Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 350
Filtrar
1.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

2.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(9): 1435-1443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468284

RESUMO

Poor air quality affects the health and wellbeing of large populations around the globe. Although source controls are the most effective approaches for improving air quality and reducing health risks, individuals can also take actions to reduce their personal exposure by staying indoors, reducing physical activity, altering modes of transportation, filtering indoor air, and using respirators and other types of face masks. A synthesis of available evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects or unintended consequences of personal interventions for air pollution is needed by clinicians to assist patients and the public in making informed decisions about use of these interventions. To address this need, the American Thoracic Society convened a workshop in May of 2018 to bring together a multidisciplinary group of international experts to review the current state of knowledge about personal interventions for air pollution and important considerations when helping patients and the general public to make decisions about how best to protect themselves. From these discussions, recommendations were made regarding when, where, how, and for whom to consider personal interventions. In addition to the efficacy and safety of the various interventions, the committee considered evidence regarding the identification of patients at greatest risk, the reliability of air quality indices, the communication challenges, and the ethical and equity considerations that arise when discussing personal interventions to reduce exposure and risk from outdoor air pollution.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

6.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

9.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 75(9): 917-924, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927002

RESUMO

This paper derives from a document commissioned in 2019 by the Italian Minister of Health, and outlines a general strategy for primary prevention of non-communicable diseases in Italy, with a special focus on cobenefits of climate change mitigation. Given that action against climate change is primarily taken via energy choices, limiting the use of fossil fuels and promoting renewable sources, an effective strategy is one in which interventions are designed to prevent diseases and jointly mitigate climate change, the so-called cobenefits. For policies capable of producing relevant co-benefits we focus on three categories of interventions, urban planning, diet and transport that are of special importance. For example, policies promoting active transport (cycling, walking) have the triple effect of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, preventing diseases related to atmospheric pollution, and increasing physical activity, thus preventing obesity and diabetes.In particular, we propose that for 2025 the following goals are achieved: reduce the prevalence of smokers by 30%, with particular emphasis on young people; reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity by 20%; reduce the proportion of calories obtained from ultraprocessed foods by 20%; reduce the consumption of alcohol by 10%; reduce the consumption of salt by 30%; reduce the consumption of sugary drinks by 20%; reduce the average consumption of meat by 20%; increase the weekly hours of exercise by 10%. The aim is to complement individual health promotion with structural policies (such as urban planning, taxation and incentives) which render the former more effective and result in a reduction in inequality. We strongly encourage the inclusion of primary prevention in all policies, in light of the described cobenefits. Italy's role as the cohost of the 2020 (now 2021) UN climate negotiations (COP26) presents the opportunity for international leadership in addressing health as an integral component of the response to climate change.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146739, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798874

RESUMO

Biomass burning (BB) including forest, bush, prescribed fires, agricultural fires, residential wood combustion, and power generation has long been known to affect climate, air quality and human health. With this work we supply a systematic review on the health effects of BB emissions in the framework of the WHO activities on air pollution. We performed a literature search of online databases (PubMed, ISI, and Scopus) from year 1980 up to 2020. A total of 81 papers were considered as relevant for mortality and morbidity effects. High risk of bias was related with poor estimation of BB exposure and lack of adjustment for important confounders. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations originating from BB were associated with all-cause mortality: the meta-analytical estimate was equal to 1.31% (95% CI 0.71, 1.71) and 1.92% (95% CI -1.19, 5.03) increased mortality per each 10 µg m-3 increase of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Regarding cardiovascular mortality 8 studies reported quantitative estimates. For smoky days and for each 10 µg m-3 increase in PM2.5 concentrations, the risk of cardiovascular mortality increased by 4.45% (95% CI 0.96, 7.95) and by 3.30% (95% CI -1.97, 8.57), respectively. Fourteen studies evaluated whether respiratory morbidity was adversely related to PM2.5 (9 studies) or PM10 (5 studies) originating from BB. All found positive associations. The pooled effect estimates were 4.10% (95% CI 2.86, 5.34) and 4.83% (95% CI 0.06, 9.60) increased risk of total respiratory admissions/emergency visits, per 10 µg m-3 increases in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Regarding cardiovascular morbidity, sixteen studies evaluated whether this was adversely related to PM2.5 (10 studies) or PM10 (6 studies) originating from BB. They found both positive and negative results, with summary estimates equal to 3.68% (95% CI -1.73, 9.09) and 0.93% (95% CI -0.18, 2.05) increased risk of total cardiovascular admissions/emergency visits, per 10 µg m-3 increases in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. To conclude, a significant number of studies indicate that BB exposure is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and respiratory morbidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomassa , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Fumaça
11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(1-2): 117-121, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884850

RESUMO

Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) often conclude with a "low" or at least "negligible" final health impact assessment (HIA) of the industrial plant under assessment. We explore the reasons for this - often simplistic - conclusion and offer suggestions on how to extend the assessment focus from just the plant to an appropriate impact area. For many assessments, the conclusions are easily predictable: the application of available risk functions to modest increases in pollution, in the presence of numerically small populations in the areas of greatest fallout and considering rather rare health outcomes, can only result in quantitatively modest health impacts. This is the classic situation of low sensitivity of the observation system due to the impossibility of containing the type II error (false negatives) since we cannot increase the exposed population at will. The risk is to give the green light to an industrial plant in which the apparently null or very limited damage is simply not properly detectable. There is hardly any trace of these elements in the HIA scoping phase. In environmental complex territories, the renewal or authorization of a new plant should consider not only the impact of the individual plant, but also the health profile of the population concerned and the context in which the industrial project is located. An 'HIA area' is therefore configured, aimed at the complex of environmental pressure factors that insist on the same area of impact of the plant. Epidemiology focuses on the exposed population, considers the 'current' state of health, hazard, and risk information from toxicology, and estimates individual exposure and the effects of exposure. The 'HIA area' can assess the impact of the complex of persistent emission sources, considering in the analysis the health status of the exposed population and the presence of specific vulnerabilities. The proposal is in line with what is already foreseen in the Essential levels of care and Environmental technical performance of the National Health Service.A basic condition is the establishment of functions dedicated to integrated environmental and health surveillance to update the health profile and carry out the 'HIA area' as an accompanying tool for local strategic planning. On these issues, the Italian Environment and Health Network (RIAS) has opened a discussion within the network and with any Italian regions.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Medicina Estatal , Meio Ambiente , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 415, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although sex differences in cardiovascular diseases are recognised, including differences in incidence, clinical presentation, response to treatments, and outcomes, most of the practice guidelines are not sex-specific. Heart failure (HF) is a major public health challenge, with high health care expenditures, high prevalence, and poor clinical outcomes. The objective was to analyse the sex-specific association of socio-demographics, life-style factors and health characteristics with the prevalence of HF and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction (DLVD) in a cross-sectional population-based study. METHODS: A random sample of 2001 65-84 year-olds underwent physical examination, laboratory measurements, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), electrocardiography, and echocardiography. We selected the subjects with no missing values in covariates and echocardiographic parameters and performed a complete case analysis. Sex-specific multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with the prevalence of the diseases, multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the factors associated to asymptomatic and symptomatic LVD, and spline curves to display the relationship between the conditions and both age and NT-proBNP. RESULTS: In 857 men included, there were 66 cases of HF and 408 cases of DLVD (77% not reporting symptoms). In 819 women, there were 51 cases of HF and 382 of DLVD (79% not reporting symptoms). In men, the factors associated with prevalence of HF were age, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and suffering from three or more comorbid conditions. In women, the factors associated with HF were age, lifestyles (smoking and alcohol), BMI, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation. Age and diabetes were associated to asymptomatic DLVD in both genders. NT-proBNP levels were more strongly associated with HF in men than in women. CONCLUSIONS: There were sex differences in the factors associated with HF. The results suggest that prevention policies should consider the sex-specific impact on cardiac function of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525695

RESUMO

Air pollution effects on cardiovascular hospitalizations in small urban/suburban areas have been scantly investigated. Such effects were assessed among the participants in the analytical epidemiological survey carried out in Pisa and Cascina, Tuscany, Italy (2009-2011). Cardiovascular hospitalizations from 1585 subjects were followed up (2011-2015). Daily mean pollutant concentrations were estimated through random forests at 1 km (particulate matter: PM10, 2011-2015; PM2.5, 2013-2015) and 200 m (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, O3, 2013-2015) resolutions. Exposure effects were estimated using the case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression (odds ratio-OR-and 95% confidence interval-CI-for 10 µg/m3 increase; lag 0-6). During the period 2011-2015 (137 hospitalizations), a significant effect at lag 0 was observed for PM10 (OR = 1.137, CI: 1.023-1.264) at 1 km resolution. During the period 2013-2015 (69 hospitalizations), significant effects at lag 0 were observed for PM10 (OR = 1.268, CI: 1.085-1.483) and PM2.5 (OR = 1.273, CI: 1.053-1.540) at 1 km resolution, as well as for PM10 (OR = 1.365, CI: 1.103-1.690), PM2.5 (OR = 1.264, CI: 1.006-1.589) and NO2 (OR = 1.477, CI: 1.058-2.061) at 200 m resolution; significant effects were observed up to lag 2. Larger ORs were observed in males and in subjects reporting pre-existent cardiovascular/respiratory diseases. Combining analytical and routine epidemiological data with high-resolution pollutant estimates provides new insights on acute cardiovascular effects in the general population and in potentially susceptible subgroups living in small urban/suburban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hospitalização , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Environ Int ; 147: 106371, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated methods for the analysis of multi-level survival data using a pooled dataset of 14 cohorts participating in the ELAPSE project investigating associations between residential exposure to low levels of air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and health (natural-cause mortality and cerebrovascular, coronary and lung cancer incidence). METHODS: We applied five approaches in a multivariable Cox model to account for the first level of clustering corresponding to cohort specification: (1) not accounting for the cohort or using (2) indicator variables, (3) strata, (4) a frailty term in frailty Cox models, (5) a random intercept under a mixed Cox, for cohort identification. We accounted for the second level of clustering due to common characteristics in the residential area by (1) a random intercept per small area or (2) applying variance correction. We assessed the stratified, frailty and mixed Cox approach through simulations under different scenarios for heterogeneity in the underlying hazards and the air pollution effects. RESULTS: Effect estimates were stable under approaches used to adjust for cohort but substantially differed when no adjustment was applied. Further adjustment for the small area grouping increased the effect estimates' standard errors. Simulations confirmed identical results between the stratified and frailty models. In ELAPSE we selected a stratified multivariable Cox model to account for between-cohort heterogeneity without adjustment for small area level, due to the small number of subjects and events in the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the need to account for between-cohort heterogeneity in multi-center collaborations using pooled individual level data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
16.
Environ Res ; 193: 110568, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Occup Environ Med ; 78(4): 269-278, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pintura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 231: 113649, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113483

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Airport apron workers are occupationally exposed to jet exhaust and major concern is related to the exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) from aircrafts. To date, little attention has been given to occupational exposures to aircraft-related UFP, although aircraft engines have high emissions of ultrafine particles, which are orders of magnitude higher than residential exposure. UFP could possibly contribute to the development of cancer, heart disease, mental illness, and respiratory symptoms. In addition to particulate matter, apron workers are exposed to other polluting substances associated with vehicles, aircraft exhaust or direct fuel emissions. METHODS: We performed a scoping review on occupational health hazards due to air pollution among apron workers. RESULTS: Only three epidemiological studies were identified: two cross-sectional studies are of limited relevance due to a small sample size and a lack of quantitative exposure data. One sizeable cohort study performed an individual exposure measurement for UFP and considered relevant confounders. However, current studies are not numerous enough to evaluate an association of occupational air pollution with potential health effects among airport workers. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that current scientific evidence on this topic is sparse. Further observational studies in this occupational work force is highly recommended. For a better understanding of adverse health effects due to air pollution and especially UFP, studies in different countries are essential, since working environments, medical monitoring of workers or safety standards might differ internationally.

19.
Environ Int ; 146: 106249, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Ambient air pollution has been associated with lung cancer, but the shape of the exposure-response function - especially at low exposure levels - is not well described. The aim of this study was to address the relationship between long-term low-level air pollution exposure and lung cancer incidence. METHODS: The "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: a Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration pools seven cohorts from across Europe. We developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) to assign exposure to cohort participants' residential addresses in 100 m by 100 m grids. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status). We fitted linear models, linear models in subsets, Shape-Constrained Health Impact Functions (SCHIF), and natural cubic spline models to assess the shape of the association between air pollution and lung cancer at concentrations below existing standards and guidelines. RESULTS: The analyses included 307,550 cohort participants. During a mean follow-up of 18.1 years, 3956 incident lung cancer cases occurred. Median (Q1, Q3) annual (2010) exposure levels of NO2, PM2.5, BC and O3 (warm season) were 24.2 µg/m3 (19.5, 29.7), 15.4 µg/m3 (12.8, 17.3), 1.6 10-5m-1 (1.3, 1.8), and 86.6 µg/m3 (78.5, 92.9), respectively. We observed a higher risk for lung cancer with higher exposure to PM2.5 (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.23 per 5 µg/m3). This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants. The SCHIF, spline and subset analyses suggested a linear or supra-linear association with no evidence of a threshold. In subset analyses, risk estimates were clearly elevated for the subset of subjects with exposure below the EU limit value of 25 µg/m3. We did not observe associations between NO2, BC or O3 and lung cancer incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term ambient PM2.5 exposure is associated with lung cancer incidence even at concentrations below current EU limit values and possibly WHO Air Quality Guidelines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Environ Int ; 146: 106267, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but evidence is sparse and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to low-level air pollution and COPD incidence. METHODS: Within the 'Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe' (ELAPSE) study, we pooled data from three cohorts, from Denmark and Sweden, with information on COPD hospital discharge diagnoses. Hybrid land use regression models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon (BC) in 2010 at participants' baseline residential addresses, which were analysed in relation to COPD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Of 98,058 participants, 4,928 developed COPD during 16.6 years mean follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for associations with COPD incidence were 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) per 5 µg/m3 for PM2.5, 1.11 (1.06, 1.16) per 10 µg/m3 for NO2, and 1.11 (1.06, 1.15) per 0.5 10-5m-1 for BC. Associations persisted in subset participants with PM2.5 or NO2 levels below current EU and US limit values and WHO guidelines, with no evidence for a threshold. HRs for NO2 and BC remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas the HR for PM2.5 was attenuated to unity with NO2 or BC. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to low-level air pollution is associated with the development of COPD, even below current EU and US limit values and possibly WHO guidelines. Traffic-related pollutants NO2 and BC may be the most relevant.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Suécia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...