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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917782

RESUMO

In May 2018, a study of birth defects in infants born to women with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Botswana reported an eightfold increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) among births with periconceptional exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included the integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) compared with other ART regimens (1). The World Health Organization* (WHO) and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services† (HHS) promptly issued interim guidance limiting the initiation of DTG during early pregnancy and in women of childbearing age with HIV who desire pregnancy or are sexually active and not using effective contraception. On the basis of additional data, WHO now recommends DTG as a preferred treatment option for all populations, including women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Similarly, the U.S. recommendations currently state that DTG is a preferred antiretroviral drug throughout pregnancy (with provider-patient counseling) and as an alternative antiretroviral drug in women who are trying to conceive.§ Since 1981 and 1994, CDC has supported separate surveillance programs for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (2) and birth defects (3) in state health departments. These two surveillance programs can inform public health programs and policy, linkage to care, and research activities. Because birth defects surveillance programs do not collect HIV status, and HIV surveillance programs do not routinely collect data on occurrence of birth defects, the related data have not been used by CDC to characterize birth defects in births to women with HIV. Data from these two programs were linked to estimate overall prevalence of NTDs and prevalence of NTDs in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013-2017 for 15 participating jurisdictions. Prevalence of NTDs in pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection was 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to that among the general population in these 15 jurisdictions, and the U.S. estimate based on data from 24 states. Successful linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs for pregnancies among women with diagnosed HIV infection suggests that similar data linkages might be used to characterize possible associations between maternal diseases or maternal use of medications, such as integrase strand transfer inhibitors used to manage HIV, and pregnancy outcomes. Although no difference in NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies was found, data on the use of integrase strand transfer inhibitors in pregnancy are needed to understand the safety and risks of these drugs during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1436-1447, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this report, the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) examines and compares gastroschisis and omphalocele for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defect surveillance programs in the United States. METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2019 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on gastroschisis and omphalocele for birth years 2012-2016. We estimated the overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each defect as well as by maternal race/ethnicity, maternal age, infant sex, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive). We also compared distribution of cases by maternal and infant factors and presence/absence of other birth defects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimates (per 10,000 live births) were 4.3 (95% CI: 4.1-4.4) for gastroschisis and 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) for omphalocele. Gastroschisis was more frequent among young mothers (<25 years) and omphalocele more common among older mothers (>40 years). Mothers of infants with gastroschisis were more likely to be underweight/normal weight prior to pregnancy and mothers of infants with omphalocele more likely to be overweight/obese. Omphalocele was twice as likely as gastroschisis to co-occur with other birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights important differences between gastroschisis and omphalocele. These differences indicate the importance of distinguishing between these defects in epidemiologic assessments. The report also provides additional data on co-occurrence of gastroschisis and omphalocele with other birth defects. This information can provide a basis for future research to better understand these defects.

3.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(18): 1408-1419, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: North Carolina's Infant-Toddler Program (NC ITP) provides Early Intervention (EI) services from birth to age three for children at risk for developmental delays. This study examined referral patterns by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics among infants with birth defects and infants born extremely preterm (gestational age < 27 weeks) or extremely low birthweight (<1,000 g). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of North Carolina resident births from 2012 to 2014 was matched to data from the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program and NC ITP records. A total of 2,463 infants with eligible birth defects and 2,118 extremely preterm or low birthweight infants were identified. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze differences in referral by sociodemographic and clinical factors. Referrals resulting in enrollment were also examined. RESULTS: About 70% of infants with eligible birth defects and 85% of extremely premature infants were referred to the NC ITP. Geographic region, maternal race/ethnicity, maternal and infant enrollment in Medicaid, and hospital level of care at delivery were associated with referral among both at-risk groups. Among infants with birth defects, maternal age, education, and marital status were also associated with referral, as well as gestational age, birthweight, and the presence of multiple anomalies. Of the infants with referrals, over 80% in each group were subsequently enrolled. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the sociodemographic and clinical factors examined were associated with EI referral. These findings can be used to address coverage gaps and improve referral and enrollment rates for at-risk infants.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1846-1856, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313509

RESUMO

Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare but serious birth defect. Genetic mutations have been implicated in the development of PCG, but little is known about nongenetic risk factors. This study investigates potential risk factors for PCG in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large population-based case-control study of major birth defects in the United States. The analysis includes case infants with PCG (N = 107) and control infants without birth defects (N = 10,084) enrolled in NBDPS from birth years 2000-2011. Pregnancy/infant clinical characteristics, demographics, and parental health history were collected through maternal interview. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to examine associations with all PCG cases and isolated PCG cases without other major malformations. Associations with all the cases included term low birth weight (<2,500 g; aOR = 2.80, CI 1.59-4.94), non-Hispanic black maternal race/ethnicity (aOR = 2.42, CI 1.42-4.13), maternal history of seizure (aOR = 2.73, CI 1.25-5.97), maternal antihypertensive use (aOR = 3.60, CI 1.52-8.53), and maternal sexually transmitted infection (aOR = 2.75, CI 1.17-6.44). These factors were also associated with isolated PCG, as was maternal use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aOR = 2.70, CI 1.15-6.34). This study is among the first to examine a wide array of potential risk factors for PCG in a population-based sample.

6.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(19): 1478-1486, 2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In this data brief, we examine major eye and ear anomalies (anophthalmia/microphthalmia, anotia/microtia, and congenital cataract) for a recent 5-year birth cohort using data from 30 population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States. METHODS: As a special call for data for the 2018 NBDPN Annual Report, state programs reported expanded data on eye/ear anomalies for birth years 2011-2015. We calculated the combined overall prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), for the three anomalies as well as by maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, laterality, presence/absence of other major birth defects, and case ascertainment methodology utilized by the program (active vs. passive). RESULTS: The overall prevalence estimate (per 10,000 live births) was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.5) for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.4-1.6) for congenital cataract, and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.7-1.8) for anotia/microtia. Congenital cataract prevalence varied little by maternal race/ethnicity, infant sex, or case ascertainment methodology; prevalence differences were more apparent across strata for anophthalmia/microphthalmia and anotia/microtia. Prevalence among active vs. passive ascertainment programs was 50% higher for anophthalmia/microphthalmia (1.9 vs. 1.2) and two-fold higher for anotia/microtia (2.6 vs. 1.2). Anophthalmia/microphthalmia was more likely than other conditions to co-occur with other birth defects. All conditions were more frequent among older mothers (40+ years). CONCLUSIONS: This data brief provides recent prevalence estimates for anophthalmia/microphthalmia, congenital cataract, and anotia/microtia that address a data gap by examining pooled data from 30 population-based surveillance systems, covering a five-year birth cohort of about 12.4 million births.


Assuntos
Anoftalmia/epidemiologia , Microtia Congênita/epidemiologia , Microftalmia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Orelha/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Mães , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
7.
Pediatrics ; 142(3)2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the first-year survival of infants with congenital heart defects (CHDs) and investigate the potential role of socioeconomic and demographic factors on survival. METHODS: Subjects included 15 533 infants with CHDs born between 2004 and 2013 ascertained by the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. We classified CHDs into the following 3 groups: critical univentricular (n = 575), critical biventricular (n = 1494), and noncritical biventricular (n = 13 345). We determined vital status and age at death through linkage to state vital records and used geocoded maternal residence at birth to obtain census information for study subjects. We calculated Kaplan-Meier survival estimates by maternal and infant characteristics and derived hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazard models for selected exposures. RESULTS: Among all infants with CHDs, there were 1289 deaths (8.3%) in the first year. Among infants with univentricular defects, 61.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.7%-65.7%) survived. Survival among infants with univentricular defects was considerably better for those whose fathers were ≥35 years old (71.6%; 95% CI: 63.8%-80.3%) compared with those whose fathers were younger (59.7%; 95% CI: 54.6%-65.2%). Factors associated with survival among infants with any biventricular defect included maternal education, race and/or ethnicity, marital status, and delivery at a heart center. The hazard of infant mortality was greatest among non-Hispanic African American mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Survival among infants with critical univentricular CHDs was less variable across sociodemographic categories compared with survival among infants with biventricular CHDs. Sociodemographic differences in survival among infants with less severe CHDs reinforces the importance of ensuring culturally effective pediatric care for at-risk infants and their families.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente/etiologia , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(6): 1422-1430, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046301

RESUMO

Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy.Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.Design: A total of 301 women who underwent BMD measurements at 12-20 wk of gestation and again at 0-14 wk postpartum were included in this analysis. Women were a subset of subjects who were recruited for a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy (400, 2000, or 4000 IU/d).Results: Treatment had no significant effect on changes in BMD that occurred between 12-20 wk of gestation and 0-14 wk postpartum. Similarly, changes in spine and femoral neck bone mineral contents (BMCs) were not significantly different in the treatment groups. In addition, vitamin D inadequacy (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, averaged across pregnancy, <50 nmol/L) was not associated with changes in BMD or BMC. There were significant racial/ethnic differences in spine BMD. African Americans lost more spine BMD than did Caucasians (-0.04 ± 0.04 compared with -0.02 ± 0.04 g/cm2; P = 0.033). In addition, baseline obesity was associated with a greater loss of femoral neck BMD. The means ± SDs of femoral neck BMD loss were -0.02 ± 0.05 and 0.0 ± 0.03 g/cm2 for groups with baseline body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) ≥30 and <30, respectively.Conclusion: These findings do not support a dose effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone health and suggest that race/ethnicity and BMI play an important role in pregnancy bone health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00292591.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Colo do Fêmur , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Coluna Vertebral , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Fêmur/metabolismo , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Vitaminas/sangue , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 219-222, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253231

RESUMO

Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3). These data, from Massachusetts (2013), North Carolina (2013), and Atlanta, Georgia (2013-2014), included 747 infants and fetuses with one or more of the birth defects meeting the case definition (pre-Zika prevalence = 2.86 per 1,000 live births). Brain abnormalities or microcephaly were the most frequently recorded (1.50 per 1,000), followed by neural tube defects and other early brain malformations† (0.88), eye abnormalities without mention of a brain abnormality (0.31), and other consequences of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction without mention of brain or eye abnormalities (0.17). During January 15-September 22, 2016, the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) reported 26 infants and fetuses with these same defects among 442 completed pregnancies (58.8 per 1,000) born to mothers with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy (2). Although the ascertainment methods differed, this finding was approximately 20 times higher than the proportion of one or more of the same birth defects among pregnancies during the pre-Zika years. These data demonstrate the importance of population-based surveillance for interpreting data about birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Infecção por Zika virus/congênito , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0152711, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152524

RESUMO

Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/sangue , Composição Corporal , Vitamina D/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino
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