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1.
Sci Rep ; 5: 8484, 2015 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25719731

RESUMO

Selective breeding has strongly reduced the genetic diversity in livestock species, and contemporary breeding practices exclude potentially beneficial rare genetic variation from the future gene pool. Here we test whether important traits arising by new mutations can be identified and rescued in highly selected populations. We screened milks from 2.5 million cows to identify an exceptional individual which produced milk with reduced saturated fat content, and improved unsaturated and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations. The milk traits were transmitted dominantly to her offspring, and genetic mapping and genome sequencing revealed a new mutation in a previously unknown splice enhancer of the DGAT1 gene. Homozygous carriers show features of human diarrheal disorders, and may be useful for the development of therapeutic strategies. Our study demonstrates that high-throughput phenotypic screening can uncover rich genetic diversity even in inbred populations, and introduces a novel strategy to develop novel milks with improved nutritional properties.


Assuntos
Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Bovinos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
2.
J Invest Dermatol ; 124(6): 1170-6, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15955091

RESUMO

A mechanobullous skin disorder was identified in the progeny of a 3-y-old Friesian-Jersey crossbred bull. The condition presented as loss of skin and mucosa from contact areas and inflammation. Examination of skin samples under light microscopy revealed separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Electron microscopic analysis refined the site of cleavage to above the basement membrane involving lysis of basal keratinocytes. These observations were consistent with the simplex form of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in humans. Candidate genes based on human gene mutations were assessed, resulting in keratin 5 being identified as the most likely candidate gene. The sequence of bovine keratin 5 was established and sequencing led to identification of a G to A substitution in all affected animals. This mutation leads to an amino acid change of glutamic acid to lysine in the final E (478) of the KLLEGE motif of the protein. The sire carried a de novo mutation and was mosaic, explaining his asymptomatic status and the less than expected frequency of affected offspring. Remarkably, the same mutation has been previously described in EB simplex in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Simples/veterinária , Queratinas/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico , Queratina-5 , Lisina , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Linhagem
3.
Am J Pathol ; 162(5): 1611-21, 2003 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12707045

RESUMO

Here, we provide the first study of prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression during the nonseasonal murine hair cycle, which is, in contrast to sheep, comparable with the human scalp and report that both PRL and PRLR are stringently restricted to the hair follicle epithelium and are strongly hair cycle-dependent. In addition we show that PRL exerts functional effects on anagen hair follicles in murine skin organ culture by down-regulation of proliferation in follicular keratinocytes. In telogen follicles, PRL-like immunoreactivity was detected in outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes. During early anagen (III to IV), the developing inner root sheath (IRS) and the surrounding ORS were positive for PRL. In later anagen stages, PRL could be detected in the proximal IRS and the inner layer of the ORS. The regressing (catagen) follicle showed a strong expression of PRL in the proximal ORS. In early anagen, PRLR immunoreactivity occurred in the distal part of the ORS around the developing IRS, and subsequently to a restricted area of the more distal ORS during later anagen stages and during early catagen. The dermal papilla (DP) stayed negative for both PRL and PRLR throughout the cycle. Telogen follicles showed only a very weak PRLR staining of ORS keratinocytes. The long-form PRLR transcript was shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction to be transiently down-regulated during early anagen, whereas PRL transcripts were up-regulated during mid anagen. Addition of PRL (400 ng/ml) to anagen hair follicles in murine skin organ culture for 72 hours induced premature catagen development in vitro along with a decline in the number of proliferating hair bulb keratinocytes. These data support the intriguing concept that PRL is generated locally in the hair follicle epithelium and acts directly in an autocrine or paracrine manner to modulate the hair cycle.


Assuntos
Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prolactina/genética , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cabelo/citologia , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Lactogênio Placentário/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pele/citologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
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