follow-up. We found an association between industrial PM10 and mortality from non-accidental causes (HR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12), all cancers (HR=1.11, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.21) and cardiac diseases (HR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23). We also found an association between NOx exposure from traffic and mortality from all cancers (HR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.26) and neurological diseases (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.20). Living near the harbour was associated with higher mortality from lung cancer (HR=1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.66) and neurological diseases (HR=1.51, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.18). CONCLUSIONS: Estimated exposures to different pollution sources in this area were independently associated with several mortality outcomes while adjusting for occupation and socioeconomic status.

18.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209194

RESUMO

The parallel epidemics of childhood asthma and obesity over the past few decades have spurred research into obesity as a risk factor for asthma. However, little is known regarding the role of asthma in obesity incidence. We examined whether early-onset asthma and related phenotypes are associated with the risk of developing obesity in childhood.This study includes 21 130 children born from 1990 to 2008 in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. We followed non-obese children at 3-4 years of age for incident obesity up to 8 years of age. Physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing and allergic rhinitis were assessed up to 3-4 years of age.Children with physician-diagnosed asthma had a higher risk for incident obesity than those without asthma (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.66, 95% CI 1.18-2.33). Children with active asthma (wheeze in the last 12 months and physician-diagnosed asthma) exhibited a higher risk for obesity (aHR 1.98, 95% CI 1.31-3.00) than those without wheeze and asthma. Persistent wheezing was associated with increased risk for incident obesity compared to never wheezers (aHR 1.51, 95% CI 1.08-2.09).Early-onset asthma and wheezing may contribute to an increased risk of developing obesity in later childhood.

19.
Environ Int ; 120: 472-479, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased PM10 concentrations are commonly observed during Saharan dust advections. Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that PM10 from anthropogenic and desert sources increase mortality. We aimed to evaluate the association between source-specific PM10 (non-desert and desert) and cause-specific mortality in Sicily during 2006-2012 period. METHODS: Daily PM10 concentrations at 1-km2 were estimated in Sicily using satellite-based data, fixed monitors and land use variables. We identified Saharan dust episodes using meteorological models, back-trajectories, aerosol maps, and satellite images. For each dust day, we estimated desert and non-desert PM10 concentrations. We applied a time-series approach on 390 municipalities of Sicily to estimate the association between PM10 (non-desert and desert) and daily cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: 33% of all days were affected by Saharan dust advections. PM10 concentrations were 8 µg/m3 higher during dust days compared to other days. We found positive associations of both non-desert and desert PM10 with cause-specific mortality. We estimated percent increases of risk (IR%) of non-accidental mortality equal to 2.3% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.4, 3.1) and 3.8% (3.2, 4.4), per 10 µg/m3 increases in non-desert and desert PM10 at lag 0-5, respectively. We also observed significant associations with cardiovascular (2.4% [1.3, 3.4] and 4.5% [3.8, 5.3]) and respiratory mortality (8.1% [6.8, 9.5], and 6.3% [5.4, 7.2]). We estimated higher effects during April-September, with IR% = 4.4% (3.2, 5.7) and 6.3% (5.4, 7.2) for non-desert and desert PM10, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous evidence of harmful effects of desert PM10 on non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality, especially during the warm season.

20.
Environ Int ; 120: 163-171, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096610

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults. METHODS: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m3 of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13;3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I2 = 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88;3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I2 = 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5_S but not PM10_S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

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