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1.
Cancer Med ; 10(3): 1012-1017, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the prevalence of Lynch syndrome (LS) in women with primary ovarian cancer with mismatch repair deficiency (MMR-D) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and eight cases of primary ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer between January 2012 and December 2019 were evaluated for MMR-D by IHC. The incidence of LS in this cohort was evaluated. RESULTS: MMR-D by IHC was identified in 16 of 308 (5.2%) (95% CI: 3.2%-8.3%) primary ovarian-related cancers. Most cases with MMR-D were endometrioid (n = 11, 68.7%); (95% CI: 44.2%-86.1%). MSH2/MSH6 protein loss was detected in eight cases (50.0%); (95% CI: 28.0%-72.0%) and MLH1/PMS2 protein loss was detected in four cases (25.0%); (95% CI: 9.7%-50.0%). MSH6 protein loss was detected in two cases (12.5%); (95% CI: 2.2%-37.3%) and PMS2 protein loss was detected in two cases (12.5%); (95% CI: 2.2%-37.3%). All four cases with MLH1/PMS2 protein loss had MLH1 promotor hypermethylation. All 12 women with ovarian cancer suggestive of LS underwent germline testing and 8 (66.6%); (95% CI: 38.8%-86.5%) were confirmed to have LS. CONCLUSIONS: Most ovarian cancers with somatic MMR-D were confirmed to have LS in this cohort. Germline testing for LS in addition to BRCA1/2 for all women with an epithelial ovarian cancer would be efficient and would approach 100% sensitivity for identifying Lynch syndrome. Utilization of a multigene panel should also be considered, given the additional non-Lynch germline mutation identified in this cohort.

2.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 97: 103022, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276309

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurs frequently in the human Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) syndrome and is characterized by deficient UV-damage repair. SCC is the most common equine ocular cancer and the only associated genetic risk factor is a UV-damage repair protein. Specifically, a missense mutation in horse DDB2 (T338M) was strongly associated with both limbal SCC and third eyelid SCC in three breeds of horses (Halflinger, Belgian, and Rocky Mountain Horses) and was hypothesized to impair binding to UV-damaged DNA. Here, we investigate DDB2-T338M mutant's capacity to recognize UV lesions in vitro and in vivo, together with human XP mutants DDB2-R273H and -K244E. We show that the recombinant DDB2-T338M assembles with DDB1, but fails to show any detectable binding to DNA substrates with or without UV lesions, due to a potential structural disruption of the rigid DNA recognition ß-loop. Consistently, we demonstrate that the cellular DDB2-T338M is defective in its recruitment to focally radiated DNA damages, and in its access to chromatin. Thus, we provide direct functional evidence indicating the DDB2-T338M recapitulates molecular defects of human XP mutants, and is the causal loss-of-function allele that gives rise to equine ocular SCCs. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of DNA recognition by UV-DDB and on the initiation of ocular malignancy.

3.
Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the psychological outcomes of germline multigene panel testing, particularly among diverse patients and those with moderate-risk pathogenic variants (PVs). METHODS: Study participants (N = 1264) were counseled and tested with a 25- or 28-gene panel and completed a 3-month postresult survey including the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA). RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years, 80% were female, and 70% had cancer; 45% were non-Hispanic White, 37% were Hispanic, 10% were Asian, 3% were Black, and 5% had another race/ethnicity. Approximately 28% had a high school education or less, and 23% were non-English-speaking. The genetic test results were as follows: 7% had a high-risk PV, 6% had a moderate-risk PV, 35% had a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), and 52% were negative. Most participants (92%) had a total MICRA score ≤ 38, which corresponded to a mean response of "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacting negatively to results. A multivariate analysis found that mean total MICRA scores were significantly higher (more uncertainty/distress) among high- and moderate-risk PV carriers (29.7 and 24.8, respectively) than those with a VUS or negative results (17.4 and 16.1, respectively). Having cancer or less education was associated with a significantly higher total MICRA score; race/ethnicity was not associated with the total MICRA score. High- and moderate-risk PV carriers did not differ significantly from one another in the total MICRA score, uncertainty, distress, or positive experiences. CONCLUSIONS: In a diverse population undergoing genetic counseling and multigene panel testing for hereditary cancer risk, the psychological response corresponded to test results and showed low distress and uncertainty. Further studies are needed to assess patient understanding and subsequent cancer screening among patients from diverse backgrounds. LAY SUMMARY: Multigene panel tests for hereditary cancer have become widespread despite concerns about adverse psychological reactions among carriers of moderate-risk pathogenic variants (mutations) and among carriers of variants of uncertain significance. This large study of an ethnically and economically diverse cohort of patients undergoing panel testing found that 92% "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacted negatively to results. Somewhat higher uncertainty and distress were identified among carriers of high- and moderate-risk pathogenic variants, and lower levels were identified among those with a variant of uncertain significance or a negative result. Although the psychological response corresponded to risk, reactions to testing were favorable, regardless of results.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(8): e386-e397, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758476

RESUMO

Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome that is characterised by a high prevalence of diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. It is largely caused by inactivating germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CDH1, although pathogenic variants in CTNNA1 occur in a minority of families with HDGC. In this Policy Review, we present updated clinical practice guidelines for HDGC from the International Gastric Cancer Linkage Consortium (IGCLC), which recognise the emerging evidence of variability in gastric cancer risk between families with HDGC, the growing capability of endoscopic and histological surveillance in HDGC, and increased experience of managing long-term sequelae of total gastrectomy in young patients. To redress the balance between the accessibility, cost, and acceptance of genetic testing and the increased identification of pathogenic variant carriers, the HDGC genetic testing criteria have been relaxed, mainly through less restrictive age limits. Prophylactic total gastrectomy remains the recommended option for gastric cancer risk management in pathogenic CDH1 variant carriers. However, there is increasing confidence from the IGCLC that endoscopic surveillance in expert centres can be safely offered to patients who wish to postpone surgery, or to those whose risk of developing gastric cancer is not well defined.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias , Neoplasias Gástricas , Humanos
7.
Cell ; 181(2): 236-249, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302568

RESUMO

Crucial transitions in cancer-including tumor initiation, local expansion, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance-involve complex interactions between cells within the dynamic tumor ecosystem. Transformative single-cell genomics technologies and spatial multiplex in situ methods now provide an opportunity to interrogate this complexity at unprecedented resolution. The Human Tumor Atlas Network (HTAN), part of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Moonshot Initiative, will establish a clinical, experimental, computational, and organizational framework to generate informative and accessible three-dimensional atlases of cancer transitions for a diverse set of tumor types. This effort complements both ongoing efforts to map healthy organs and previous large-scale cancer genomics approaches focused on bulk sequencing at a single point in time. Generating single-cell, multiparametric, longitudinal atlases and integrating them with clinical outcomes should help identify novel predictive biomarkers and features as well as therapeutically relevant cell types, cell states, and cellular interactions across transitions. The resulting tumor atlases should have a profound impact on our understanding of cancer biology and have the potential to improve cancer detection, prevention, and therapeutic discovery for better precision-medicine treatments of cancer patients and those at risk for cancer.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Atlas como Assunto , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
8.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz095, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259017

RESUMO

Background: The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends germline testing for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations identified by somatic tumor sequencing. The aim of this study was to explore whether patients at Stanford with somatic BRCA1/2 mutations were recommended germline testing in accordance with NCCN guidelines. Methods: We retrospectively collected all Stanford patients with BRCA1/2 mutations found by tumor sequencing. Medical records were reviewed for each patient to identify those recommended germline testing. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit associating baseline characteristics with whether or not a recommendation was made. Results: Of 164 participants, 51 (31.1%) had no recommendation for germline testing. Of the 97 available germline-testing results, 54 (55.7%) were positive for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations. After adjusting for possible confounders, patients with genitourinary cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00 to 0.03; P = .003), lung cancer (OR = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.21; P < .001), sarcoma (OR = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.14; P < .001), skin cancer (OR = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.03; P = .002), or "other" diagnoses (OR = 0.01, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.16; P < .001) were statistically significantly less likely to be recommended germline testing compared with patients with breast or gynecological cancers. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of provider education outside of the oncologic specialties typically associated with BRCA-related cancers and continued exploration of referrals to genetics for germline testing on the basis of somatic findings.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5009, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193467

RESUMO

DNA copy number aberrations (CNA) are frequently observed in colorectal cancers (CRC). There is an urgent need for CNA-based biomarkers in clinics,. n For Stage III CRC, if combined with imaging or pathologic evidence, these markers promise more precise care. We conducted this Stage III specific biomarker discovery with a cohort of 134 CRCs, and with a newly developed high-efficiency CNA profiling protocol. Specifically, we developed the profiling protocol for tumor-normal matched tissue samples based on low-coverage clinical whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated the protocol's accuracy and robustness by a systematic benchmark with microarray, high-coverage whole-exome and -genome approaches, where the low-coverage WGS-derived CNA segments were highly accordant (PCC >0.95) with those derived from microarray, and they were substantially less variable if compared to exome-derived segments. A lasso-based model and multivariate cox regression analysis identified a chromosome 17p loss, containing the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, that was significantly associated with reduced survival (P = 0.0139, HR = 1.688, 95% CI = [1.112-2.562]), which was validated by an independent cohort of 187 Stage III CRCs. In summary, this low-coverage WGS protocol has high sensitivity, high resolution and low cost and the identified 17p-loss is an effective poor prognosis marker for Stage III patients.

10.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(4): 544-554, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068069

RESUMO

Differences in the mutation spectrum across ethnicities suggest the importance of identifying genes in addition to common high penetrant genes to estimate the associated breast cancer risk in China. A total of 1338 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for germline BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN mutations between 2007 and 2017 were selected from the Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry. Patient samples were subjected to next-generation DNA sequencing using a multigene panel (Color Genomics). All detected pathogenic variants were validated by bidirectional DNA sequencing. The sequencing data were coanalyzed by a bioinformatics pipeline developed in-house. Sixty-one pathogenic variants (4.6%) were identified in this cohort in 11 cancer predisposition genes. Most carriers (77.1%) had early onset of breast cancer (age <45 years), 32.8% had family members with breast cancer, and 11.5% had triple-negative breast cancer. The most common mutated genes were PALB2 (1.4%), RAD51D (0.8%), and ATM (0.8%). A total of 612 variants of unknown significance were identified in 494 patients, and 87.4% of the variants of unknown significance were missense mutations. Pathogenic variants in cancer predisposition genes beyond BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and PTEN were detected in an additional 4.6% of patients using the multigene panel. PALB2 (1.4%) and RAD51D (0.8%) were the most commonly mutated genes in patients who tested mutation negative by a four-gene panel.

12.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(11): 2704-2710, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with homologous recombination deficient tumors achieve significantly higher pathologic complete response (pCR) rates when treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are prognostic and predictive of chemotherapy benefit in early stage TNBC. The relationship between TILs, BRCA1/2 mutation status, and homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) status in TNBC remains unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a pooled analysis of five phase II studies that included patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy to evaluate the association of TILs with HRD status (Myriad Genetics) and tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status. Furthermore, the relationship between pathologic response assessed using the residual cancer burden (RCB) index and HRD status with adjustment for TILs was evaluated. RESULTS: Among 161 patients, stromal TIL (sTIL) density was not significantly associated with HRD status (P = 0.107) or tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = 0.391). In multivariate analyses, sTIL density [OR, 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-1.61; P = 0.139] was not associated with pCR, but was associated with RCB 0/I status (OR 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20-2.28; P = 0.001). HRD was significantly associated with both pCR (OR 12.09; 95% CI, 4.11-44.29; P = 7.82 × 10-7) and RCB 0/I (OR 10.22; 95% CI, 4.11-28.75; P = 1.09 × 10-7) in these models. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with TNBC treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy, TIL density was not significantly associated with either tumor BRCA1/2 mutation status or HRD status. In this pooled analysis, HRD and sTIL density were independently associated with treatment response, with HRD status being the strongest predictor.

13.
Postgrad Med J ; 95(1128): 569-572, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439813

RESUMO

It is well recognised that medical training globally and at all levels lacks sufficient incorporation of genetics and genomics education to keep up with the rapid advances and growing application of genomics to clinical care. However, the best strategy to implement these desired changes into postgraduate medical training and engage learners is still unclear. We developed a novel elective rotation in 'Genomic Medicine and Undiagnosed Diseases' for categorical Internal Medicine Residents to address this educational gap and serve as an adaptable model for training that can be applied broadly across different specialties and at other institutions. Key curriculum goals achieved include increased understanding about genetic testing modalities and tools available for diagnosis and risk analysis, the role of genetics-trained allied health professionals, and indications and limitations of genetic and genomic testing in both rare and common conditions.


Assuntos
Genômica/educação , Internato e Residência , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , California , Currículo , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cell Rep ; 28(8): 2182-2193.e6, 2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433991

RESUMO

Individuals with a single functional copy of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor have elevated risks for breast, ovarian, and other solid tumor malignancies. The exact mechanisms of carcinogenesis due to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency remain unclear, but one possibility is that at-risk cells are subject to acute periods of decreased BRCA2 availability and function ("BRCA2-crisis"), which may contribute to disease. Here, we establish an in vitro model for BRCA2-crisis that demonstrates chromatin remodeling and activation of an NF-κB survival pathway in response to transient BRCA2 depletion. Mechanistically, we identify BRCA2 chromatin binding, histone acetylation, and associated transcriptional activity as critical determinants of the epigenetic response to BRCA2-crisis. These chromatin alterations are reflected in transcriptional profiles of pre-malignant tissues from BRCA2 carriers and, therefore, may reflect natural steps in human disease. By modeling BRCA2-crisis in vitro, we have derived insights into pre-neoplastic molecular alterations that may enhance the development of preventative therapies.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Animais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Cromatina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma/genética
15.
DNA Repair (Amst) ; 83: 102644, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311767

RESUMO

Cellular homeostasis is dependent on a balance between DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms. Cells are constantly assaulted by both exogenous and endogenous stimuli leading to high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidation of the nucleotide dGTP to 8-oxodGTP. If this base is incorporated into DNA and goes unrepaired, it can result in G > T transversions, leading to genomic DNA damage. MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1) is a nucleoside diphosphate X (Nudix) pyrophosphatase that can remove 8-oxodGTP from the nucleotide pool before it is incorporated into DNA by hydrolyzing it into 8-oxodGMP. MTH1 expression has been shown to be elevated in many cancer cells and is thought to be a survival mechanism by which a cancer cell can stave off the effects of high ROS that can result in cell senescence or death. It has recently become a target of interest in cancer because it is thought that inhibiting MTH1 can increase genotoxic damage and cytotoxicity. Determining the role of MTH1 in normal and cancer cells is confounded by an inability to reliably and directly measure its native enzymatic activity. We have used the chimeric ATP-releasing guanine-oxidized (ARGO) probe that combines 8-oxodGTP and ATP to measure MTH1 enzymatic activity in colorectal cancer (CRC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) along with patient-matched normal tissue. MTH1 8-oxodGTPase activity is significantly increased in tumors across all three tissue types, indicating that MTH1 is a marker of cancer. MTH1 activity measured by ARGO assay was compared to mRNA and protein expression measured by RT-qPCR and Western blot in the CRC tissue pairs, revealing a positive correlation between ARGO assay and Western blot, but little correlation with RT-qPCR in these samples. The adoption of the ARGO assay will help in establishing the level of MTH1 activity in model systems and in assessing the effects of MTH1 modulation in the treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/enzimologia , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/deficiência , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/deficiência , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética
16.
Mol Cell ; 75(4): 711-724.e5, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278053

RESUMO

The energetic costs of duplicating chromatin are large and therefore likely depend on nutrient sensing checkpoints and metabolic inputs. By studying chromatin modifiers regulated by epithelial growth factor, we identified histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1) as an induced gene that enhances proliferation through coordinating histone production, acetylation, and glucose metabolism. In addition to its canonical role as a cytoplasmic histone H4 acetyltransferase, we isolated a HAT1-containing complex bound specifically at promoters of H4 genes. HAT1-dependent transcription of H4 genes required an acetate-sensitive promoter element. HAT1 expression was critical for S-phase progression and maintenance of H3 lysine 9 acetylation at proliferation-associated genes, including histone genes. Therefore, these data describe a feedforward circuit whereby HAT1 captures acetyl groups on nascent histones and drives H4 production by chromatin binding to support chromatin replication and acetylation. These findings have important implications for human disease, since high HAT1 levels associate with poor outcomes across multiple cancer types.


Assuntos
Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fase S , Transcrição Genética , Células A549 , Acetilação , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética
17.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 84, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer, and there remains a need to identify the specific genomic mechanisms by which cancer evolves in these patients. Here we present a systematic genomic analysis of breast tumors with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. METHODS: We analyzed genomic data from breast tumors, with a focus on comparing tumors with BRCA1/BRCA2 gene mutations with common classes of sporadic breast tumors. RESULTS: We identify differences between BRCA-mutated and sporadic breast tumors in patterns of point mutation, DNA methylation and structural variation. We show that structural variation disproportionately affects tumor suppressor genes and identify specific driver gene candidates that are enriched for structural variation. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to sporadic tumors, BRCA-mutated breast tumors show signals of reduced DNA methylation, more ancestral cell divisions, and elevated rates of structural variation that tend to disrupt highly expressed protein-coding genes and known tumor suppressors. Our analysis suggests that BRCA-mutated tumors are more aggressive than sporadic breast cancers because loss of the BRCA pathway causes multiple processes of mutagenesis and gene dysregulation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genômica , Mutação , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos
18.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5301-5314, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding and explaining hereditary predisposition to cancer has focused on the genetic etiology of the disease. However, mutations in known genes associated with breast cancer, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for less than 25% of familial cases of breast cancer. Recently, specific epigenetic modifications at BRCA1 have been shown to promote hereditary breast cancer, but the broader potential for epigenetic contribution to hereditary breast cancer is not yet well understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined DNA methylation through deep bisulfite sequencing of CpG islands and known promoter or regulatory regions in peripheral blood DNA from 99 patients with familial or early-onset breast or ovarian cancer, 6 unaffected BRCA mutation carriers, and 49 unaffected controls. RESULTS: In 9% of patients, we observed altered methylation in the promoter regions of genes known to be involved in cancer, including hypermethylation at the tumor suppressor PTEN and hypomethylation at the proto-oncogene TEX14. These alterations occur in the form of allelic methylation that span up to hundreds of base pairs in length. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest a broader role for DNA methylation in early-onset, familial risk breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to clarify these mechanisms and the benefits of DNA methylation screening for early risk prediction of familial cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adulto , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenômica , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/sangue , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sulfitos/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Value Health ; 21(9): 1062-1068, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224110

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing promises major advancements in precision medicine but faces considerable challenges with insurance coverage. These challenges are especially important to address in oncology in which next-generation tumor sequencing (NGTS) holds a particular promise, guiding the use of life-saving or life-prolonging therapies. Payers' coverage decision making on NGTS is challenging because this revolutionary technology pushes the very boundaries of the underlying framework used in coverage decisions. Some experts have called for the adaptation of the coverage framework to make it better equipped for assessing NGTS. Medicare's recent decision to cover NGTS makes this topic particularly urgent to examine. In this article, we discussed the previously proposed approaches for adaptation of the NGTS coverage framework, highlighted their innovations, and outlined remaining gaps in their ability to assess the features of NGTS. We then compared the three approaches with Medicare's national coverage determination for NGTS and discussed its implications for US private payers as well as for other technologies and clinical areas. We focused on US payers because analyses of coverage approaches and policies in the large and complex US health care system may inform similar efforts in other countries. We concluded that further adaptation of the coverage framework will facilitate a better suited assessment of NGTS and future genomics innovations.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/história , Seguradoras/tendências , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Neoplasias/genética , Tomada de Decisões , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 16(8): 939-949, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099370

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening outline various screening modalities as well as recommended screening strategies for individuals at average or increased-risk of developing sporadic CRC. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments from reviewers within their institutions, examine relevant data, and reevaluate and update their recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize 2018 updates to the NCCN Guidelines, with a primary focus on modalities used to screen individuals at average-risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Oncologia/normas , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/isolamento & purificação , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes/química , Humanos , Imunoquímica/métodos , Imunoquímica/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Septinas/genética , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Estados Unidos
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