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1.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019884529, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently there are multiple variations of imaging-based patient selection mismatch methods in ischemic stroke. In the present study, we sought to compare the two most common mismatch methods and identify if there were different effects on the outcome of a randomized clinical trial depending on the mismatch method used. AIMS: Investigate the effect of clinical and imaging-based mismatch criteria on patient outcomes of a pooled cohort from randomized trials of intravenous tenecteplase versus alteplase. METHODS: Baseline clinical and imaging scores were used to categorize patients as meeting either the DAWN mismatch (baseline NIHSS ≥ 10, and age cut-offs for ischemic core volume) or DEFUSE 2 mismatch criteria (mismatch volume > 15 mL, mismatch ratio > 1.8 and ischemic core < 70 mL). We then investigated whether tenecteplase-treated patients had favorable odds of less disability (on modified Rankin scale, mRS) compared to those treated with alteplase, for clinical and imaging mismatch, respectively. RESULTS: From 146 pooled patients, 71 received alteplase and 75 received tenecteplase. The overall pooled group did not show improved patient outcomes when treated with tenecteplase (mRS 0-1 OR 1.77, 95% CI 0.89-3.51, p = 0.102) compared with alteplase. A total of 39 (27%) patients met both clinical and imaging mismatch criteria, 25 (17%) patients met only imaging criteria, 36 (25%) met only clinical mismatch criteria and, finally, 46 (31%) did not meet either of imaging or mismatch criteria. Patients treated with tenecteplase had more favorable outcomes when they met either imaging mismatch (mRS 0-1, OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.13-5.94, p = 0.032) or clinical mismatch criteria (mRS 0-1, OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.142, 8.732, p = 0.027) but with differing proportions. CONCLUSION: Target mismatch selection was more inclusive and exhibited in a larger treatment effect between tenecteplase and alteplase.

2.
JAMA ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664429

RESUMO

Importance: It is unclear whether levothyroxine treatment provides clinically important benefits in adults aged 80 years and older with subclinical hypothyroidism. Objective: To determine the association of levothyroxine treatment for subclinical hypothyroidism with thyroid-related quality of life in adults aged 80 years and older. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively planned combined analysis of data involving community-dwelling adults aged 80 years and older with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data from a randomized clinical trial were combined with a subgroup of participants aged 80 years and older from a second clinical trial. The trials were conducted between April 2013 and May 2018. Final follow-up was May 4, 2018. Exposures: Participants were randomly assigned to receive levothyroxine (n = 112; 52 participants from the first trial and 60 from the second trial) or placebo (n = 139; 53 participants from the first trial and 86 from the second trial). Main Outcomes and Measures: Co-primary outcomes were Thyroid-Related Quality of Life Patient-Reported Outcome (ThyPRO) questionnaire scores for the domains of hypothyroid symptoms and tiredness at 1 year (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate worse quality of life; minimal clinically important difference, 9). Results: Of 251 participants (mean age, 85 years; 118 [47%] women), 105 were included from the first clinical trial and 146 were included from the second clinical trial. A total of 212 participants (84%) completed the study. The hypothyroid symptoms score decreased from 21.7 at baseline to 19.3 at 12 months in the levothyroxine group vs from 19.8 at baseline to 17.4 at 12 months in the placebo group (adjusted between-group difference, 1.3 [95% CI, -2.7 to 5.2]; P = .53). The tiredness score increased from 25.5 at baseline to 28.2 at 12 months in the levothyroxine group vs from 25.1 at baseline to 28.7 at 12 months in the placebo group (adjusted between-group difference, -0.1 [95% CI, -4.5 to 4.3]; P = .96). At least 1 adverse event occurred in 33 participants (29.5%) in the levothyroxine group (the most common adverse event was cerebrovascular accident, which occurred in 3 participants [2.2%]) and 40 participants (28.8%) in the placebo group (the most common adverse event was pneumonia, which occurred in 4 [3.6%] participants). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospectively planned analysis of data from 2 clinical trials involving adults aged 80 years and older with subclinical hypothyroidism, treatment with levothyroxine, compared with placebo, was not significantly associated with improvement in hypothyroid symptoms or fatigue. These findings do not support routine use of levothyroxine for treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in adults aged 80 years and older. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01660126; Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3851.

3.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591826

RESUMO

AIMS: Ivabradine has been approved in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and elevated heart rate despite guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) to reduce cardiovascular (CV) death and hospitalization for worsening HF. The median value of 77 b.p.m. is the lower bound selected for the regulatory approval in Canada, South Africa, and Australia. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment are considered of major interest in the global plan of care of patients with HF. However, the specific impact of GDMT, and specifically ivabradine, on PRO remains poorly studied. In the subgroup of patients from the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) who had heart rate above the median of 77 b.p.m. (pre-specified analysis) and for whom the potential for improvement was expected to be larger, we aimed (i) to evaluate the effects of ivabradine on PRO (symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment); (ii) to consolidate the effects of ivabradine on the primary composite endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF; and (iii) to reassess the effects of ivabradine on left ventricular (LV) remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparisons were made according to therapy, and proportional hazards models (adjusted for baseline beta-blocker therapy) were used to estimate the association between ivabradine and various outcomes. In SHIFT, n = 3357 (51.6%) patients had a baseline heart rate > 77 b.p.m. After a median follow-up of 22.9 months (inter-quartile range 18-28 months), ivabradine on top of GDMT improved symptoms (28% vs. 23% improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, P = 0.0003), quality of life (5.3 vs. 2.2 improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, P = 0.005), and global assessment [from both patient (improved in 72.3%) and physician (improved in 61.0%) perspectives] significantly more than did placebo (both P < 0.0001). Ivabradine induced a 25% reduction in the combined endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.75; P < 0.0001), which translates into a number of patients needed to be treated for 1 year of 17. Patients under ivabradine treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in LV dimensions when reassessed at 8 months (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HFrEF, sinus rhythm, and a heart rate > 77 b.p.m. while on GDMT, the present analysis brings novel insights into the role of ivabradine in improving the management of HFrEF, particularly with regard to PRO (ISRCTN70429960).

4.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(12): 1146-1153, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a handful of genetic discovery efforts in apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) have been described. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of aTRH among persons treated for hypertension, using data from 10 cohorts of European ancestry (EA) and 5 cohorts of African ancestry (AA). Cases were treated with 3 different antihypertensive medication classes and had blood pressure (BP) above goal (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) or 4 or more medication classes regardless of BP control (nEA = 931, nAA = 228). Both a normotensive control group and a treatment-responsive control group were considered in separate analyses. Normotensive controls were untreated (nEA = 14,210, nAA = 2,480) and had systolic BP/diastolic BP < 140/90 mm Hg. Treatment-responsive controls (nEA = 5,266, nAA = 1,817) had BP at goal (<140/90 mm Hg), while treated with one antihypertensive medication class. Individual cohorts used logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components for ancestry to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with case-control status. Inverse variance-weighted fixed-effects meta-analyses were carried out using METAL. RESULTS: The known hypertension locus, CASZ1, was a top finding among EAs (P = 1.1 × 10-8) and in the race-combined analysis (P = 1.5 × 10-9) using the normotensive control group (rs12046278, odds ratio = 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.6-0.8)). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this locus were robustly replicated in the Million Veterans Program (MVP) study in consideration of a treatment-responsive control group. There were no statistically significant findings for the discovery analyses including treatment-responsive controls. CONCLUSION: This genomic discovery effort for aTRH identified CASZ1 as an aTRH risk locus.

5.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504434

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last decades, the profile of chronic coronary syndrome has changed substantially. We aimed to determine characteristics and management of patients with chronic coronary syndrome in the contemporary era, as well as outcomes and their determinants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 32 703 patients (45 countries) with chronic coronary syndrome enrolled in the prospective observational CLARIFY registry (November 2009 to June 2010) with a 5-year follow-up, were analysed. The primary outcome [cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)] 5-year rate was 8.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.7-8.3] overall [male 8.1% (7.8-8.5); female 7.6% (7.0-8.3)]. A cox proportional hazards model showed that the main independent predictors of the primary outcome were prior hospitalization for heart failure, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, living in Central/South America, prior MI, prior stroke, diabetes, current angina, and peripheral artery disease. There was an interaction between angina and prior MI (P = 0.0016); among patients with prior MI, angina was associated with a higher primary event rate [11.8% (95% CI 10.9-12.9) vs. 8.2% (95% CI 7.8-8.7) in patients with no angina, P < 0.001], whereas among patients without prior MI, event rates were similar for patients with [6.3% (95% CI 5.4-7.3)] or without angina [6.4% (95% CI 5.9-7.0)], P > 0.99. Prescription rates of evidence-based secondary prevention therapies were high. CONCLUSION: This description of the spectrum of chronic coronary syndrome patients shows that, despite high rates of prescription of evidence-based therapies, patients with both angina and prior MI are an easily identifiable high-risk group who may deserve intensive treatment. CLINICAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN43070564.

6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319871217, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558054

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between level of physical activity and outcomes and to discriminate the determinants of physical activity performance or avoidance. METHODS: CLARIFY is an international prospective registry of 32,370 consecutive outpatients with stable coronary artery disease who were followed for up to five years. Patients were grouped according to the level and frequency of physical activity: i) sedentary (n = 5223; 16.1%); ii) only light physical activity most weeks (light; n = 16,634; 51.4%); iii) vigorous physical activity once or twice per week (vigorous ≤ 2×; n = 5427; 16.8%); iv) vigorous physical activity three or more times per week (vigorous >2×; n = 5086; 15.7%). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2 × had the lowest risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93; p = 0.0031) taking the light group as reference. Engaging in more frequent exercise did not result in further outcome benefit. All-cause death, cardiovascular death, and stroke occurred less frequently in patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2×. However, the rate of myocardial infarction was comparable between the four physical activity groups. Female sex, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction or stroke, pulmonary disease and body mass index all emerged as independent predictors of lower physical activity. CONCLUSION: Vigorous physical activity once or twice per week was associated with superior cardiac outcomes compared with patients performing no or a low level of physical activity in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

7.
Health Technol Assess ; 23(41): 1-30, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic vertebral artery (VA) stenosis has been associated with a markedly increased early risk of recurrent stroke. VA stenosis can be treated with stenting; however, there are few data from randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of this treatment, and recent studies in intracranial stenosis have suggested that stenting may be associated with increased risk. OBJECTIVE: The Vertebral artery Ischaemia Stenting Trial (VIST) was established to compare the risks and benefits of vertebral angioplasty and stenting with best medical treatment (BMT) alone for recently symptomatic VA stenosis. DESIGN: VIST was a prospective, randomised, open, parallel, blinded end-point clinical trial. SETTING: The trial was performed in 14 hospitals in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Recruitment began on 23 October 2008 and follow-up ended on 1 March 2016, by which time every patient had been followed up for at least 1 year. Participants had to have symptomatic vertebral stenosis of at least 50% resulting from presumed atheromatous disease. Both patients and clinicians were aware of treatment allocation; however, an independent adjudication committee, masked to treatment allocation, assessed all primary and secondary end points. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either vertebral angioplasty/stenting plus BMT (n = 91) or BMT alone (n = 88). A total of 182 patients were initially enrolled; however, three patients (two who withdrew after randomisation and one who did not attend after the initial randomisation visit) did not contribute any follow-up data and were excluded. None of these three patients had outcome events. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary end point was the occurrence of fatal or non-fatal stroke in any arterial territory during follow-up. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 3.5 (interquartile range 2.1-4.7) years. Of the 61 patients who were stented, 48 (78.7%) had extracranial stenosis and 13 (21.3%) had intracranial stenosis. No perioperative complications occurred with extracranial stenting; two strokes occurred during intracranial stenting. The primary end point occurred in five patients (including one fatal stroke) in the stent group and in 12 patients (including two fatal strokes) in the medical group (giving a hazard ratio of 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.13; p = 0.08), with an absolute risk reduction of 25 strokes per 1000 person-years. LIMITATIONS: The study was underpowered because it failed to reach target recruitment. The high rate of non-confirmation of stenosis in the stented group of the trial was a second limitation. CONCLUSIONS: The trial found no difference in risk of the primary end point between the two groups. FUTURE: Post hoc analysis suggested that stenting could be associated with a reduced recurrent stroke risk in symptomatic VA and further studies are now required to confirm these findings, particularly in extracranial VA stenosis where complication rates with stenting were confirmed to be very low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN95212240. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. In addition, funding for the pilot phase was provided by the Stroke Association.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(8): e007830, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of routine invasive management in patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafts presenting with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes are uncertain because these patients were excluded from pivotal trials. METHODS: In a multicenter trial, non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft were prospectively screened in 4 acute hospitals. Medically stabilized patients were randomized to invasive management (invasive group) or noninvasive management (medical group). The primary outcome was adherence with the randomized strategy by 30 days. A blinded, independent Clinical Event Committee adjudicated predefined composite outcomes for efficacy (all-cause mortality, rehospitalization for refractory ischemia/angina, myocardial infarction, hospitalization because of heart failure) and safety (major bleeding, stroke, procedure-related myocardial infarction, and worsening renal function). RESULTS: Two hundred seventeen patients were screened and 60 (mean±SD age, 71±9 years, 72% male) were randomized (invasive group, n=31; medical group, n=29). One-third (n=10) of the participants in the invasive group initially received percutaneous coronary intervention. In the medical group, 1 participant crossed over to invasive management on day 30 but percutaneous coronary intervention was not performed. During 2-years' follow-up (median [interquartile range], 744 [570-853] days), the composite outcome for efficacy occurred in 13 (42%) subjects in the invasive group and 13 (45%) subjects in the medical group. The composite safety outcome occurred in 8 (26%) subjects in the invasive group and 9 (31%) subjects in the medical group. An efficacy or safety outcome occurred in 17 (55%) subjects in the invasive group and 16 (55%) subjects in the medical group. Health status (EuroQol 5 Dimensions) and angina class in each group were similar at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the population experienced a serious adverse event. An initial noninvasive management strategy is feasible. A substantive health outcomes trial of invasive versus noninvasive management in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes patients with prior coronary artery bypass grafts appears warranted. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01895751.

9.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lacunar infarcts are thought to result from occlusion of small penetrating arteries due to microatheroma and lipohyalinosis, pathognomonic for cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Concurrent embolic ischemic lesions indicate a different stroke mechanism. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). METHODS: All patients screened for the WAKE-UP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01525290) were reviewed for acute lacunar infarcts and concurrent embolic lesions on baseline DWI. Clinical characteristics and outcome were compared between lacunar infarct patients with and without concurrent embolic lesions. RESULTS: Of 244 patients with an acute lacunar infarct, 20 (8.2%) had concurrent acute embolic infarcts. Compared to patients with a lacunar infarct only, patients with concurrent embolic infarcts were older (mean age 69 years vs. 63 years; p = 0.031), more severely affected (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 5 vs. 4; p = 0.046), and-among those randomized-had worse functional outcome at 90 days (median modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3 vs. 1; p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Approximately 8% of lacunar infarct patients show concurrent embolic lesions suggesting a stroke etiology other than CSVD. These patients are more severely affected and have a worse functional outcome illustrating the need for a thorough diagnostic work-up of possible embolic sources even in patients with an imaging-defined diagnosis of lacunar infarcts.

10.
Am J Med ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impairment in domain-specific cognitive function is associated with the increased risk of mortality. We prospectively evaluated the association of executive function and memory with the risk of long-term mortality in dementia-free older subjects. Moreover, we investigated the role of structural brain abnormalities in this association. METHODS: We included 547 dementia-free participants (mean age 78 years, 56.5% male) from the nested magnetic resonance imaging sub-study of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Cox proportional hazard models were used to model 10-year risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in relation to performance in executive function and memory. Moreover, we evaluated the role of total brain parenchymal volume, cerebral blood flow, white matter hyperintensity, and the presence of microbleeds and infarcts in the link between cognitive function and mortality. RESULTS: In the multivariable model, lower performance in executive function was associated with greater risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.70), cardiovascular (HR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.36-2.11), and noncardiovascular (HR 1.36; 95% CI, 1.15-1.62) mortality. Similarly, poorer performance in memory tests associated with higher risk of all-cause (HR 1.47; 95% CI, 1.29-1.68), cardiovascular (HR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.15-1.83), and noncardiovascular (HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.27-1.76) mortality. The associations were similar in subjects with various levels of brain structural abnormalities and cerebral blood flow (all P for interaction ≫ .05). CONCLUSIONS: Poorer performance in both executive function and memory tests associates with all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality in elderly individuals. This association is independent of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, brain structural abnormalities, and cerebral blood flow.

11.
13.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 129(5): 327-334, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION An international registry of ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease (CLARIFY) allows a comparison of management and outcomes in real­life setting. OBJECTIVES We aimed to compare the management strategies and 5­year outcomes in patients from Poland and from other European countries. PATIENTS AND METHODS Stable coronary artery disease was defined as previous myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization, coronary stenosis greater than 50%, or documented symptomatic myocardial ischemia. Patients were followed on an annual basis for 5 years. RESULTS Among the total of 32 703 patients, 1000 were enrolled in Poland, and 17 326 in other European countries. Polish patients were younger, with a higher proportion of women, smokers, and patients with previous MI, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Patients in both cohorts received adequate medical treatment, with more Polish patients receiving ß­blockers. Blood pressure and lipid control to target was similar and remained low in both cohorts. Diabetes control and successful smoking cessation rates were lower in Poland than in other European countries. Polish patients more often underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. All­cause (8.5% vs 7.9%; P = 0.81) and cardiovascular death rates (5.3% vs 4.9%; P = 0.82) did not differ between the groups, but fatal or nonfatal MI occurred more often in the Polish cohort (5% vs 3.1%; P = 0.006). Angina control was better in Poland than in other European countries (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class II-IV, 11.5% vs 15.8% of patients; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Risk factor control was insufficient both in patients from Poland and in those from other European countries. The more frequent use of revascularization in Polish patients was not linked to improved outcomes, but, together with more extensive prescription of ß­blockers, might have contributed to better angina control.

15.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(6): 641-649, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907934

RESUMO

Importance: The rationale for intravenous thrombolysis in patients with lacunar infarcts is debated, since it is hypothesized that the microvascular occlusion underlying lacunar infarcts might not be susceptible to pharmacological reperfusion treatment. Objective: To study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis among patients with lacunar infarcts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This exploratory secondary post hoc analysis of the WAKE-UP trial included patients who were screened and enrolled between September 2012 and June 2017 (with final follow-up in September 2017). The WAKE-UP trial was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase in patients with an acute stroke of unknown onset time, guided by magnetic resonance imaging. All 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial were reviewed for lacunar infarcts. Diagnosis of lacunar infarcts was based on magnetic resonance imaging and made by consensus of 2 independent investigators blinded to clinical information. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy variable was favorable outcome defined by a score of 0 to 1 on the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days after stroke, adjusted for age and severity of symptoms. Results: Of the 503 patients randomized in the WAKE-UP trial, 108 patients (including 74 men [68.5%]) had imaging-defined lacunar infarcts, whereas 395 patients (including 251 men [63.5%]) had nonlacunar infarcts. Patients with lacunar infarcts were younger than patients with nonlacunar infarcts (mean age [SD], 63 [12] years vs 66 [12] years; P = .003). Of patients with lacunar infarcts, 55 (50.9%) were assigned to treatment with alteplase and 53 (49.1%) to receive placebo. Treatment with alteplase was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome, with no heterogeneity of treatment outcome between lacunar and nonlacunar stroke subtypes. In patients with lacunar strokes, a favorable outcome was observed in 31 of 53 patients (59%) in the alteplase group compared with 24 of 52 patients (46%) in the placebo group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67 [95% CI, 0.77-3.64]). There was 1 death and 1 symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage according to Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study criteria in the alteplase group, while no death and no symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in the placebo group. The distribution of the modified Rankin Scale scores 90 days after stroke also showed a nonsignificant shift toward better outcomes in patients with lacunar infarcts treated with alteplase, with an adjusted common odds ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 0.95-3.93). Conclusions and Relevance: While the WAKE-UP trial was not powered to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment in subgroups of patients, the results indicate that the association of intravenous alteplase with functional outcome does not differ in patients with imaging-defined lacunar infarcts compared with those experiencing other stroke subtypes.

16.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(5): 344-355, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DiRECT trial assessed remission of type 2 diabetes during a primary care-led weight-management programme. At 1 year, 68 (46%) of 149 intervention participants were in remission and 36 (24%) had achieved at least 15 kg weight loss. The aim of this 2-year analysis is to assess the durability of the intervention effect. METHODS: DiRECT is an open-label, cluster-randomised, controlled trial done at primary care practices in the UK. Practices were randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated list to provide an integrated structured weight-management programme (intervention) or best-practice care in accordance with guidelines (control), with stratification for study site (Tyneside or Scotland) and practice list size (>5700 or ≤5700 people). Allocation was concealed from the study statisticians; participants, carers, and study research assistants were aware of allocation. We recruited individuals aged 20-65 years, with less than 6 years' duration of type 2 diabetes, BMI 27-45 kg/m2, and not receiving insulin between July 25, 2014, and Aug 5, 2016. The intervention consisted of withdrawal of antidiabetes and antihypertensive drugs, total diet replacement (825-853 kcal per day formula diet for 12-20 weeks), stepped food reintroduction (2-8 weeks), and then structured support for weight-loss maintenance. The coprimary outcomes, analysed hierarchically in the intention-to-treat population at 24 months, were weight loss of at least 15 kg, and remission of diabetes, defined as HbA1c less than 6·5% (48 mmol/mol) after withdrawal of antidiabetes drugs at baseline (remission was determined independently at 12 and 24 months). The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number 03267836, and follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: The intention-to-treat population consisted of 149 participants per group. At 24 months, 17 (11%) intervention participants and three (2%) control participants had weight loss of at least 15 kg (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7·49, 95% CI 2·05 to 27·32; p=0·0023) and 53 (36%) intervention participants and five (3%) control participants had remission of diabetes (aOR 25·82, 8·25 to 80·84; p<0·0001). The adjusted mean difference between the control and intervention groups in change in bodyweight was -5·4 kg (95% CI -6·9 to -4·0; p<0·0001) and in HbA1c was -4·8 mmol/mol (-8·3 to -1·4 [-0·44% (-0·76 to -0·13)]; p=0·0063), despite only 51 (40%) of 129 patients in the intervention group using anti-diabetes medication compared with 120 (84%) of 143 in the control group. In a post-hoc analysis of the whole study population, of those participants who maintained at least 10 kg weight loss (45 of 272 with data), 29 (64%) achieved remission; 36 (24%) of 149 participants in the intervention group maintained at least 10 kg weight loss. Serious adverse events were similar to those reported at 12 months, but were fewer in the intervention group than in the control group in the second year of the study (nine vs 22). INTERPRETATION: The DiRECT programme sustained remissions at 24 months for more than a third of people with type 2 diabetes. Sustained remission was linked to the extent of sustained weight loss. FUNDING: Diabetes UK.

17.
Am Heart J ; 210: 98-107, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About 30% of angina patients have persisting symptoms despite successful revascularization and antianginal therapy. Moreover, in stable patients, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not improve survival as compared with medical therapy alone. Trimetazidine, an antianginal agent devoid of hemodynamic effect, may help reducing symptoms and improving outcomes after PCI. The ATPCI study is investigating the efficacy and safety of adding trimetazidine to standard-of-care in angina patients who had a recent PCI. METHODS: ATPCI is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, event-driven study in patients with coronary artery disease having undergone PCI because of stable angina (elective PCI) or unstable angina/NSTEMI (urgent PCI). After PCI, patients were randomized to trimetazidine (35 mg bid) or placebo on top of standard-of-care including event prevention drugs and antianginal treatment. Patients will be followed for 2 to 4 years. The primary efficacy endpoint is a composite of cardiac death, hospitalization for a cardiac event and recurrence or persistence of angina. Safety events related to trimetazidine use will be monitored. RESULTS: Recruitment lasted from September 2014 to June 2016. A total of 6007 patients were enrolled (58% and 42% after elective and urgent PCI, respectively). Mean age was 61 years, 77% were males, and median durations of coronary artery disease were 1 and 5 months (if urgent or elective PCI, respectively). Almost all patients received drugs for event prevention and antianginal therapy at baseline. CONCLUSION: The ATPCI study will shed further light on the management of contemporary angina patients after PCI. Results are expected in 2019.

18.
Heart ; 105(14): 1087-1095, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD) living alone compared with those living with others. METHODS: The prospeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronarY artery disease (CLARIFY) included outpatients with stable CAD. CLARIFY enrolled participants in 45 countries from November 2009 to July 2010, with 5 years of follow-up. Living arrangement was documented at baseline. The primary outcome was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) defined as CV death, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. RESULTS: Among 32 367 patients, 3648 patients were living alone (11.3%). After multivariate adjustment, there were no residual differences in MACE among patients living alone compared with those living with others (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.18, p=0.52); however, there was significant heterogeneity in the exposure effect by sex (Pinteraction<0.01). Specifically, men living alone were at higher risk for MACE (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.002 to 1.36, p=0.047) as opposed to women living alone (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.04, p=0.1), predominantly driven by a heterogeneous effect by sex on MI (Pinteraction=0.006). There was no effect modification for MACE by age group (Pinteraction=0.3), although potential varying effects by age for MI (Pinteraction=0.046) and stroke (Pinteraction=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Living alone was not associated with an independent increase in MACE, although significant sex-based differences were apparent. Men living alone may have a worse prognosis from CV disease than women; further analyses are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this difference. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN43070564.

19.
JAMA ; 321(1): 56-68, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620371

RESUMO

Importance: Microvascular obstruction commonly affects patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and is associated with adverse outcomes. Objective: To determine whether a therapeutic strategy involving low-dose intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy with alteplase infused early after coronary reperfusion will reduce microvascular obstruction. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between March 17, 2016, and December 21, 2017, 440 patients presenting at 11 hospitals in the United Kingdom within 6 hours of STEMI due to a proximal-mid-vessel occlusion of a major coronary artery were randomized in a 1:1:1 dose-ranging trial design. Patient follow-up to 3 months was completed on April 12, 2018. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo (n = 151), alteplase 10 mg (n = 144), or alteplase 20 mg (n = 145) by manual infusion over 5 to 10 minutes. The intervention was scheduled to occur early during the primary PCI procedure, after reperfusion of the infarct-related coronary artery and before stent implant. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the amount of microvascular obstruction (% left ventricular mass) demonstrated by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted from days 2 through 7 after enrollment. The primary comparison was the alteplase 20-mg group vs the placebo group; if not significant, the alteplase 10-mg group vs the placebo group was considered a secondary analysis. Results: Recruitment stopped on December 21, 2017, because conditional power for the primary outcome based on a prespecified analysis of the first 267 randomized participants was less than 30% in both treatment groups (futility criterion). Among the 440 patients randomized (mean age, 60.5 years; 15% women), the primary end point was achieved in 396 patients (90%), 17 (3.9%) withdrew, and all others were followed up to 3 months. In the primary analysis, the mean microvascular obstruction did not differ between the 20-mg alteplase and placebo groups (3.5% vs 2.3%; estimated difference, 1.16%; 95% CI, -0.08% to 2.41%; P = .32) nor in the analysis of 10-mg alteplase vs placebo groups (2.6% vs 2.3%; estimated difference, 0.29%; 95% CI, -0.76% to 1.35%; P = .74). Major adverse cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal MI, unplanned hospitalization for heart failure) occurred in 15 patients (10.1%) in the placebo group, 18 (12.9%) in the 10-mg alteplase group, and 12 (8.2%) in the 20-mg alteplase group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute STEMI presenting within 6 hours of symptoms, adjunctive low-dose intracoronary alteplase given during the primary percutaneous intervention did not reduce microvascular obstruction. The study findings do not support this treatment. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02257294.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Cateteres Cardíacos , Terapia Combinada , Angiografia Coronária , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intra-Arteriais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Qualidade de Vida , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento , Troponina T/sangue
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 952-962, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679814

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative electrocardiographic (ECG) traits in large consortia have identified more than 130 loci associated with QT interval, QRS duration, PR interval, and heart rate (RR interval). In the current study, we meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 30,000 mostly Dutch samples on four ECG traits: PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, and RR interval. SNP genotype data was imputed using the Genome of the Netherlands reference panel encompassing 19 million SNPs, including millions of rare SNPs (minor allele frequency < 5%). In addition to many known loci, we identified seven novel locus-trait associations: KCND3, NR3C1, and PLN for PR interval, KCNE1, SGIP1, and NFKB1 for QT interval, and ATP2A2 for QRS duration, of which six were successfully replicated. At these seven loci, we performed conditional analyses and annotated significant SNPs (in exons and regulatory regions), demonstrating involvement of cardiac-related pathways and regulation of nearby genes.

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