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2.
Blood Press Monit ; 26(5): 388-392, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001759

RESUMO

Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a marker of cardiac autonomic regulation and an independent predictor of mortality. Aerobic-exercise training conducted in the evening (evening training) produces greater improvement in resting cardiac autonomic control in hypertensives than morning training, suggesting it may also result in a faster autonomic restoration postexercise. This study compared the effects of morning training and evening training on HRR in treated hypertensive men. Forty-nine treated hypertensive men were randomly allocated into three groups: morning training, evening training and control. Training was conducted three times/week for 10 weeks. Training groups cycled (45 min, moderate intensity) while control group stretched (30 min). In the initial and final assessments of the study, HRR60s and HRR300s were evaluated during the active recovery (30 W) from cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) conducted in the morning and evening. Between-within ANOVAs were applied (P ≤ 0.05). Only evening training increased HRR60s and HRR300 differently from control after morning CPET (+4 ± 5 and +7 ± 8 bpm, respectively, P < 0.05) and only evening training increased HRR300s differently from morning training and control after evening CPET (+8 ± 6 bpm, P < 0.05). Evening training improves HRR in treated hypertensive men, suggesting that this time of day is better for eliciting cardiac autonomic improvements via aerobic training in hypertensives.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Hipertensão , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 61(6): 954-963, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875324

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of submaximal walking training (WT) on local and systemic nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, inflammation, and oxidative stress in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). METHODS: The study employed a randomised, controlled, parallel group design and was performed in a single centre. Thirty-two men with IC were randomly allocated to two groups: WT (n = 16, two sessions/week, 15 cycles of two minutes walking at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate obtained at the pain threshold interspersed by two minutes of upright rest) and control (CO, n = 16, two sessions/week, 30 minutes of stretching). NO bioavailability (blood NO and muscle nitric oxide synthase [eNOS]), redox homeostasis (catalase [CAT], superoxide dismutase [SOD], lipid peroxidation [LPO] measured in blood and muscle), and inflammation (interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein [CRP], tumour necrosis factor α [TNF-α], intercellular adhesion molecules [ICAM], vascular adhesion molecules [VCAM] measured in blood and muscle) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. RESULTS: WT statistically significantly increased blood NO, muscle eNOS, blood SOD and CAT, and muscle SOD and abolished the increase in circulating and muscle LPO observed in the CO group. WT decreased blood CRP, ICAM, and VCAM and muscle IL-6 and CRP and eliminated the increase in blood TNF-α and muscle TNF-α, ICAM and VCAM observed in the CO group. CONCLUSION: WT at an intensity of pain threshold improved NO bioavailability and decreased systemic and local oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with IC. The proposed WT protocol provides physiological adaptations that may contribute to cardiovascular health in these patients.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inflamação , Claudicação Intermitente , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/sangue , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/análise
5.
J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 36(5): 498-506, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a single bout of maximal walking on blood and muscle nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, and inflammation in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. METHODS: A total of 35 men with symptomatic PAD performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill (3.2 km/h, 2% increase in grade every 2 minutes). Plasma samples and gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected preexercise and postexercise for assessment of NO bioavailability (plasma NO and muscle, endothelial NO synthase), oxidative stress and antioxidant function (lipid peroxidation [LPO], catalase [CAT], and superoxide dismutase), and inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecules, and vascular adhesion molecules). The effects of the walking exercise were assessed using paired t tests or Wilcoxon tests. RESULTS: After maximal walking, plasma NO and LPO were unchanged (P > .05), plasma CAT decreased, and all blood inflammatory markers increased (all P ≤ .05). In the disease-affected skeletal muscle, endothelial NO synthase, CAT, LPO, and all inflammatory markers increased, whereas superoxide dismutase decreased (all P ≤ .05). CONCLUSION: In patients with symptomatic PAD, maximal exercise induces local and systemic impairments, which may play a key role in atherogenesis. Exercise strategies that avoid maximal effort may be important to reduce local and systemic damage and enhance clinical benefits.

6.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(8): 1484-1490, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741136

RESUMO

Hypertensives present cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Reduction in sleep quality increases blood pressure (BP) and favors hypertension development. Previous studies suggested a relationship between cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction and sleep quality, but it is unclear whether this association is present in hypertensives. Thus, this study evaluated the relationship between sleep quality and cardiac autonomic modulation in hypertensives. Forty-seven middle-aged hypertensive men under consistent anti-hypertensive treatment were assessed for sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-higher score means worse sleep quality). Additionally, their beat-by-beat BP and heart rate (HR) were recorded, and cardiac autonomic modulation was assessed by their variabilities. Mann-Whitney and t tests were used to compare different sleep quality groups: poor (PSQI > 5, n = 24) vs good (PSQI ≤ 5, n = 23), and Spearman's correlations to investigate associations between sleep quality and autonomic markers. Patients with poor sleep quality presented lower cardiac parasympathetic modulation (HR high-frequency band = 26 ± 13 vs 36 ± 15 nu, P = .03; HR total variance = 951 ± 1373 vs 1608 ± 2272 ms2 , P = .05) and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (4.5 ± 2.3 vs 7.1 ± 3.7 ms/mm Hg, P = .01). Additionally, sleep quality score presented significant positive correlation with HR (r = +0.34, P = .02) and negative correlations with HR high-frequency band (r = -0.34, P = .03), HR total variance (r = -0.35, P = .02), and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (r = -0.42, P = .01), showing that poor sleep quality is associated with higher HR and lower cardiac parasympathetic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity. In conclusion, in treated hypertensive men, poor sleep quality is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono
7.
Front Physiol ; 11: 481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714194

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite growing evidence regarding the benefits of resistance training in hypertension, the large and abrupt rise of systolic blood pressure (SBP) observed during resistance exercise execution has resulted in concern about its safety. However, the manipulation of the resistance training protocol (RTP) organization, maintaining the work to rest ratio equated between protocols (W:R-equated), may reduce the SBP increase. Purpose: To compare cardiovascular responses during two W:R-equated RTPs (3 × 15:88 s vs. 9 × 5:22 s - sets × reps: rest between sets) performed in exercises for the lower and upper limbs. Methods: Twelve medicated hypertensives (48 ± 8 years) randomly performed two RTPs in the bilateral leg extension (BLE) and unilateral elbow flexion (UEF) exercises at 50% 1RM. Increases (Δ) of SBP, heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP) during the exercises were measured by photoplethysmography. Results: In both BLE and UEF exercises, Δ SBP was significantly greater during 3 × 15:88 s than 9 × 5:22 s (peak values: BLE = + 84 ± 39 vs. + 67 ± 20 mm Hg, and UEF = + 46 ± 25 vs. + 37 ± 18 mm Hg, respectively, both p < 0.05). ΔHR and ΔRPP were significantly higher in the 3 × 15:88 s than 9 × 5:22 s in BLE (peak values + 45 ± 17 vs. + 30 ± 8 bpm, and + 15,559 ± 5570 vs. + 10,483 ± 2614 mm Hg. bpm). Conclusion: In medicated hypertensives, a RTP combining more sets with less repetitions per set and shorter rest intervals between sets (i.e., 9 × 5:22 s) produced a smaller increase in cardiovascular load (ΔSBP, ΔHR and ΔRPP) during its execution than a protocol with fewer longer sets (i.e., 3 × 15:88 s).

8.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 42(8): 722-727, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is greater after evening than morning exercise, but antihypertensive drugs may affect the evening potentiation of PEH. Objective: To compare morning and evening PEH in hypertensives receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). METHODS: Hypertensive men receiving ACEi (n = 14) or ARB (n = 15) underwent, in a random order, two maximal exercise tests (cycle ergometer, 15 watts/min until exhaustion) with one conducted in the morning (7 and 9 a.m.) and the other in the evening (8 and 10 p.m.). Auscultatory blood pressure (BP) was assessed in triplicate before and 30 min after the exercises. Changes in BP (post-exercise - pre-exercise) were compared between the groups and the sessions using a two-way mixed ANOVA and considering P < .05 as significant. RESULTS: In the ARB group, systolic BP decrease was greater after the evening than the morning exercise, while in the ACEi group, it was not different after the exercises conducted at the different times of the day. Additionally, after the evening exercise, systolic BP decrease was lower in the ACEi than the ARB group (ARB = -11 ± 8 vs -6 ± 6 and ACEi = -6 ± 7 vs. -8 ± 5 mmHg, evening vs. morning, respectively, P for interaction = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: ACEi, but not ARB use, blunts the greater PEH that occurs after exercise conducted in the evening than in the morning.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(5): 533-539, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drinking water is recommended before and after exercise to avoid dehydration. However, water ingestion may mitigate or prevent postexercise hypotension. This study investigated the effects of intentional hydration on postaerobic exercise hemodynamics and autonomic modulation. METHODS: A total of 18 young men randomly underwent 4 experimental sessions as follows: (1) control with intentional hydration (1 L of water in the previous night, 500 mL 60 min before the intervention, and 1 mL for each 1 g of body mass lost immediately after the intervention); (2) control without intentional hydration (ad libitum water ingestion before the intervention); (3) exercise (cycle ergometer, 45 min, 50% of VO2peak) with intentional hydration; and (4) exercise without intentional hydration. Hemodynamic and autonomic parameters were measured before and after the interventions and were compared by 3-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Intentional hydration did not change any postexercise hemodynamic nor autonomic response. Exercise decreased systolic blood pressure and stroke volume (-4.1 [0.8] mm Hg and -4.9 [1.5] mL, P < .05), while increased cardiac sympathovagal balance (0.3 [0.3], P < .05) during the recovery. In addition, it abolished the increase in diastolic blood pressure and the decrease in heart rate observed in the control sessions. CONCLUSION: Intentional hydration does not modify the hypotensive effect promoted by previous aerobic exercise and did not alter its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
Auton Neurosci ; 221: 102582, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493664

RESUMO

Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been widely used to evaluate the integrity of the autonomic nervous system with a slower HRR being associated with greater cardiovascular risk. Different HRR indices have been proposed. Some evaluate HR changes from the end of exercise to a specific recovery moment (e.g. 60s - HRR60s; 120s - HRR120s; 300s - HRR300s) and others calculate time-constant decays of HR for different recovery intervals (e.g. first 30s - T30; the entire period - HRRt). Several studies have examined the reproducibility of these commonly-used HRR indices, but reported discordant findings. Thus, this systematic review was designed to synthesize the reproducibility of HRR. We included studies that evaluated short-term (<1 year) reproducibility of HRR after dynamic exercise by employing typical measures of reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC) and agreement (coefficient of variation, CV). The electronic database PubMed/Medline was searched for relevant studies published up to July 2018. From the initial 120 records identified, 15 studies were retained for the qualitative synthesis of 24 experimental conditions. During most experimental conditions, high ICC and desirable CV were reported for HRR60s (62.5 and 76.2%, respectively), HRR120s (55.6 and 71.4%) and HRR300s (50.0 and 100.0%). While, it were reported during the minority of conditions for HRRt (37.5 and 42.9%) and in none condition for T30 (0.0 and 0.0%). In conclusion, HRR60s, HRR120s and HRR300s exhibited good reproducibility for evaluating HRR in predominantly healthy males within research and clinical settings. In contrast, caution should be taken when employing other HRR indices (T30, HRRt) due to their poorer reproducibility.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Front Physiol ; 10: 762, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293439

RESUMO

Introduction: Previous studies observed diurnal variation in hemodynamic responses during recovery from whole-body exercise, with vasodilation appearing greater after evening versus morning sessions. It is unclear what mechanism(s) underlie this response. Since small muscle-mass exercise can isolate peripheral effects related to postexercise vasodilation, it may provide insight into possible mechanisms behind this diurnal variation. Methods: The study was conducted in ten healthy (5F, 5M) young individuals, following single-leg dynamic knee-extension exercise performed in the Morning (7:30-11:30 am) or the Evening (5-9 pm) on two different days, in random order. Arterial pressure (automated auscultation) and leg blood flow (femoral artery Doppler ultrasound) were measured pre-exercise and during 120 min postexercise. Net effect for each session was calculated as percent change in blood flow (or vascular conductance) between the Active Leg and the Inactive Leg. Results: Following Morning exercise, blood flow was 34.9 ± 8.9% higher in the Active Leg versus the Inactive Leg (p < 0.05) across recovery. Following Evening exercise, blood flow was 35.0 ± 8.8% higher in the Active Leg versus the Inactive Leg (p < 0.05). Likewise, vascular conductance was higher in the Active Leg versus the Inactive Leg (Morning: +35.1 ± 9.0%, p < 0.05; Evening: +33.2 ± 8.2%, p < 0.05). Morning and Evening blood flow (p = 0.66) and vascular conductance (p = 0.64) did not differ. Conclusion: These data suggest previous studies which identified diurnal variations in postexercise vasodilation responses are likely reflecting central rather than peripheral modulation of cardiovascular responses.

12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(2): 399-407, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658080

RESUMO

Paulo, AC, Tricoli, V, Queiroz, ACC, Laurentino, G, and Forjaz, CLM. Blood pressure response during resistance training of different work-to-rest ratio. J Strength Cond Res 33(2): 399-407, 2019-Changes in the work-to-rest ratio (W:R) of resistance training protocols (RTPs) (i.e., decreasing work or increasing rest) reduce the marked elevation in blood pressure (BP) that occurs during RTP execution. However, whether changes in RTP structure without changing W:R can change BP responses to RTP is unknown. To investigate the effect of different structures of rest intervals and number of repetitions per set on BP response among RTP equated and nonequated for W:R, 20 normotensive participants (25 ± 4 years) performed 4 different RTP of the leg extension exercise with the same work but different W:R structures. Two protocols followed the recommendations for cardiovascular disorders: (a) HIGHW:R-3×15:44s-3×15:44s (set×reps:rest between sets), which has high W:R (45reps:88s) and (b) LOWW:R-3×15:88s-3×15:88s, which has low W:R (45reps:176s). The other 2 protocols were W:R-equated to LOWW:R (45reps:176s): (c) LOWW:R-9×5:22s and (d) LOWW:R-45×1:4s. Systolic BP (ΔSBP) and diastolic BP (ΔDBP) were assessed by finger photoplethysmography. There were significant main effects for ΔSBP after RTP (p ≤ 0.05): HIGHW:R-3×15:44s = LOWW:R-3×15:88s > LOWW:R-45×1:4s > LOWW:R-9×5:22s (+87 ± 5 and +84 ± 5 vs. +61 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 mm Hg). For ΔDBP, there was a significant interaction between RTP and moment (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, HIGHW:R-3×15:44 > LOWW:R-3×15:88s > LOWW:R-45×1:4s > LOWW:R-9×5:22s (+53 ± 5 vs. +49 ± 5 vs. +44 ± 4 vs. +38 ± 3 mm Hg). HIGHW:R-3×15:44s produced the highest increase in ΔDBP, and LOWW:R-9×5:22s produced the lowest increase in ΔSBP and ΔDBP. Our findings may help the development of RTP protocols that may mitigate pressure peaks without changing important exercise variables (i.e., volume or duration).


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 57: 144-151, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify, in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (IC), the reproducibility of heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), rate pressure product, heart rate variability (HRV), and forearm and calf blood flow (BF) and vasodilatory assessments. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with IC underwent test and retest sessions, 8-12 days apart. During each session, HR, BP, HRV, BF, and vasodilatory responses were measured by electrocardiogram, auscultation, spectral analysis of HRV (low frequency, LFR-R; high frequency, HFR-R), and strain gauge plethysmography (baseline BF, post-occlusion BF, post-occlusion area under the curve). Reproducibility was determined by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error, coefficient of variation (CV), and limits of agreement. RESULTS: The ICC for HR and BP was >0.8 with CV <9%. For most HRV measures, ICC was >0.9 while CV was <7%, except for LF/HF (ICC = 0.737, CV = 93.8%). The ICC for forearm and calf baseline BF assessments was >0.9 while CV was <19%; variable ICC and CV for vasodilatory responses were exhibited for calf (0.653-0.770, 35.2-37.7%) and forearm (0.169-0.265, 46.2-55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In male patients with IC, systemic hemodynamics (HR and BP), cardiac autonomic modulation (LFR-R and HFR-R), and forearm and calf baseline BF assessments exhibited excellent reproducibility, whereas the level of reproducibility for vasodilatory responses were moderate to poor. Assessment reproducibility has highlighted appropriate clinical tools for the regular monitoring of disease/intervention progression in patients with IC.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Coração/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Pletismografia , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasodilatação
14.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(4): 653-662, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The acute blood pressure (BP) decrease is greater after evening than morning exercise, suggesting that evening training (ET) may have a greater hypotensive effect. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the hypotensive effect of aerobic training performed in the morning versus evening in treated hypertensives. METHODS: Fifty treated hypertensive men were randomly allocated to three groups: morning training (MT), ET, and control (C). Training groups cycled for 45 min at moderate intensity (progressing from the heart rate of the anaerobic threshold to 10% below the heart rate of the respiratory compensation point), while C stretched for 30 min. Interventions were conducted 3 times per week for 10 wk. Clinic and ambulatory BP and hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms were evaluated before and after the interventions. Clinic assessments were performed in the morning (7:00-9:00 AM) and evening (6:00-8:00 PM). Between-within ANOVA was used (P ≤ 0.05). RESULTS: Only ET decreased clinic systolic BP differently from C and MT (morning assessment -5 ± 6 mm Hg and evening assessment -8 ± 7 mm Hg, P < 0.05). Only ET reduced 24 h and asleep diastolic BP differently from C and MT (-3 ± 5 and -3 ± 4 mm Hg, respectively, P < 0.05). Systemic vascular resistance decreased from C only in ET (P = 0.03). Vasomotor sympathetic modulation decreased (P = 0.001) and baroreflex sensitivity (P < 0.02) increased from C in both training groups with greater changes in ET than MT. CONCLUSIONS: In treated hypertensive men, aerobic training performed in the evening decreased clinic and ambulatory BP due to reductions in systemic vascular resistance and vasomotor sympathetic modulation. Aerobic training conducted at both times of day increases baroreflex sensitivity, but with greater after ET.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Barorreflexo/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiologia
15.
J Am Soc Hypertens ; 12(12): e59-e64, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425018

RESUMO

After an exercise session, a reduction of blood pressure (BP) is expected, a phenomenon called postexercise hypotension (PEH). PEH as a predictor of chronic training responses for BP has been broadly explored. It suggests that when PEH occurs after each exercise sessions, its benefits may summate over time, contributing to the chronic adaptation. Thus, PEH is an important clinical tool, acting as a "single brick" in the wall, and building the chronic effect of decreasing BP. However, there is large variation in the literature regarding methodology and results, creating barriers for understanding comparisons among PEH studies. Thus, the differences among subjects' and exercise protocols' characteristics observed in the studies investigating PEH must be considered when readers interpret the results. Furthermore, understanding of these factors of influence might be useful for avoiding misinterpretations in future comparisons and how the subjacent mechanisms contribute to the BP reduction after exercise.

16.
Blood Press Monit ; 23(6): 301-304, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30148716

RESUMO

This study analyzed the reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) after high-intensity interval training (HIIT) sessions. Seventeen normotensive men (23.5±2.4 years) underwent two HIIT and two control sessions separated by 7-10 days. Ambulatory BP monitoring devices were used for 20 h. The intraclass correlation coefficient of BP in the awake and asleep periods ranged from 0.836 to 0.942 in the HIIT (P<0.05) and from 0.777 to 0.974 in the control sessions (P<0.05). The bias, limits of agreement, and pattern of distribution of awake BP were similar between HIIT and control sessions. However, for asleep BP, the bias and limits of agreement were not similar between HIIT and control sessions. In conclusion, in physically active adults, ambulatory BP after HIIT sessions presented good reproducibility only in the awake period.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
PM R ; 10(11): 1145-1152, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) present cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction that impairs blood pressure control. However, cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise are unknown in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise performed with different muscle masses in patients with PD. DESIGN: Prospective, repeated-measures. SETTING: Exercise Hemodynamic Laboratory, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen patients with PD (4 women, 62.7 ± 1.3 years, stages 2-3 of the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale; "on" state of medication) and 13 paired control patients without PD (7 women, 66.2 ± 2.0 years). INTERVENTIONS: Both groups performed, in a random order, bilateral and unilateral knee extension exercises (2 sets, 10-12 maximal repetition, 2-minute intervals). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed before (pre) and during the exercises. RESULTS: Independent of set and exercise type, SBP and HR increases were significantly lower in PD than the control group (combined values: +45 ± 2 versus +73 ± 4 mm Hg and +18 ± 1 versus +31 ± 2 bpm, P = .003 and .007, respectively). Independently of group and set, the SBP increase was greater in the bilateral than the unilateral exercise (combined values: +63 ± 4 versus +54 ± 3 mm Hg, P = .002), whereas the HR increase was similar. In addition, independently of group and exercise type, the SBP increase was greater in the second than the first set (combined values: +56 ± 4 versus +61 ± 4 mm Hg, P = .04), whereas the HR increases were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PD present attenuated increases in SBP and HR during resistance exercise in comparison with healthy subjects. These results support that resistance exercise is safe and well tolerated for patients with PD from a cardiovascular point of view supporting its recommendation for this population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Treinamento de Força , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26 Suppl 1: S5-S13, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464921

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the overarching study design of the South American Youth/Child Cardiovascular and Environmental (SAYCARE) study, which is an observational multicenter feasibility study held in seven South American cities: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Lima (Peru), Medellin (Colombia), Montevideo (Uruguay), Santiago (Chile), and São Paulo and Teresina (Brazil). Children and adolescents (3-17 years of age) were studied. METHODS: The data management systems, quality assurance monitoring activities, standardized operating procedure manuals, and training and study management are addressed in this paper. Various quality controls to ensure the collection of valid and reliable data are also discussed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Data were obtained from 237 preschoolers and schoolchildren and 258 adolescents during the validation phase measurements. The results of the SAYCARE study are expected to provide higher accuracy in the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including eating behaviors, body composition, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, lipid profiles and cardiovascular health biomarkers, oral health, social conditions, environmental factors and home environment, and their determinants in children and adolescents from ages 3 to 17 in seven South American cities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Objetivos , Adolescente , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26 Suppl 1: S23-S30, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to test the reliability and validity of the new and innovative physical activity (PA) questionnaire. METHODS: Subsamples from the South American Youth/Child Cardiovascular and Environment Study (SAYCARE) study were included to examine its reliability (children: n = 161; adolescents: n = 177) and validity (children: n = 82; adolescents: n = 60). The questionnaire consists of three dimensions of PA (leisure, active commuting, and school) performed during the last week. To assess its validity, the subjects wore accelerometers for at least 3 days and 8 h/d (at least one weekend day). The reliability was analyzed by correlation coefficients. In addition, Bland-Altman analysis and a multilevel regression were applied to estimate the measurement bias, limits of agreement, and influence of contextual variables. RESULTS: In children, the questionnaire showed consistent reliability (ρ = 0.56) and moderate validity (ρ = 0.46), and the contextual variable variance explained 43.0% with -22.9 min/d bias. In adolescents, the reliability was higher (ρ = 0.76) and the validity was almost excellent (ρ = 0.88), with 66.7% of the variance explained by city level with 16.0 min/d PA bias. CONCLUSIONS: The SAYCARE PA questionnaire shows acceptable (in children) to strong (in adolescents) reliability and strong validity in the measurement of PA in the pediatric population from low- to middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
20.
Gait Posture ; 61: 90-97, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29310015

RESUMO

Resistance training with instability (RTI) uses exercises with high motor complexity that impose high postural control and cognitive demands that may be important for improving postural instability and fear of falling in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we hypothesized that: 1) RTI will be more effective than resistance training (RT) in improving balance (Balance Evaluation Systems Test [BESTest] and overall stability index [Biodex Balance System®]) and fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale-International [FES-I] score) of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD); and 2) changes in BESTest and FES-I after RTI will be associated with changes in cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA] score - previously published) induced by RTI. Thirty-nine subjects with moderate PD were randomly assigned to a nonexercising control, RT, and RTI groups. While RT and RTI groups performed progressive RT twice a week for 12 weeks, the RTI group added progressive unstable devices to increase motor complexity of the resistance exercises. There were significant group × time interactions for BESTest, overall stability index, and FES-I scores (P < 0.05). Only RTI improved BESTest, overall stability index and FES-I scores, and RTI was more effective than RT in improving biomechanical constraints and stability in gait (BESTest sections) at post-training (P < 0.05). There were strong correlations between relative changes in BESTest and MoCA (r = 0.72, P = 0.005), and FES-I and MoCA (r = -0.75, P = 0.003) after RTI. Due to the increased motor complexity in RTI, RTI is recommended for improving balance and fear of falling, which are associated with improvement in cognitive function of PD.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia
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