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1.
Br Dent J ; 230(6): 324, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772162
2.
Br Dent J ; 230(6): 326, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772169
5.
West Indian Med J ; 64(1): 23-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26035812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess prenatal exposures and potential health outcomes to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), commonly used pesticides, and two heavy metals--mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb)--in 10 Caribbean countries. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For each participating Caribbean island, approximately 50 maternal blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other common classes of pesticides used in the Caribbean such as organophosphates (OP), carbamates, chlorophenols and pyrethroids, and for Hg and Pb. Data obtained from the participating countries were compared with those from the United States of America and Canada. RESULTS: A total of 438 samples were analysed from 10 Caribbean countries. Persistent organic pollutants was detected in almost all samples, however, these were generally low compared with comparable North American results. Evidence of exposure to PBDEs, OPs, carbamates and chlorophenols was also established. Caribbean pyrethroid concentrations were generally much higher than those recorded for North American women. Caribbean Pb maternal blood levels were generally lower than in North America, whereas Hg blood levels were two to three times higher. In almost all of the samples taken in this study, exposures to multiple chemicals were taking place at the same time. CONCLUSIONS: This first Caribbean-wide exploratory biomonitoring study on the concentrations of several toxicants in maternal samples taken from 10 Caribbean countries clearly reinforces the need for Caribbean primary care physicians and other public health officials to encourage their patients, and in particular pregnant women, to reduce their exposures to these environmental contaminants as far as it is feasible to do so.

6.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-17944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the occupational injury data claims from the Grenada National Insurance Scheme (GNIS) and the Dominica Social Security (DSS). DESIGN AND METHODS: Permission was sought and received from St George's University Institutional Review Board (IRB) as well as the directors of the GNIS and DSS to obtain and then analyze their electronic injury claims data sets over the past 10 years. RESULTS: Over the 2005-2013 period, a total of 1,396 occupational injury claims were received by the DSS whereas a total of 4,507 claims were received by the GNIS. Injury claims from males significantly outnumbered claims from females. For both islands, most claims came from those within the 20-49 years age range. In Dominica, the Wholesale & Retail sector (246 claims) and Construction sector (235 claims) were the economic sectors from which the highest number of injury claims were reported while in Grenada, the Construction Sector (1,076 claims) and the Social & Related Community Services (996 claims) sectors had the highest number of claims. Lower limb injuries, fractures, and lacerations were the top three occupational injuries claimed for in Dominica whereas in Grenada they were trauma, lacerations, and fractures. CONCLUSIONS: While there was a significant difference in the total number of injury claims filed with the numbers recorded by the GNIS significantly higher than those recorded by the DSS, the the types of injury claims were similar. For both islands, the construction sector yielded the highest number of injury claims.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/tendências , Granada , Dominica
7.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess attitudes and extent of knowledge college students in Grenada have towards infertility. DESIGN AND METHODS: Hand-administered survey using a convenient sample. The sole college located on the island of Grenada: T.A. Marryshow Community College. Five hundred and eight college students over the age of 16 participated in this study with females comprising 65.7% (n = 334). The main outcome measure was the level of knowledge on the causes and treatment options of infertility. RESULTS: There was a moderate level of knowledge among males and females with regards to the risk factors that may cause infertility. The majority of participants believed that God’s will and the power of prayer can cause and treat infertility. Overall, a greater proportion of female students answered more questions correctly in comparison to the male students. CONCLUSIONS: There is a notable lack of basic knowledge among Grenadian college students about the causes of infertility. Additionally, among these students, there is the perception that women are more susceptible to infertility than men. Education programs and community support groups are recommended to increase knowledge on the causes of infertility as well as decrease the stigma of this condition.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infertilidade/etiologia , Estudantes , Granada
8.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess perceptions of Grenadian physician on abortion. DESIGN AND METHODS: An online survey was created and emailed to all doctors registered to practice in Grenada. Once the data was collected, it was analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: A response rate of 58% (45 out of 78 physicians) took part in this study. Almost all physicians (93%) indicated that they were personally aware of unsafe abortions being performed in Grenada. The three main complications physicians reported as arising out of unregulated abortion procedures were bleeding (18%), infection (17%), and uterine perforation (17%). Health education was identified by 93% of physicians as the best solution to preventing unsafe abortions. CONCLUSIONS: Almost all local physicians reported that unsafe abortions are taking place in Grenada and that the best solutions to this problem would be to provide health education along with use of modern contraception and the use of legalized and regulated abortion services. Specifically, the implementation of school-based health education program could prove effective in minimizing the conditions that lead to women being placed in a position where they feel that they have to resort to unsafe abortion procedures.


Assuntos
Atitude , Médicos , Conhecimento , Aborto , Aborto Criminoso , Granada
9.
In. Caribbean Public Health Agency. Caribbean Public Health Agency: 60th Annual Scientific Meeting. Kingston, The University of the West Indies. Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2015. p.[1-75]. (West Indian Medical Journal Supplement).
Monografia em Inglês | MedCarib | ID: med-18077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality of recreational water along the southern coast of Grenada. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 12 sites were sampled along the southern coast. Water samples were collected bi-weekly for four weeks, during the month of November. Samples were taken from six sites per day, two samples per site, amounting to 24 samples per week, totaling 96 samples for four weeks. The samples were collected between the hours of 8am-12pm. Rainfall data for the sampling period was also collected. Variables measured were Enterococci, total coliform, pH, turbidity, nitrate, and phosphate. RESULTS: The site with the highest percentage of sampling days exceeding recommended limits was Beausejour Bay. Sixty percent of sampling days on the Carenage showed a high rate total coliform readings exceeding 200.5 CFU/100 ml. Flamingo Bay (10%) showed the lowest percentage of sampling days that exceeded the recommended limit for Enterococci. Overall, 30.2% of samples from all sites showed Enterococci level above the recommended limits set by Caribbean Environmental Health Institute (35 CFU/100ml). Temperature, turbidity, pH and rainfall variables were inconsistently associated with microbial content. CONCLUSION: Recreational water on the majority of the beaches along the southern end of Grenada for the month of November 2008 exceeded the recommended limits of total coliform and Enterococci. No positive correlation between rainfall and Enterococci was found.


Assuntos
Água Costeira/análise , Água para Recreação/análise , Qualidade da Água , Qualidade da Água/análise , Granada
10.
Br Dent J ; 203(1): E1; discussion 38-9, 2007 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17273180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine on what evidence infective endocarditis (IE) could be legally linked to dental treatment. METHOD: The records of 319 legal cases involving dental treatment as the probable cause of IE were analysed. The medical history, type of dental operation, and whether antibiotic prophylaxis was provided were noted. The time taken for the onset of symptoms (incubation period) and hospitalisation was calculated. The identity of the infecting micro-organism was investigated and it was also noted whether litigation was successful for the patient. RESULTS: A total of 83 patients were successful in legally linking dental treatment to the onset of infective endocarditis. In all successful cases there was a short incubation period (circa nine days) and in 80 of the patients an oral Streptococcus was isolated. The dental operations included exodontia (28), scaling (29), endodontics (12) and minor oral surgery (11). CONCLUSIONS: Dental treatment was deemed to be the probable cause of IE in 26% of patients who sought litigation. In the majority of legal cases clinicians did not follow recognised guidelines or keep adequate clinical notes. The three main factors which link dental procedures legally were the dental operation, the isolation from the blood of an oral micro-organism and a short incubation period.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Doentes Crônicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Assistência Odontológica para Doentes Crônicos/normas , Assistência Odontológica/efeitos adversos , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Odontológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Jurisprudência , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus sanguis/isolamento & purificação
14.
Br Dent J ; 183(7): 239, 1997 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9364089
15.
Am J Hosp Pharm ; 47(11): 2504-7, 1990 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2278262

RESUMO

The stability of both drug components of admixtures of milrinone and epinephrine, atropine sulfate, lidocaine hydrochloride, morphine sulfate, calcium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate injections was studied. Duplicate solutions of admixtures of milrinone injection 1 mg/mL and epinephrine injection 1:10,000, atropine sulfate injection 1 mg/mL, lidocaine hydrochloride injection 1%, morphine sulfate injection 8 mg/mL, calcium chloride injection 10%, or sodium bicarbonate injection 7.5% were prepared and stored in glass containers at 22-23 degrees C under fluorescent light. Samples were taken immediately and after 20 minutes for assay by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Milrinone at initial concentrations of 0.10-0.73 mg/mL showed no degradation in any of the solutions during the study period, nor was any degradation observed for lidocaine, morphine, atropine, or epinephrine. Milrinone 0.10-0.73 mg/mL is compatible with atropine sulfate, lidocaine hydrochloride, epinephrine, calcium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate in glass containers stored for 20 minutes at room temperature. These results support the use of milrinone in combination with these agents immediately after the preparation of admixtures.


Assuntos
Atropina/análise , Epinefrina/análise , Lidocaína/análise , Morfina/análise , Piridonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Combinação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Indicadores e Reagentes , Milrinona
16.
J Pediatr ; 114(1): 69-72, 1989 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2521248

RESUMO

We report a child with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia who is a healthy survivor 38 months after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Psychometric evaluations performed before and after BMT indicate no demonstrable therapy-related change in intellectual function. A survey of BMT centers in the United States indicated that 16 leukemic DS children have had transplants at 10 BMT centers. Seven of these children survive at 11, 14, 17, 18, 22, 38, and 47 months, respectively, after BMT. Although these results are comparable to those for non-DS children, the number of DS children having transplants is only 20% to 25% of that predicted. We conclude that there is no justification for denial of BMT to otherwise appropriate candidates with DS and leukemia.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/cirurgia , Criança , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Prognóstico , Psicometria
17.
Am J Hosp Pharm ; 43(9): 2218-20, 1986 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3766576

RESUMO

The stability of milrinone in 0.45% and 0.9% sodium chloride injections and in 5% dextrose injection in glass and plastic containers was studied. Admixtures containing milrinone 0.2 mg/mL were prepared in three 500-mL glass containers, three 500-mL polyethylpolypropyl copolymer plastic containers, and three 1-L flexible plastic containers of each solution. Milrinone content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography at intervals during 72 hours of storage at room temperature; one sample of each solution and container type was protected from light. Duplicate assays of each sample were performed, and samples were observed for visual and pH changes. In all samples milrinone concentrations were more than 97% of the initial concentration. No changes in pH or appearance occurred. Milrinone at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL is stable for 72 hours at room temperature in 0.45% and 0.9% sodium chloride injections and in 5% dextrose injection in glass or plastic containers.


Assuntos
Piridonas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucose/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Milrinona , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Soluções
18.
Gen Pharmacol ; 17(1): 19-24, 1986.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-3949147

RESUMO

The metabolism of HCB in the isolated perfused rat liver was studied by administration of [14C]HCB diluted with unlabelled HCB at a total dose of 0.1 mg HCB/ml perfusate. Metabolites in bile, perfusate and liver were studied by GLC-mass spectrometry. Histological examination of the livers showed that no hepatic necrosis had developed, although there was a slight increase in ASAT and ALAT in the perfusate and about 50% decrease in hepatic glutathione. About 0.15% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the bile within 2 hr. In the bile, HCB together with the metabolites pentachlorothiophenol and pentachlorophenol, were identified and accounted for about 20% of the radioactivity excreted. In addition, eleven metabolites with 4 or 5 chlorines were isolated. In the perfusate and in the liver, unchanged HCB was responsible for most of the radioactivity. Traces of pentachlorothiophenol and pentachlorophenol were identified in the perfusate and the liver, respectively.


Assuntos
Clorobenzenos/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Técnicas In Vitro , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Perfusão , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos
19.
J Pharm Sci ; 74(3): 312-5, 1985 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-2989484

RESUMO

A rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of glutaric acid, phenylephrine, and benzyl alcohol in nasal spray has been developed. UV detection was utilized at 210 nm for the assay of glutaric acid and phenylephrine with an adjustment to 254 nm for the measurement of benzyl alcohol. Linearity and recovery data were obtained for each component in spiked placebo studies. An investigation of the retention mechanisms of the three components showed that phenylephrine was retained by ion-pairing with octanesulfonate anion while glutaric acid and benzyl alcohol partitioned as a suppressed ion and a neutral molecule, respectively. The method has been further extended to the reversed-phase separation of di- and tricarboxylic acids using a totally aqueous 0.0074 M phosphoric acid mobile phase. The retention of these acids was related to their octanol-water partition coefficients and structural variation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Álcoois Benzílicos/análise , Compostos de Benzil/análise , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/análise , Glutaratos/análise , Fenilefrina/análise , Ácidos Tricarboxílicos/análise , Aerossóis , Alcanossulfonatos , Álcool Benzílico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indicadores e Reagentes , Ácidos Fosfóricos/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
20.
Xenobiotica ; 11(11): 795-800, 1981 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-7336761

RESUMO

1. The biliary excretion of metabolites of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was studied in rats dosed intragastrically with 14C-HCB. Approx. 80% dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. An average of 3.6% dose was recovered in the bile of bile-duct-cannulated rats in 48 h. 2. By g.l.c.-mass spectrometry, 2.0 and 1.8% of the 14C excreted in the 24 h bile was shown to be due to unchanged HCB and pentachlorobenzene (PCB), respectively. The major metabolite pentachlorophenol (PCP) accounted for 24.2%. 3. Sulphur-containing metabolites were not identified. However, the hepatic GSH concn. decreased by 50% within 24 h following oral administration of HCB (200 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Bile/metabolismo , Clorobenzenos/metabolismo , Hexaclorobenzeno/metabolismo , Animais , Biotransformação , Fezes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Fatores de Tempo
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