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1.
Chest ; 156(2): 228-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154041

RESUMO

The Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) study is a noninterventional, multicenter, longitudinal analysis of > 10,000 subjects, including smokers with a ≥ 10 pack-year history with and without COPD and healthy never smokers. The goal was to characterize disease-related phenotypes and explore associations with susceptibility genes. The subjects were extensively phenotyped with the use of comprehensive symptom and comorbidity questionnaires, spirometry, CT scans of the chest, and genetic and biomarker profiling. The objective of this review was to summarize the major advances in the clinical epidemiology of COPD from the first 10 years of the COPDGene study. We highlight the influence of age, sex, and race on the natural history of COPD, and the impact of comorbid conditions, chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, and asthma/COPD overlap.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 47(8): e630-e638, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation is frequently seen in sepsis-related hospitalizations. However, large-scale contemporary data from the United States comparing outcomes among sepsis-related hospitalizations with versus without atrial fibrillation are limited. The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of atrial fibrillation and its impact on outcomes of sepsis-related hospitalizations. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: The National Inpatient Sample databases (2010-2014). PATIENTS: Primary discharge diagnosis of sepsis with and without atrial fibrillation were identified using prior validated International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification codes. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Overall, 5,808,166 hospitalizations with the primary diagnosis of sepsis, of which 19.4% (1,126,433) were associated with atrial fibrillation. The sepsis-atrial fibrillation cohort consisted of older (median [interquartile range] age of 79 yr [70-86 yr] vs 67 yr [53-79 yr]; p < 0.001) white (80.9% vs 68.8%; p < 0.001) male (51.1% vs 47.5%; p < 0.001) patients with an extended length of stay (median [interquartile range] 6 d [4-11 d] vs 5 d [3-9 d]; p < 0.001) and higher hospitalization charges (median [interquartile range] $44,765 [$23,234-$88,657] vs $35,737 [$18,767-$72,220]; p < 0.001) as compared with the nonatrial fibrillation cohort. The all-cause mortality rate in the sepsis-atrial fibrillation cohort was significantly higher (18.4% and 11.9%; p = 0.001) as compared with those without atrial fibrillation. Although all-cause mortality (20.4% vs 16.6%) and length of stay (median [interquartile range] 7 d [4-11 d] vs 6 d [4-10 d]) decreased between 2010 and 2014, hospitalization charges increased (median [interquartile range] $41,783 [$21,430-$84,465] vs $46,251 [$24,157-$89,995]) in the sepsis-atrial fibrillation cohort. The greatest predictors of mortality in the atrial fibrillation-sepsis cohort were African American race, female gender, advanced age, and the presence of medical comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of atrial fibrillation among sepsis-related hospitalizations is a marker of poor prognosis and increased mortality. Although we observed rising trends in sepsis and sepsis-atrial fibrillation-related hospitalizations during the study period, the rate and odds of mortality progressively decreased.

3.
J Psychosom Res ; 118: 18-26, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the frequency of anxiety/depressive symptoms and use of anxiolytic-hypnotics/antidepressants in smokers with and without COPD and to identify characteristics associated with having unmedicated symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of ambulatory, current/former smokers ≥10 pack years enrolled in the COPDGene study. We measured anxiety/depressive symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (subscales ≥8), recorded anxiolytic-hypnotic/antidepressant use, and defined unmedicated symptoms as elevated anxiety/depressive symptoms and not on medications. Regression analysis identified characteristics associated with having unmedicated symptoms. KEY RESULTS: Of 5331 current/former smokers (45% with and 55% without COPD), 1332 (25.0%) had anxiety/depressive symptoms. Anxiety symptoms were similar in frequency in smokers with and without COPD (19.7% overall), while depressive symptoms were most frequent in severe-very severe COPD at 20.7% (13.1% overall). In the entire cohort, 1135 (21.2%) were on medications. Anxiolytic-hypnotic use was highest in severe-very severe COPD (range 7.6%-12.0%), while antidepressant use showed no significant variation in smokers with and without COPD (range 14.7%-17.1%). Overall, 881 (66% of those with symptoms) had unmedicated symptoms, which was associated with African American race (adjusted OR 2.95, 95% CI 2.25-3.87), male gender (adjusted OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.57-2.36), no health insurance (adjusted OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.30-4.35), severe-very severe COPD (adjusted OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04-2.11), and higher respiratory symptoms/exacerbation history (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.62-3.02). CONCLUSIONS: Significant unmet mental health care needs exist in current and former smokers with and without COPD. One in five have unmedicated symptoms, identified by key demographic and clinical characteristics. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health and The COPD Foundation.

5.
ERJ Open Res ; 4(4)2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443555

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic status has been associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but little is known about its impact on disease progression. We assessed the association of income to symptoms, pulmonary disease severity and progression in smokers with and without COPD. The COPDGene cohort of 4826 smokers who reported annual income in phase 2 was analysed. Those who reported annual income

6.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

7.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767774

RESUMO

Introduction: Cigarette smoking is a major environmental risk factor for many diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are shared genetic influences on cigarette smoking and COPD. Genetic risk factors for cigarette smoking in cohorts enriched for COPD are largely unknown. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for average cigarettes per day (CPD) across the COPDGene Non-Hispanic White (NHW) (n=6,659) and African American (AA) (n=3,260), GenKOLS (n=1,671), and ECLIPSE (n=1,942) cohorts. In addition, we performed exome array association analyses across the COPDGene NHW and AA cohorts. We considered analyses across the entire cohort and stratified by COPD case-control status. Results: We identified genome-wide significant associations for CPD on chromosome 15q25 across all cohorts (lowest p=1.78x10-15), except in the COPDGene AA cohort alone. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 had suggestive and directionally consistent associations (RAB4 p=1.95x10-6; CYP2A7 p=7.50x10-5; CYP2B6 4.04x10-4). When we stratified by COPD case-control status, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chromosome 15q25 were nominally associated in both NHW COPD cases (Beta=0.11, p=5.58x10-4) and controls (Beta=0.12, p=3.86x10-5). For the gene-based exome array association analysis of rare variants, there were no exome-wide significant associations. For these previously replicated associations, the most significant results were among COPDGene NHW subjects for CYP2A7 (p=5.2x10-4). Conclusions: In a large genome-wide association study of both common variants and a gene-based association of rare coding variants in ever smokers, we found genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants, but not for rare coding variants. These results were directionally consistent among COPD cases and controls. IMPLICATIONS: We examined both common and rare coding variants associated with CPD in a large population of heavy smokers with and without COPD of NHW and AA descent. We replicated genome-wide significant associations on chromosome 15q25 with CPD for common variants among NHW subjects, but not for rare variants. We demonstrated for the first time that common variants on chromosome 15q25 associated with CPD are similar among COPD cases and controls. Previously reported associations on chromosome 19 showed suggestive and directionally consistent associations among common variants (RAB4, CYP2A7, and CYP2B6) and for rare variants (CYP2A7) among COPDGene NHW subjects. While the genetic effect sizes for these SNPs on chromosome 15q25 are modest, we show that this creates a substantial smoking burden over the lifetime of a smoker.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729002

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The current age threshold for lung cancer screening targets individuals beginning at age 55. These guidelines were developed based on results from the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial where only 4.4% of the enrollees were African American, when they represent 12.3% of US population. African Americans were also found to have higher incidence and younger onset of lung cancer. We hypothesized that implementation of screening at age 55 would not detect a substantial fraction of early onset lung cancer cases in African American population. OBJECTIVES: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data to determine the frequency of early-onset lung cancers and to assess the stage at diagnosis in a biracial sample. METHODS: Microscopically confirmed lung cancer (primary site code C 34) cases were identified using SEER 18 registry (2004-2014). Early-onset cancers were defined as cancers diagnosed in persons aged 45 to 54 years. Cases were stratified by race and age groups. Comparisons were evaluated with chi-square tests. RESULTS: 468,403 lung cancers were diagnosed during this period. Nearly 9% of all lung cancers were early onset, with increased frequency in African Americans vs. Whites, 14.2 vs. 8.2%, p < 0.05. Age-adjusted incidence rates were significantly higher in African Americans with highest percent difference noted for age group 50-54. African Americans were more likely to be diagnosed at advanced stages of lung cancer compared to Whites. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the current age threshold for lung cancer screening may potentially miss a considerable number of lung cancer cases in African Americans. Further studies are needed to determine the appropriateness of screening age criteria for African Americans.

9.
Chest ; 153(6): 1326-1335, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of death and hospitalization for patients with COPD. A detailed understanding of which clinical features of COPD increase risk is needed. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study of Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study subjects with and without lung cancer, age 45 to 80 years, who smoked at least 10-pack years to identify clinical and imaging features of smokers, with and without COPD, that are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The baseline evaluation included spirometry, high-resolution chest CT scanning, and respiratory questionnaires. New lung cancer diagnoses were identified over 8 years of longitudinal follow-up. Cases of lung cancer were matched 1:4 with control subjects for age, race, sex, and smoking history. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine features predictive of lung cancer. RESULTS: Features associated with a future risk of lung cancer included decreased FEV1/FVC (OR, 1.28 per 10% decrease [95% CI, 1.12-1.46]), visual severity of emphysema (OR, 2.31, none-trace vs mild-advanced [95% CI, 1.41-3.86]), and respiratory exacerbations prior to study entry (OR, 1.39 per increased events [0, 1, and ≥ 2] [95% CI, 1.04-1.85]). Respiratory exacerbations were also associated with small-cell lung cancer histology (OR, 3.57 [95% CI, 1.47-10]). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of COPD severity, including airflow obstruction, visual emphysema, and respiratory exacerbations, was independently predictive of lung cancer. These risk factors should be further studied as inclusion and exclusion criteria for the survival benefit of lung cancer screening. Studies are needed to determine if reduction in respiratory exacerbations among smokers can reduce the risk of lung cancer.

10.
Chest ; 153(2): 567, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29406218
11.
Thorax ; 73(5): 414-421, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for COPD. Smoking burden is frequently measured in pack-years, but the relative contribution of cigarettes smoked per day versus duration towards the development of structural lung disease, airflow obstruction and functional outcomes is not known. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a large multicentre cohort (COPDGene) of current and former smokers. Primary outcome was airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC); secondary outcomes included five additional measures of disease: FEV1, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, functional capacity (6 min walk distance, 6MWD) and respiratory morbidity (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ). Generalised linear models were estimated to compare the relative contribution of each smoking variable with the outcomes, after adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index, CT scanner, centre, age of smoking onset and current smoking status. We also estimated adjusted means of each outcome by categories of pack-years and combined groups of categorised smoking duration and cigarettes/day, and estimated linear trends of adjusted means for each outcome by categorised cigarettes/day, smoking duration and pack-years. RESULTS: 10 187 subjects were included. For FEV1/FVC, standardised beta coefficient for smoking duration was greater than for cigarettes/day and pack-years (P<0.001). After categorisation, there was a linear increase in adjusted means FEV1/FVC with increase in pack-years (regression coefficient ß=-0.023±SE0.003; P=0.003) and duration over all ranges of smoking cigarettes/day (ß=-0.041±0.004; P<0.001) but a relatively flat slope for cigarettes/day across all ranges of smoking duration (ß=-0.009±0.0.009; P=0.34). Strength of association of duration was similarly greater than pack-years for emphysema, gas trapping, FEV1, 6MWD and SGRQ. CONCLUSION: Smoking duration alone provides stronger risk estimates of COPD than the composite index of pack-years. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Post-results; NCT00608764.

12.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 15(4): 479-484, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298081

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Expiratory central airway collapse is associated with respiratory morbidity independent of underlying lung disease. However, not all smokers develop expiratory central airway collapse, and the etiology of expiratory central airway collapse in adult smokers is unclear. Paraseptal emphysema in the paratracheal location, by untethering airway walls, may predispose smokers to developing expiratory central airway collapse. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether paratracheal paraseptal emphysema is associated with expiratory central airway collapse. METHODS: We analyzed paired inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography scans from participants enrolled in a multicenter study (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) of smokers aged 45 to 80 years. Expiratory central airway collapse was defined as greater than or equal to 50% reduction in cross-sectional area of the trachea during expiration. In a nested case-control design, participants with and without expiratory central airway collapse were included in a 1:2 fashion, and inspiratory scans were further analyzed using the Fleischner Society criteria for presence of centrilobular emphysema, paraseptal emphysema, airway wall thickening, and paratracheal paraseptal emphysema (maximal diameter ≥ 0.5 cm). RESULTS: A total of 1,320 patients were included, 440 with and 880 without expiratory central airway collapse. Those with expiratory central airway collapse were older, had higher body mass index, and were less likely to be men or current smokers. Paratracheal paraseptal emphysema was more frequent in those with expiratory central airway collapse than control subjects (16.6 vs. 11.8%; P = 0.016), and after adjustment for age, race, sex, body mass index, smoking pack-years, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, paratracheal paraseptal emphysema was independently associated with expiratory central airway collapse (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.98; P = 0.001). Furthermore, increasing size of paratracheal paraseptal emphysema (maximal diameter of at least 1 cm and 1.5 cm) was associated with greater odds of expiratory central airway collapse (adjusted odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.25; P = 0.003 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.64; P = 0.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Paraseptal emphysema adjacent to the trachea is associated with expiratory central airway collapse. The identification of this risk factor on inspiratory scans should prompt further evaluation for expiratory central airway collapse. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT 00608764).

13.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(4): 403-413, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472521

RESUMO

Introduction: Human genetic research has succeeded in definitively identifying multiple genetic variants associated with risk for nicotine dependence and heavy smoking. To build on these advances, and to aid in reducing the prevalence of smoking and its consequent health harms, the next frontier is to identify genetic predictors of successful smoking cessation and also of the efficacy of smoking cessation treatments ("pharmacogenomics"). More broadly, additional biomarkers that can be quantified from biosamples also promise to aid "Precision Medicine" and the personalization of treatment, both pharmacological and behavioral. Aims and Methods: To motivate ongoing and future efforts, here we review several compelling genetic and biomarker findings related to smoking cessation and treatment. Results: These Key results involve genetic variants in the nicotinic receptor subunit gene CHRNA5, variants in the nicotine metabolism gene CYP2A6, and the nicotine metabolite ratio. We also summarize reports of epigenetic changes related to smoking behavior. Conclusions: The results to date demonstrate the value and utility of data generated from biosamples in clinical treatment trial settings. This article cross-references a companion paper in this issue that provides practical guidance on how to incorporate biosample collection into a planned clinical trial and discusses avenues for harmonizing data and fostering consortium-based, collaborative research on the pharmacogenomics of smoking cessation. Implications: Evidence is emerging that certain genotypes and biomarkers are associated with smoking cessation success and efficacy of smoking cessation treatments. We review key findings that open potential avenues for personalizing smoking cessation treatment according to an individual's genetic or metabolic profile. These results provide important incentive for smoking cessation researchers to collect biosamples and perform genotyping in research studies and clinical trials.

14.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 18(12): 1063-1068, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169736

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated comorbidities increase with age. However, little is understood about differences in the disease in patients over 65 years of age compared with younger patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine disease characteristics of COPD and its impact in older patients compared with younger patients. METHODS: We examined baseline characteristics of patients with COPD (global obstructive lung disease stage II-IV) in 2 large cohorts: Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) and Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE). We compared demographics, indices of disease severity, prevalence of comorbidities, exacerbation frequency, and quality of life scores in patients ≥65 years of age vs patients <65 years of age. We also tested for associations of age with disease characteristics and health outcomes. RESULTS: In the COPDGene cohort, older patients (n = 1663) had more severe disease as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1.22 vs 1.52 L, P < .001), use of long-term oxygen therapy (35% vs 22%, P < .001), 6-minute walk distance (355 vs 375 m, P < .001), and radiographic evidence of emphysema (14% vs 8%, P < .001) and air trapping (47% vs 36%, P < .001) and were more likely to have comorbidities compared with younger patients (n = 2027). Similarly, in the ECLIPSE cohort, older patients (n = 1030) had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1.22 vs 1.34 L, P < .001), greater use of long-term oxygen therapy (7% vs 5%, P = .02), shorter 6- minute walk distance (360 vs 389 m, P < .001), and more radiographic evidence of emphysema (17% vs 14%, P = .009) than younger patients (n = 1131). In adjusted analyses of both cohorts, older age was associated with decreased frequency of exacerbations [odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43-0.64 in COPDGene, odds ratio = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.99 in ECLIPSE] and a better quality of life (lower St. Georges respiratory questionnaire score) (ß = -8.7, 95% CI = -10.0 to -7.4 in COPDGene, ß = -4.4, 95% CI = -6.1 to -3.2 in ECLIPSE). CONCLUSIONS: Despite greater severity of illness, older patients with COPD had better quality of life and reported fewer exacerbations than younger patients. Although this observation needs to be explored further, it may be related to the fact that older patients change their expectations and learn to adapt to their disease.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 14(8): 1280-1287, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28380308

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, caused primarily by homozygosity for the Z allele of the SERPINA1 gene, is a well-established genetic cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether the heterozygous PiMZ genotype for alpha-1 antitrypsin confers increased risk for COPD has been debated. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed 8,271 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) Study, hypothesizing that PiMZ would independently associate with COPD and COPD-related phenotypes. METHODS: The COPDGene Study comprises a multiethnic, cross-sectional, observational cohort of non-Hispanic white and African American current and former smokers with at least 10 pack-years of smoking who were enrolled for detailed clinical and genetic studies of COPD and COPD-related traits. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis for moderate to severe COPD and assessed Pi genotype with other relevant covariates in models stratified by race. We analyzed quantitative characteristics on the basis of volumetric computed tomography with generalized linear models controlling for genotype, scanner type, and similar covariates. RESULTS: White PiMZ COPDGene subjects had significantly lower lung function, FEV1 percent predicted (68 ± 28 vs. 75 ± 27; P = 0.0005), and FEV1/FVC ratio (0.59 ± 0.18 vs. 0.63 ± 0.17; P = 0.0008), as well as more radiographic emphysema (P = 0.001), than subjects without alpha-1 antitrypsin Z risk alleles. Similarly, African American PiMZ subjects had lower lung function, FEV1 percent predicted (65 ± 33 vs. 84 ± 25; P = 0.009) and FEV1/FVC (0.61 ± 0.21 vs. 0.71 ± 0.15; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In the COPDGene Study, we demonstrate that PiMZ heterozygous individuals who smoke are at increased risk for COPD and obstructive lung function impairment compared with Z-allele noncarriers, regardless of race. Although severe alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is uncommon in African Americans, our study adds further support for initial targeted detection of all subjects with COPD for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including African Americans. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00608784).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/diagnóstico , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
16.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 14: E31, 2017 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409741

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity, the presence of 2 or more chronic conditions, frequently affects people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many have high-cost, highly complex conditions that have a substantial impact on state Medicaid programs. We quantified the cost of Medicaid-insured patients with COPD co-diagnosed with other chronic disorders. METHODS: We used nationally representative Medicaid claims data to analyze the impact of comorbidities (other chronic conditions) on the disease burden, emergency department (ED) use, hospitalizations, and total health care costs among 291,978 adult COPD patients. We measured the prevalence of common conditions and their influence on COPD-related and non-COPD-related resource use by using the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index. Elixhauser comorbidity counts were clustered from 0 to 7 or more. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of ED visits by Elixhauser scores adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and residence. RESULTS: Acute care, hospital bed days, and total Medicaid-reimbursed costs increased as the number of comorbidities increased. ED visits unrelated to COPD were more common than visits for COPD, especially in patients self-identified as black or African American (designated black). Hypertension, diabetes, affective disorders, hyperlipidemia, and asthma were the most prevalent comorbid disorders. Substance abuse, congestive heart failure, and asthma were commonly associated with ED visits for COPD. Female sex was associated with COPD-related and non-COPD-related ED visits. CONCLUSION: Comorbidities markedly increased health services use among people with COPD insured with Medicaid, although ED visits in this study were predominantly unrelated to COPD. Achieving excellence in clinical practice with optimal clinical and economic outcomes requires a whole-person approach to the patient and a multidisciplinary health care team.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Medicaid , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 195(4): 473-481, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27579823

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations are associated with disease progression, higher healthcare cost, and increased mortality. Published predictors of future exacerbations include previous exacerbation, airflow obstruction, poor overall health, home oxygen use, and gastroesophageal reflux. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of adding blood biomarkers to clinical variables to predict exacerbations. METHODS: Subjects from the SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes Measures in COPD Study) (n = 1,544) and COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of COPD) (n = 602) cohorts had 90 plasma or serum candidate proteins measured on study entry using Myriad-RBM multiplex panels. We defined total exacerbations as subject-reported worsening in respiratory health requiring therapy with corticosteroids and/or antibiotics, and severe exacerbations as those leading to hospitalizations or emergency room visits. We assessed retrospective exacerbations during the 12 months before enrollment and then documented prospective exacerbations in each cohort. Exacerbations were modeled for biomarker associations with negative binomial regression including clinical covariates (age, sex, percent predicted FEV1, self-reported gastroesophageal reflux, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score, smoking status). We used the Stouffer-Liptak test to combine P values for metaanalysis. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Between the two cohorts, 3,471 total exacerbations (1,044 severe) were reported. We identified biomarkers within each cohort that were significantly associated with a history of exacerbation and with a future exacerbation, but there was minimal replication between the cohorts. Although established clinical features were predictive of exacerbations, of the blood biomarkers only decorin and α2-macroglobulin increased predictive value for future severe exacerbations. CONCLUSIONS: Blood biomarkers were significantly associated with the occurrence of exacerbations but were not robust between cohorts and added little to the predictive value of clinical covariates for exacerbations.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue
19.
Chest ; 151(2): 260-261, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27983960
20.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
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