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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430422

RESUMO

QUESTION ADDRESSED: Echocardiography is not currently considered as providing sufficient prognostic information to serve as an integral part of treatment goals in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that incorporation of multiple parameters reflecting right heart function would improve the prognostic value of this imaging modality. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: We pooled individual patient data from a total of 517 patients (mean age 52±15 years, 64.8% females) included in seven observational studies conducted at five European and United States academic centers. Patients were subdivided into three groups representing progressive degrees of RV dysfunction based on a combination of echocardiographic measurements: group 1 (low-risk): normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and non-significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (n=129); group 2 (intermediate-risk): normal TAPSE and significant TR or impaired TAPSE and non-dilated inferior vena cava (IVC) (n=256); group 3 (high-risk): impaired TAPSE and dilated IVC (n=132). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 82% in group 1, 63% in group 2, and 43% in group 3. Low-risk patients had better survival rates than intermediate-risk patients (log-rank χ2: 12.25 p<0.001) and intermediate-risk patients had better survival rates than high-risk patients (log-rank χ2: 26.25 p<0.001). Inclusion of other parameters such as right atrial area and pericardial effusion did not provide added prognostic value. ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: The proposed echocardiographic approach integrating the evaluation of TAPSE, TR grade and IVC is effective in stratifying the risk for all-cause mortality in PAH patients, outperforming the prognostic parameters suggested by current guidelines.

2.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e921124, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Tumor embolism is a rare neoplastic complication that occurs when there is intravenous invasion by a benign or malignant tumor. We present the case of an asymptomatic patient with an incidentally discovered leiomyosarcoma tumor emboli, which was initially misdiagnosed as "thrombus in transit." CASE REPORT The patient was a 58-year-old woman who was incidentally found on echocardiogram to have a large tubular mass within the inferior vena cava and right atrium. Although initially characterized as "thrombus in transit", this mobile right atrial mass was present without clinical, echocardiographic, or radiographic evidence of pulmonary embolism or increased pulmonary arterial impedance. Given that a thrombus in transit is nearly always associated with submassive or massive pulmonary emboli and their attendant right heart sequelae, these pertinent negative findings led us to seek an alternative diagnosis. After a trial of conservative management with anticoagulation and attempted removal of the mass with the AngioVac system, the patient ultimately underwent median sternotomy and surgical embolectomy on cardiopulmonary bypass to remove the mass, which was later identified on pathology as a leiomyosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS With rare exceptions, "thrombus in transit" is accompanied by large pulmonary emboli and the presence of increased pulmonary artery pressure and right heart strain. The absence of clinical, echocardiographic, or radiographic evidence of these hemodynamic sequelae should raise suspicion for an alternative diagnosis. Tumor embolism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a history of malignancy who presents with evidence of intracardiac mass or embolism.

3.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142813

RESUMO

Perioperative anticoagulation management for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest presents a clinical challenge. Alternative anticoagulants have been used but can cause significant postoperative bleeding. We report the successful use of cangrelor and heparin in a 30-year-old patient with severe heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing urgent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.

4.
Pulm Circ ; 9(2): 2045894019841978, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880577

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC), invasively assessed by the ratio of stroke volume to pulmonary arterial (PA) pulse pressure, is a sensitive marker of right ventricular (RV)-PA coupling that differs across the spectrum of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and is predictive of outcomes. We assessed whether the echocardiographically derived ratio of RV outflow tract velocity time integral to PA systolic pressure (RVOT-VTI/PASP) (a) correlates with invasive PAC, (b) discriminates heart failure with preserved ejection-associated PH (HFpEF-PH) from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and (c) is associated with functional capacity. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with PAH (n = 70) and HFpEF-PH (n = 86), which was further dichotomized by diastolic pressure gradient (DPG) into isolated post-capillary PH (DPG < 7 mmHg; Ipc-PH, n = 54), and combined post- and pre-capillary PH (DPG ≥ 7 mm Hg; Cpc-PH, n = 32). Of the 156 patients, 146 had measurable RVOT-VTI or PASP and were included in further analysis. RVOT-VTI/PASP correlated with invasive PAC overall (ρ = 0.61, P < 0.001) and for the PAH (ρ = 0.38, P = 0.002) and HFpEF-PH (ρ = 0.63, P < 0.001) groups individually. RVOT-VTI/PASP differed significantly across the PH spectrum (PAH: 0.13 [0.010-0.25] vs. Cpc-PH: 0.20 [0.12-0.25] vs. Ipc-PH: 0.35 [0.22-0.44]; P < 0.001), distinguished HFpEF-PH from PAH (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.63-0.81) and Cpc-PH from Ipc-PH (AUC = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.88), and remained independently predictive of 6-min walk distance after multivariate analysis (standardized ß-coefficient = 27.7, 95% CI = 9.2-46.3; P = 0.004). Echocardiographic RVOT-VTI/PASP is a novel non-invasive metric of PAC that differs across the spectrum of PH. It distinguishes the degree of pre-capillary disease within HFpEF-PH and is predictive of functional capacity.

5.
Pulm Circ ; 9(1): 2045894018803873, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204062

RESUMO

Uterine fibroids have been described as an associate to acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), with case reports showing an association between large uterine fibroids, acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and acute pulmonary embolism (PE). However, there is little known about the association or causation between uterine fibroids, chronic thromboembolic disease (CTED), and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We report on six women with uterine fibroids and CTEPH, as well as one woman with CTED, all of whom presented with exertional dyspnea, lower extremity swelling, and in the cases of CTEPH, clinical, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic evidence of pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. Compression of the pelvic veins by fibroids was directly observed with invasive venography or contrast-enhanced computed tomography in five cases. All seven women underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) followed by marked improvement in functional, clinical, and hemodynamic status.

6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7200, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739967

RESUMO

Right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume (EDV) to left ventricular (LV) EDV ratio using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is an important parameter for RV size evaluation in additional to indexed EDV. We explore the severity partition for RV dilation using mortality in a population of 62 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Cine short-axis images were acquired with a 1.5 T MR scanner using a steady-state free precession sequence. The optimal cutoff to classify severe RV dilation was determined by a receiver-operating curve (ROC) analysis based on mortality. We further defined mild and moderate categories by the standard deviation distance between normal and severely dilated and found the categories RV dilation by RV/LV volume ratio to be "mild" (1.27-1.69), "moderate" (1.70-2.29) and "severe" (≥2.30). There were significant differences in RVEDV and RV ejection fraction between "mild", "moderate" and "severe" groups (p < 0.001). The "severe" category had a significantly higher mortality when compared to the "non-severe" categories (p < 0.001) while there was no difference among the "non-severe" dilated groups. We have shown that severe RV dilation partition can be defined using mortality with RV/LV volume ratio, which offers an outcome based grading of the "severe" category of RV dilation.


Assuntos
Dilatação/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Análise de Sobrevida , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(9)2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) vary. We sought to determine whether severity of left or right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) at PPCM diagnosis differentially associates with adverse outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of 53 patients with PPCM. The primary outcome was a composite of left ventricular assist device implantation, cardiac transplantation, or death. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to examine event-free survival and Cox proportional hazards models to examine associations of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <30%, LV end-diastolic diameter ≥60 mm, and moderate-to-severe RVD at PPCM diagnosis with the primary outcome. Median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 3.6 (1.4-7.3) years. Seventeen patients (32%) experienced the primary outcome, of whom 11 had moderate-to-severe RVD at time of PPCM diagnosis. Overall event-free survival differed by initial RVD severity and LV ejection fraction <30%, but not by LV end-diastolic diameter ≥60 mm. In univariable analyses, LV ejection fraction <30% and moderate-to-severe RVD were associated with the outcome (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals] of 4.85 [1.11-21.3] and 4.26 [1.47-11.6], respectively). In a multivariable model with LV ejection fraction <30%, LV end-diastolic diameter ≥60 mm, and moderate-to-severe RVD, only moderate-to-severe RVD was independently associated with the outcome (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 3.21 [1.13-9.10]). Although most outcomes occurred within the first year, nearly a third occurred years after PPCM diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Initial moderate-to-severe RVD is associated with a more advanced cardiomyopathy phenotype and increased risk of adverse outcomes in PPCM, within and beyond the first year of diagnosis. By identifying a worse PPCM phenotype, initial moderate-to-severe RVD may prompt earlier consideration of advanced heart replacement therapies.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Feminino , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Humanos , Período Periparto , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/mortalidade , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
8.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000736, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531764

RESUMO

Introduction: A major determining factor on outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) function. Ranolazine, which is currently approved for chronic stable angina, has been shown to improve RV function in an animal model and has been shown to be safe in small human studies with PAH. We aim to study the effect of ranolazine on RV function using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (non-group 2 patients) and monitor the effect of ranolazine on metabolism using metabolic profiling and changes of microRNA. Methods and analysis: This study is a longitudinal, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre proof-of-concept study in 24 subjects with pulmonary hypertension and RV dysfunction treated with ranolazine over 6 months. Subjects who meet the protocol definition of RV dysfunction (CMR RV ejection fraction (EF) <45%) will be randomised to ranolazine or placebo with a ratio of 2:1. Enrolled subjects will be assessed for functional class, 6 min walk test and health outcome based on SF-36 tool. Peripheral blood will be obtained for N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide, metabolic profiling, and microRNA at baseline and the conclusion of the treatment period. CMR will be performed at baseline and the conclusion of the treatment period. The primary outcome is change in RVEF. The exploratory outcomes include clinical, other CMR parameters, metabolic and microRNA changes. Ethics and dissemination: The trial protocol was approved by Institutional Review Boards. The trial findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and meetings. Trial registration numbers: NCT01839110 and NCT02829034; Pre-results.

9.
Pulm Circ ; 7(2): 361-371, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597759

RESUMO

Few studies have examined the utility of serial echocardiography in the evaluation, management, and prognosis of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Therefore, we sought to evaluate the prognostic significance of follow-up tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in PAH. We prospectively studied 70 consecutive patients with PAH who underwent baseline right heart catheterization (RHC) and transthoracic echocardiogram, who survived to follow-up echocardiogram after initiation of PAH therapy. Baseline TAPSE was 1.6 ± 0.5 cm which increased to 2.0 ± 0.4 cm on follow-up ( P < 0.0001). The cohort was dichotomized by TAPSE at one-year follow-up: Group 1 (n = 37): follow-up TAPSE ≥ 2 cm; Group 2 (n = 33): follow-up TAPSE < 2 cm. Group 1 participants were significantly more likely to reach WHO functional class I-II status and achieve a higher six-minute walk distance on follow-up. Of the 68 patients who survived more than one year, 18 died (26.5%) over a median follow-up of 941 days (range, 3-2311 days), with significantly higher mortality in Group 2 versus Group 1 (41.9% vs. 13.5%; P = 0.003). While baseline TAPSE stratified at 2 cm did not predict survival in this cohort, TAPSE ≥ 2 cm at follow-up strongly predicted survival in bivariable models (hazard ratio, 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.60). In conclusion, follow-up TAPSE ≥ 2 cm is a prognostic marker and potential treatment target in a PAH population.

13.
Pulm Circ ; 6(3): 322-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27683609

RESUMO

Total right heart function requires normal function of both the right ventricle and the right atrium. However, the degree to which right atrial (RA) function and right ventricular (RV) function each contribute to total right heart function has not been quantified. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of RA function to total right heart function in a group of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients compared to a cohort of normal controls without cardiovascular disease. The normal cohort comprised 35 subjects with normal clinical echocardiograms, while the PAH cohort included 37 patients, of whom 31 had echocardiograms before and after initiation of PAH-specific therapy. Total right heart function was measured via tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE). TAPSE was broken down into two components, the excursion occurring during RA contraction (TAPSERA) and that occurring before RA contraction (TAPSERV). RA fractional area change (RA-FAC) was also compared between the two groups. In the PAH cohort, more than half of the total TAPSE occurred during atrial systole, compared to less than one-third in the normal cohort (51.0% vs. 32.1%; P < 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between RA-FAC and TAPSE in the PAH cohort but not in the normal cohort. TAPSE improved significantly in the posttreatment cohort (1.7 vs. 2.1 cm), but TAPSERA continued to account for about half of the total TAPSE after treatment. RA function accounts for a significantly greater proportion of total right heart function in patients with PAH than in normal subjects.

14.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 59(1): 42-51, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27393072

RESUMO

Right ventricular function (RVF) carries great prognostic significance in heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Although there is considerable focus on RVF in pulmonary arterial hypertension, RVF is also of great importance in group 2 PH. This article will discuss assessment of RVF and evaluation of the Right Ventricle-Pulmonary Artery (RV-PA) coupling relationship. Cardiac imaging modalities allow direct visualization and assessment of RVF. Imaging modalities include the commonly utilized echo-Doppler imaging evaluating RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and Tissue Doppler Imaging, in addition to the increasingly utilized cardiac magnetic resonance. Invasive hemodynamic assessment also plays an important role and can also be employed during exercise to help elucidate functional reserve. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides added insight into the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary disease. Cardiac imaging, invasive hemodynamics, and gas exchange stress testing can be combined to give a more sophisticated understanding of RVF. The RV-PA coupling relationship can be assessed using practical and clinically available metrics in order to gain clinically relevant understanding of the patients' physiologic state. RV-PA coupling assessments can be done using invasive, combined noninvasive-invasive, or non-invasive approaches. We also discuss our approaches in the assessment of the RV-PA coupling relationship.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Teste de Esforço , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico
15.
Circ Heart Fail ; 9(4): e002729, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27072860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction (RVD) is a poor prognostic factor in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The physiological perturbations associated with RVD or RV function indexed to load (RV-pulmonary arterial [PA] coupling) in HFpEF have not been defined. HFpEF patients with marked impairment in RV-PA coupling may be uniquely sensitive to sildenafil. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a subset of HFpEF patients enrolled in the Phosphodiesteas-5 Inhibition to Improve Clinical Status And Exercise Capacity in Diastolic Heart Failure (RELAX) trial, physiological variables and therapeutic effect of sildenafil were examined relative to the severity of RVD (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion [TAPSE]) and according to impairment in RV-PA coupling (TAPSE/pulmonary artery systolic pressure) ratio. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation and diuretic use, n-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide levels, renal dysfunction, neurohumoral activation, myocardial necrosis and fibrosis biomarkers, and the severity of diastolic dysfunction all increased with severity of RVD. Peak oxygen consumption decreased and ventilatory inefficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) increased with increasing severity of RVD. Many but not all physiological derangements were more closely associated with the TAPSE/pulmonary artery systolic pressure ratio. Compared with placebo, at 24 weeks, TAPSE decreased, and peak oxygen consumption and VE/CO2 slope were unchanged with sildenafil. There was no interaction between RV-PA coupling and treatment effect, and sildenafil did not improve TAPSE, peak oxygen consumption, or VE/VCO2 in patients with pulmonary hypertension and RVD. CONCLUSIONS: HFpEF patients with RVD and impaired RV-PA coupling have more advanced heart failure. In RELAX patients with RVD and impaired RV-PA coupling, sildenafil did not improve RV function, exercise capacity, or ventilatory efficiency. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00763867.


Assuntos
Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Direita/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/enzimologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/efeitos adversos , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/enzimologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 43(6): 1379-85, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26646199

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the normal range of the ratio of right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume to left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and examine whether combining this volume ratio with RVEDV indexed to body surface area (RVEDVi) increased the detection of RV dilation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI-derived ventricular function and volumes were measured in a control group (n = 152) and in patients with PAH (n = 46). Images were acquired with a 1.5T Siemens or a 1.5T Philips scanner using a steady-state free procession sequence. Proposed criteria for the detection of RV enlargement, including RVEDVi alone, RV/LV volume ratio alone, and combining both criteria, were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: The range (mean ± 2 standard deviations) for the volume ratio in the normal population was found to be 0.906-1.266; there was no difference between genders (P = 0.70). Combining this ratio with RVEDVi detected RV enlargement in 21.7% (P < 0.001) PAH patients (volume ratio ≥1.27) who were not identified by the RVEDVi alone (>104 mL/m(2) for females and >113 mL/m(2) for males). CONCLUSION: Combining RV/LV volume ratio with indexed RVEDV increased detection of RV enlargement in a PAH population. This result may have potential impact in RV size assessment. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1379-1385.


Assuntos
Volume Cardíaco , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Volume Sistólico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pulm Circ ; 5(3): 521-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26401253

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that pulmonary hypertension (PH) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a risk factor for operative mortality with aortic valve replacement (AVR). Conversely, others have shown that patients with AS and PH extract a large symptomatic and survival benefit from AVR compared with those patients not treated surgically. We sought to evaluate the prevalence, severity, and mechanism of PH in an elderly patient cohort with severe AS. We prospectively evaluated 41 patients aged ≥80 years with severe AS. All patients underwent cardiac catheterization and transthoracic echocardiography within 24 hours. We found that PH was common in this cohort: 32 patients (78%) had PH; however, the predominant mechanism of PH was left heart congestion. Patients with PH had nearly double the pulmonary artery wedge pressure of patients without PH (23 vs. 13 mmHg; P ≤ 0.001). In patients with PH compared with those without, pulmonary vascular resistance was higher yet still under 3 Wood units (WU; 2.9 vs. 1.5 WU; P = 0.001), and the transpulmonary gradient (11 vs. 7 mmHg; P = 0.01) and diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG; 3.0 vs. 2.7 mmHg; P = 0.74) were in normal range. Left ventricular diastolic abnormalities were more common in patients with severe AS and PH. Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction was common (13/41 patients, 32%), but the PH and non-PH groups had similar tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (2.0 vs. 2.3 cm; P = 0.15). Only 2 subjects had both RV dysfunction and an elevated DPG. In conclusion, PH is common in elderly patients with severe AS. This occurs largely due to left heart congestion, with a relative absence of pulmonary vascular disease and RV dysfunction, and as such, PH may serve as a heart failure equivalent in these patients.

19.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0138365, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26418553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Right ventricular (RV) function has increasingly being recognized as an important predictor for morbidity and mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The increased RV after-load increase RV work in PAH. We used time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI (4D flow MRI) to derive RV kinetic energy (KE) work density and energy loss in the pulmonary artery (PA) to better characterize RV work in PAH patients. METHODS: 4D flow and standard cardiac cine images were obtained in ten functional class I/II patients with PAH and nine healthy subjects. For each individual, we calculated the RV KE work density and the amount of viscous dissipation in the PA. RESULTS: PAH patients had alterations in flow patterns in both the RV and the PA compared to healthy subjects. PAH subjects had significantly higher RV KE work density than healthy subjects (94.7±33.7 mJ/mL vs. 61.7±14.8 mJ/mL, p = 0.007) as well as a much greater percent PA energy loss (21.1±6.4% vs. 2.2±1.3%, p = 0.0001) throughout the cardiac cycle. RV KE work density and percent PA energy loss had mild and moderate correlations with RV ejection fraction. CONCLUSION: This study has quantified two kinetic energy metrics to assess RV function using 4D flow. RV KE work density and PA viscous energy loss not only distinguished healthy subjects from patients, but also provided distinction amongst PAH patients. These metrics hold promise as imaging markers for RV function.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Resuscitation ; 96: 186-91, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26318576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determination of clinical outcomes following resuscitation from cardiac arrest remains elusive in the immediate post-arrest period. Echocardiographic assessment shortly after resuscitation has largely focused on left ventricular (LV) function. We aimed to determine whether post-arrest right ventricular (RV) dysfunction predicts worse survival and poor neurologic outcome in cardiac arrest patients, independent of LV dysfunction. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care university hospital participating in the Penn Alliance for Therapeutic Hypothermia (PATH) Registry between 2000 and 2012. PATIENTS: 291 in- and out-of-hospital adult cardiac arrest patients at the University of Pennsylvania who had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and post-arrest echocardiograms. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 291 patients, 57% were male, with a mean age of 59 ± 16 years. 179 (63%) patients had LV dysfunction, 173 (59%) had RV dysfunction, and 124 (44%) had biventricular dysfunction on the initial post-arrest echocardiogram. Independent of LV function, RV dysfunction was predictive of worse survival (mild or moderate: OR 0.51, CI 0.26-0.99, p<0.05; severe: OR 0.19, CI 0.06-0.65, p=0.008) and neurologic outcome (mild or moderate: OR 0.33, CI 0.17-0.65, p=0.001; severe: OR 0.11, CI 0.02-0.50, p=0.005) compared to patients with normal RV function after cardiac arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic findings of post-arrest RV dysfunction were equally prevalent as LV dysfunction. RV dysfunction was significantly predictive of worse outcomes in post-arrest patients after accounting for LV dysfunction. Post-arrest RV dysfunction may be useful for risk stratification and management in this high-mortality population.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
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