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J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1370-1383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016447


Recent research on tile-drainage has placed emphasis on dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) delivery and transport pathways but less emphasis on particulate P (PP), resulting in its exclusion from agricultural water management models. In this study, we quantified the fluxes, mechanisms, and factors driving PP delivery into tiles through statistical analysis of a long-term hydrologic and water quality dataset. The dataset includes 5 yr of surface and tile discharge, total P (TP), DRP, total nitrogen (TN), and dissolved inorganic N concentrations from two edge-of-field study sites with contrasting soil and management practices. Hydrograph recession techniques were coupled with multiple linear regression for understanding hydrologic flow pathways, and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) time-series analysis was used to determine the significance of PP seasonality processes and the effect of management practices. The analysis of hydrologic flow pathways demonstrated that quickflow contributed 66 and 36% of subsurface discharge in the clay and loam sites, respectively. Phosphorus loading analysis showed that macropore flow plays a significant role in PP delivery to subsurface P loading and that PP significantly contributed to TP and DRP delivery; however, greater PP loadings were observed at the clay site despite greater subsurface discharge and soil test P levels at the loam site. Furthermore, PP delivery was significantly affected by environmental conditions and management practices. We highlight the efficacy of hydrograph recession analysis for identifying macropore and diffuse drainage, of P/N ratios to characterize sediment delivery mechanisms in tiles, and of EMD to detect management impacts on TP and DRP at the field scale.

Fósforo/análise , Movimentos da Água , Agricultura , Hidrologia , Solo
J Environ Qual ; 46(6): 1413-1423, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293822


The contribution of macropore flow to phosphorus (P) loadings in tile-drained agricultural landscapes remains poorly understood at the field scale, despite the recognized deleterious impacts of contaminant transport via macropore pathways. A new subroutine that couples existing matrix-excess and matrix-desiccation macropore flow theory and a modified P routine is implemented in the Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model. The original and modified formulation were applied and evaluated for a case study in a poorly drained field in Western Ohio with 31 months of surface and subsurface monitoring data. Results highlighted that a macropore subroutine in APEX improved edge-of-field discharge calibration and validation for both tile and total discharge from satisfactory and good, respectively, to very good and improved dissolved reactive P load calibration and validation statistics for tile P loads from unsatisfactory to very good. Output from the calibrated macropore simulations suggested median annual matrix-desiccation macropore flow contributions of 48% and P load contributions of 43%, with the majority of loading occurring in winter and spring. While somewhat counterintuitive, the prominence of matrix-desiccation macropore flow during seasons with less cracking reflects the importance of coupled development of macropore pathways and adequate supply of the macropore flow source. The innovative features of the model allow for assessments of annual macropore P contributions to tile drainage and has the potential to inform P site assessment tools.

Agricultura , Modelos Teóricos , Fósforo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ohio , Movimentos da Água
Water Res ; 108: 432-443, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27852451


Results of the present study quantified carbon sequestration due to algal stabilization in low order streams, which has not been considered previously in carbon stream ecosystem studies. The authors used empirical mode decomposition of an 8-year carbon elemental and isotope dataset to quantify carbon accrual and fingerprint carbon derived from algal stabilization. The authors then applied a calibrated, process-based stream carbon model (ISOFLOC) that elicits further evidence of algal stabilization. Data and modeling results suggested that processes of shielding and burial during an extreme hydrologic event enhance algal stabilization. Given that previous studies assumed stream algae are turned over or sloughed downstream, the authors performed scenario simulations of the calibrated model in order to assess how changing environmental conditions might impact algae stabilization within the stream. Results from modeling scenarios showed an increase in algal stabilization as mean annual water temperature increases ranging from 0 to 0.04 tC km-2 °C-1 for the study watershed. The dependence of algal stabilization on temperature highlighted the importance of accounting for benthic fate of carbon in streams under projected warming scenarios. This finding contradicts the evolving paradigm that net efflux of CO2 from streams increases with increasing temperatures. Results also quantified sloughed algae that is transported and potentially stabilized downstream and showed that benthos-derived sloughed algae was on the same order of magnitude, and at times greater, than phytoplankton within downstream water bodies.

Biomassa , Rios , Ecossistema , Fitoplâncton , Plantas