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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 309-316, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner's protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre- and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Caminhada , Pressão Sanguínea , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente , Masculino
2.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(5): 898-905, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking training (WT) improves walking capacity and reduces clinic blood pressure (BP) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), but its effects on ambulatory BP remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of WT on ambulatory BP and its variability in patients with PAD. METHODS: Thirty-five male patients with PAD and claudication symptoms were randomly allocated into two groups: control (n = 16, 30 min of stretching) and WT (n = 19, 15 bouts of 2 min of walking at the heart rate of leg pain threshold interspersed by 2 min of upright rest). Before and after 12 weeks, 24-hour ambulatory BP was assessed. Ambulatory BP variability indices assessed at both time points included the 24-hour standard deviation (SD24), the awake and asleep weighted standard deviation (SDdn), and the 24-hour average real variability (ARV24). Data were analyzed by mixed two-way ANOVAs, considering P<0.05 as significant. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, neither group had significant changes in 24-hour, awake and sleep BPs. The WT decreased systolic and mean BP variabilities (Systolic BP - 13.3±2.8 vs 11.8±2.3, 12.1±2.84 vs 10.7±2.5 and 9.4±2.3 vs 8.8±2.2 mmHg); Mean BP - 11.0±1.7 vs 10.4±1.9, 10.1±1.6 vs 9.1±1.7 and 8.0.±1.7 vs 7.2±1.5 mmHg) for SD24, SDdn and ARV24, respectively). Neither group had significant changes in diastolic BP variabilities after 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The WT does not change ambulatory BP levels but decreases ambulatory BP variability in patients with PAD. This improvement may have a favorable impact on the cardiovascular risk of patients with symptomatic PAD. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(5):898-905).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Caminhada , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/terapia , Masculino
3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 116(3): 516-658, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909761
4.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. RESULTS: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. CONCLUSION: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
5.
Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Rodrigues, Cibele Isaac Saad; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Mota-Gomes, Marco Antônio; Brandão, Andréa Araujo; Feitosa, Audes Diógenes de Magalhães; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; Amodeo, Celso; Mion Júnior, Décio; Barbosa, Eduardo Costa Duarte; Nobre, Fernando; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Vilela-Martin, José Fernando; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos; Magalhães, Maria Eliane Campos; Neves, Mário Fritsch Toros; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; Miranda, Roberto Dischinger; Póvoa, Rui Manuel dos Santos; Fuchs, Sandra C; Alessi, Alexandre; Lucena, Alexandre Jorge Gomes de; Avezum, Alvaro; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Pio-Abreu, Andrea; Sposito, Andrei Carvalho; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo; Paiva, Annelise Machado Gomes de; Spinelli, Antonio Carlos de Souza; Nogueira, Armando da Rocha; Dinamarco, Nelson; Eibel, Bruna; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia de Moraes; Zanini, Claudia Regina de Oliveira; Souza, Cristiane Bueno de; Souza, Dilma do Socorro Moraes de; Nilson, Eduardo Augusto Fernandes; Costa, Elisa Franco de Assis; Freitas, Elizabete Viana de; Duarte, Elizabeth da Rosa; Muxfeldt, Elizabeth Silaid; Lima Júnior, Emilton; Campana, Erika Maria Gonçalves; Cesarino, Evandro José; Marques, Fabiana; Argenta, Fábio; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Baptista, Fernanda Spadotto; Almeida, Fernando Antonio de; Borelli, Flávio Antonio de Oliveira; Fuchs, Flávio Danni; Plavnik, Frida Liane; Salles, Gil Fernando; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Silva, Giovanio Vieira da; Guerra, Grazia Maria; Moreno Júnior, Heitor; Finimundi, Helius Carlos; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Oliveira Filho, João Bosco de; Gemelli, João Roberto; Mill, José Geraldo; Ribeiro, José Marcio; Lotaif, Leda A. Daud; Costa, Lilian Soares da; Magalhães, Lucélia Batista Neves Cunha; Drager, Luciano Ferreira; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Scala, Luiz César Nazário; Almeida, Madson Q; Gowdak, Marcia Maria Godoy; Klein, Marcia Regina Simas Torres; Malachias, Marcus Vinícius Bolívar; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Pinheiro, Maria Eliete; Borba, Mario Henrique Elesbão de; Moreira Filho, Osni; Passarelli Júnior, Oswaldo; Coelho, Otavio Rizzi; Vitorino, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira; Ribeiro Junior, Renault Mattos; Esporcatte, Roberto; Franco, Roberto; Pedrosa, Rodrigo; Mulinari, Rogerio Andrade; Paula, Rogério Baumgratz de; Okawa, Rogério Toshiro Passos; Rosa, Ronaldo Fernandes; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Ferreira-Filho, Sebastião R; Kaiser, Sergio Emanuel; Jardim, Thiago de Souza Veiga; Guimarães, Vanildo; Koch, Vera H; Oigman, Wille; Nadruz, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(3): 516-658, Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1248881
6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E18, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity (PA) practice is a way to combat cardiovascular disease, and a PA interventional program, including individualized prescription of walking with limited supervision of execution, may be a strategy to be applied in public parks. Thus, our study tested the effects of a real-world program like this on cardiovascular risk and cardiorespiratory fitness (CF) of the users of a public park. METHODS: Data came from the Exercise and Heart Project, a real-life park-based PA interventional program. The study phases were 1) a preintervention evaluation; 2) the individualized prescription of PA; 3) the supervision of the first practice sessions; 4) the unsupervised execution of the prescription; and 5) a postintervention evaluation. RESULTS: Data from 152 participants (mainly women and aged 40 to 80 years) were analyzed. The intervention significantly increased CF (mean [standard deviation], 99 [19] steps vs 110 [21] steps, P < .001) and reduced body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure, decreasing global cardiovascular risk (mean [standard deviation], 0.15 [2.84] vs -0.52 [2.60]; P < .001). The effects of intervention on cardiovascular risk were not different between the participants with low and high initial CF or PA levels. CONCLUSION: The proposed real-life park-based PA interventional program decreased cardiovascular risk of the participants independently of their initial PA or CF levels.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 71: 9-18, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking is recommended for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). It has been shown that patients with PAD present sharper increases in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) during maximal walking when compared with healthy subjects. Additionally, women with PAD present a worse physiological profile, and it is possible that they may present higher cardiovascular load during and after a bout of maximal walking than men. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic responses during and after maximal walking between men and women with PAD and intermittent claudication (IC). METHODS: Forty patients with PAD and IC (20 men and 20 women) underwent, in random order, 2 sessions: control (standing on treadmill) and exercise (maximal treadmill walking test with Gardner's protocol). During the exercise, HR and BP were measured. Before and after the sessions, cardiovascular variables (BP HR, cardiac output, peripheral vascular resistance, and stroke volume) and autonomic modulation (HR and BP variabilities and baroreflex sensitivity) were assessed. In addition, an ambulatory BP monitoring was recorded after each session. RESULTS: Men and women presented similar maximal walking capacity. During the walking test, HR and systolic BP increased similarly in men and women. After the maximal walking, cardiovascular and autonomic responses did not differ between the genders. In addition, postintervention ambulatory BP parameters were also similar in men and women. Therefore, in men and women, maximal walking similarly reduced clinic systolic BP and stroke volume, and increased HR and total power of HR variability during the recovery period. CONCLUSIONS: Men and women with PAD and IC present similar cardiovascular and autonomic responses during and after maximal walking.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/inervação , Hemodinâmica , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Caminhada , Idoso , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Débito Cardíaco , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resistência Vascular
8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO5940, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance training on metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twenty-four patients with Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 to 3) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control or Resistance Training. Patients in the Resistance Training Group completed an exercise program consisting of five resistance exercises (two to four sets of six to 12 repetitions maximum per set) twice a week. Patients in the Control Group maintained their usual lifestyle. Oxygen uptake, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were assessed at rest and during cycle ergometer-based maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline and at 12 weeks. Assessments during exercise were conducted at absolute submaximal intensity (slope of the linear regression line between physiological variables and absolute workloads), at relative submaximal intensity (anaerobic threshold and respiratory compensation point) and at maximal intensity (maximal exercise). Muscle strength was also evaluated. Results: Both groups had similar increase in peak oxygen uptake after 12 weeks of training. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure measured at absolute and relative submaximal intensities and at maximal exercise intensity did not change in any of the groups. Muscle strength increased in the Resistance Training but not in the Control Group after 12 weeks. Conclusion: Resistance training increases muscle strength but does not change metabolic and cardiovascular responses during maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with Parkinson's disease without cardiovascular comorbidities.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento resistido nas respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo em pacientes com doença de Parkinson. Métodos: Vinte e quarto pacientes com doença de Parkinson (estágios 2 a 3 de Hoehn e Yahr modificado) foram aleatoriamente randomizados em dois grupos: Controle e Treinamento Resistido. O Grupo Treinamento Resistido realizou, duas vezes por semana, cinco exercícios resistidos, duas a quatro séries, seis a 12 repetições máximas por série. O Grupo Controle manteve seu estilo de vida. No início e após 12 semanas, consumo de oxigênio, pressão arterial sistólica e frequência cardíaca foram avaliados em repouso e durante um teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo realizado em um cicloergômetro. As avaliações durante o exercício foram realizadas nas intensidades submáximas (a inclinação da regressão linear entre as variáveis fisiológicas e as cargas absolutas), nas intensidades submáximas relativas (limiar anaeróbico e ponto de compensação respiratória) e na intensidade máxima (pico do exercício). Adicionalmente, foi avaliada a força muscular. Resultados: Comparado com o início, o consumo de oxigênio pico aumentou, de forma semelhante, em ambos os grupos após 12 semanas. A frequência cardíaca e a pressão arterial sistólica avaliadas nas intensidades submáximas absolutas e relativas, assim como no pico do exercício, não se modificaram em nenhum dos grupos. Finalmente, diferente do Grupo Controle, a força muscular aumentou no Grupo Treinamento Resistido após 12 semanas. Conclusão: Em pacientes com doença de Parkinson sem comorbidades cardiovasculares, o treinamento resistido aumenta a força muscular, mas não modifica as respostas metabólicas e cardiovasculares ao teste de esforço cardiopulmonar máximo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Treinamento de Força , Limiar Anaeróbio , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca
9.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262435

RESUMO

Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a clinically relevant phenomenon, but its mechanisms vary between different studies and between the participants within each study. Additionally, it is possible that PEH mechanisms are not consistent in each individual (i.e. within-individual variation), which has not been investigated yet. Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the within-individual consistency of PEH hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms. For that, 30 subjects performed 4 sessions divided in 2 blocks (test and retest). In each block, an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (seated rest, 45 min) session was randomly conducted. Blood pressure (BP) and its mechanisms were evaluated pre- and post-interventions. In each block, individual responses were calculated as post-exercise minus post-control, and a response was considered present when its magnitude reached the typical error of the measurement. Consistencies were evaluated by comparing test and retest responses through kappa coefficient (k). PEH consistency was calculated using role sample, while mechanisms consistency was evaluated in those with consistent PEH. Twenty-one (70%) participants showed consistent PEH, 5 (17%) presented PEH in only test or retest and 4 (13%) had absent PEH response, characterising a good consistency (k = 0.510). Regarding mechanisms' responses, good consistency was found for heart rate (k = 0.456), sympathovagal balance (k = 0.438), and baroreflex sensitivity (k = 0.458); while systemic vascular resistance (k = 0.152), cardiac output (k = -0.400), stroke volume (k = -0.055), and sympathetic vasomotor modulation (k = -0.096) presented marginal consistencies. Thus, PEH is a highly consistent physiological phenomenon, although its mechanisms present variable consistencies.

10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 5, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multicenter studies from Europe and the United States have developed specifically standardized questionnaires for assessing and comparing sedentary behavior, but they cannot be directly applied for South American countries. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the South American Youth Cardiovascular and Environmental (SAYCARE) sedentary behavior questionnaire. METHODS: Children and adolescents from seven South American cities were involved in the test-retest reliability (children: n = 55; adolescents: n = 106) and concurrent validity (children: n = 93; adolescents: n = 94) studies. The SAYCARE sedentary behavior questionnaire was administered twice with two-week interval and the behaviors were parent-reported for children and self-reported for adolescents. Questions included time spent watching television, using a computer, playing console games, passive playing (only in children) and studying (only in adolescents) over the past week. Accelerometer was used for at least 3 days, including at least one weekend day. We compared values of sedentary time, using accelerometers, by quartiles of reported sedentary behavior time and their sum. RESULTS: The reliability of sedentary behavior time was moderate for children (rho ≥0.45 and k ≥ 0.40) and adolescents (rho ≥0.30). Comparisons between the questionnaire and accelerometer showed a low overall agreement, with the questionnaire systematically underreporting sedentary time in children (at least, - 332.6 ± 138.5 min/day) and adolescents (at least, - 399.7 ± 105.0 min/day). CONCLUSION: The SAYCARE sedentary behavior questionnaire has acceptable reliability in children and adolescents. However, the findings of current study indicate that SAYCARE questionnaire is not surrogate of total sedentary time.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , América do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Hum Hypertens ; 34(10): 719-726, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965012

RESUMO

Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) has been assessed by three calculation approaches: I = (post-exercise - pre-exercise), II = (post-exercise - post-control), and III = [(post-exercise - pre-exercise) - (post-control - pre-control)]. This study checked whether these calculation approaches influence PEH and its determinants. For that, 30 subjects underwent two exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50% VO2 peak) and two control (seated rest, 45 min) sessions. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures, cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), heart rate (HR), and stroke volume (SV) were measured pre- and post-interventions in each session. The mean value for each moment in each type of session was calculated, and responses to exercise were analyzed with each approach (I, II, and III) to evaluate the occurrence of PEH and its determinants. Systolic PEH was significant when calculated by all approaches (I = -5 ± 1, II = -11 ± 2, and III = -11 ± 2 mmHg, p < 0.05), while diastolic PEH was only significant when calculated by approaches II and III (-6 ± 1 and -6 ± 1 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.05). CO decreased significantly after the exercise when calculated by approach I, but remained unchanged with approaches II and III, while SVR increased significantly with approach I, but decreased significantly with approaches II and III. HR was unchanged after the exercise with approach I, but increased significantly with approaches II and III, while SV decreased significantly with all approaches. Thus, PEH and its hemodynamic determinants are influenced by the calculation approach, which should be considered when designing, analyzing, and comparing PEH studies.

12.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 40(2): 114-121, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is determined by cardiac autonomic restoration after exercise and is reduced in hypertension. Postexercise cooling accelerates HRR in healthy subjects, but its effects in a population with cardiac autonomic dysfunction, such as hypertensives (HT), may be blunted. This study assessed and compared the effects of postexercise cooling on HRR and cardiac autonomic regulation in HT and normotensive (NT) subjects. METHODS: Twenty-three never-treated HT (43 ± 8 years) and 25 NT (45 ± 8 years) men randomly underwent two exercise sessions (30 min of cycling at 70% VO2peak ) followed by 15 min of recovery. In one randomly allocated session, a fan was turned on in front of the subject during the recovery (cooling), while in the other session, no cooling was performed (control). HRR was assessed by heart rate reductions after 60 s (HRR60s) and 300 s (HRR300s) of recovery, short-term time constant of HRR (T30) and the time constant of the HRR after exponential fitting (HRRτ). HRV was assessed using time- and frequency-domain indices. RESULTS: HRR and HRV responses in the cooling and control sessions were similar between the HT and NT. Thus, in both groups, postexercise cooling equally accelerated HRR (HRR300s = 39±12 versus 36 ± 10 bpm, P≤0·05) and increased postexercise HRV (lnRMSSD = 1·8 ± 0·7 versus 1·6 ± 0·7 ms, P≤0·05). CONCLUSION: Differently from the hypothesis, postexercise cooling produced similar improvements in HRR in HT and NT men, likely by an acceleration of cardiac parasympathetic reactivation and sympathetic withdrawal. These results suggest that postexercise cooling equally accelerates HRR in hypertensive and normotensive subjects.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 29(4,Supl): 415-422, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047339

RESUMO

O exercício físico é recomendado no tratamento da hipertensão arterial. Agudamente, a execução do exercício promove aumento da pressão arterial (PA), mas, no período de recuperação pós-exercício, é possível evidenciar redução da PA e, principalmente, após um período de treinamento físico crônico, pode haver diminuição da PA clínica e de 24 horas dos hipertensos. Apesar desses efeitos serem conhecidos, sua magnitude e mecanismos dependem do tipo de exercício executado e de suas características. Este artigo revê os efeitos agudos e crônicos clássicos do exercício aeróbico e os efeitos mais recentemente estudados dos exercícios resistidos isométrico e dinâmico na PA, seus mecanismos e fatores de influência, ressaltando os pontos que embasam as recomendações atuais sobre o uso do exercício na hipertensão arterial. O conhecimento atual demonstra que: 1) o exercício aeróbico promove aumento da PA sistólica durante sua execução, gera hipotensão pós-exercício clinicamente relevante e reduz a PA clínica e de 24 horas após o treinamento; 2) o exercício resistido isométrico promove aumento progressivo da PA sistólica e diastólica durante sua execução, não produz hipotensão pós-exercício consistente e reduz a PA clínica após o treinamento, mas esse efeito hipotensor ocorre com um protocolo específico de exercício de handgrip; e 3) o exercício resistido dinâmico promove grande aumento da PA sistólica e diastólica durante sua execução, gera hipotensão pós-exercício cuja relevância clínica ainda precisa ser comprovada e parece diminuir a PA clínica, mas não a ambulatorial, após o treinamento. Face a esses conhecimentos, o treinamento aeróbico complementado pelo resistido dinâmico é recomendado na hipertensão


Physical exercise is recommended for hypertension treatment. Acutely, exercise execution increases blood pressure (BP), but, during the recovery period, BP decreases, and after a chronic training period, clinic and ambulatory BP may decrease in hypertensives. Despite these known effects of exercise, their magnitude and mechanisms depend on the type of exercise and its characteristics. This article reviews the classical acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise and the more recent knowledge about isometric and dynamic resistance exercises on BP, its mechanisms and factors of influence, highlighting the aspects underlying exercise recommendations for hypertension. Current scientific knowledge shows that: 1) aerobic exercise increases systolic BP during its execution, produces a clinically significant post-exercise hypotension, and chronically decreases clinic and 24-hour BP; 2) isometric resistance exercise produces a progressive increase in systolic and diastolic BP during its execution, does not promote consistent post-exercise hypotension, and decreases clinic BP after training, but this hypotensive effect results from a specific protocol of isometric handgrip; and 3) dynamic resistance exercise produces a huge progressive increase in systolic and diastolic BP during its execution, promotes post-exercise hypotension with questionable clinical relevance, and seems to decrease clinic but not ambulatory BP after training. Based on this current knowledge, regular aerobic exercise complemented by dynamic resistance exercise is recommended for hypertension


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Volume Sistólico , Débito Cardíaco , Fatores de Risco , Frequência Cardíaca , Hipotensão
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 487-497, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288287

RESUMO

Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a clinically relevant phenomenon that has been widely investigated. However, the characteristics of study designs, such as familiarization to blood pressure measurements, duration of PEH assessments or strategies to analyze PEH present discrepancies across studies. Thus identifying key points to standardize across PEH studies is necessary to help researchers to build stronger study designs, to facilitate comparisons across studies, and to avoid misinterpretations of results. The goal of this narrative review of methods used in PEH studies was therefore to gather and find possible influencers in the characteristics of study design and strategies to analyze blood pressure. Data found in this review suggest that PEH studies should have at least two familiarization screening visits, and should assess blood pressure for at least 20 min, but preferably for 120 min, during recovery from exercise. Another important aspect is the strategy to analyze PEH, which may lead to different interpretations. This information should guide a priori study design decisions.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipotensão Pós-Exercício/diagnóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Postura , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 215-221, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011170

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the familial aggregation and heritability of markers of metabolic risk, physical activity, and physical fitness in nuclear families from Muzambinho (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Subjects and methods The study included members of 139 families, comprising 97 fathers (aged 40 ± 7 years), 129 mothers (35 ± 6 years), 136 sons (12 ± 4 years), and 121 daughters (12 ± 5 years). Evaluated markers included (A) body mass index, waist circumference, glycemia, and cholesterolemia, as metabolic risk markers; (B) total weekly volume of physical activity, as a physical activity marker; and (C) relative muscle strength, as a physical fitness marker. Correlations between family members and heritability (h2) were estimated using the software S.A.G.E. Results Significant familial correlations were obtained between parents-offspring for glycemia and cholesterolemia (both ρ = 0.21, p < 0.05) and relative muscle strength (ρ = 0.23, p < 0.05), and between siblings for waist circumference, glycemia, total weekly volume of physical activity, and relative muscle strength (ρ variation 0.25 to 0.36, p < 0.05). Heritability values were significant for almost all variables (h2 variations: 20% to 57% for metabolic risk markers, 22% for the total weekly volume of physical activity, and 50% for relative muscle strength), except for waist circumference (h2 = 15%, p = 0.059). Conclusion The presence of significant correlations between family members and/or significant heritability strengthens the possible genetic and/or common familial environment influence on metabolic risk markers, total weekly volume of physical activity, and relative muscle strength.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Composição Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 215-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the familial aggregation and heritability of markers of metabolic risk, physical activity, and physical fitness in nuclear families from Muzambinho (Minas Gerais, Brazil). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included members of 139 families, comprising 97 fathers (aged 40 ± 7 years), 129 mothers (35 ± 6 years), 136 sons (12 ± 4 years), and 121 daughters (12 ± 5 years). Evaluated markers included (A) body mass index, waist circumference, glycemia, and cholesterolemia, as metabolic risk markers; (B) total weekly volume of physical activity, as a physical activity marker; and (C) relative muscle strength, as a physical fitness marker. Correlations between family members and heritability (h2) were estimated using the software S.A.G.E. RESULTS: Significant familial correlations were obtained between parents-offspring for glycemia and cholesterolemia (both ρ = 0.21, p < 0.05) and relative muscle strength (ρ = 0.23, p < 0.05), and between siblings for waist circumference, glycemia, total weekly volume of physical activity, and relative muscle strength (ρ variation 0.25 to 0.36, p < 0.05). Heritability values were significant for almost all variables (h2 variations: 20% to 57% for metabolic risk markers, 22% for the total weekly volume of physical activity, and 50% for relative muscle strength), except for waist circumference (h2 = 15%, p = 0.059). CONCLUSION: The presence of significant correlations between family members and/or significant heritability strengthens the possible genetic and/or common familial environment influence on metabolic risk markers, total weekly volume of physical activity, and relative muscle strength.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Núcleo Familiar , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26 Suppl 1: S41-S46, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29464919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the validity of an automatic oscillometric device to measure the blood pressure (BP) in children (n = 191) and adolescents (n = 127) aged 3 to 18 years. METHODS: Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) levels were measured simultaneous by automatic device and mercury column with Y-connection. To verify the validity, Bland-Altman plots and limits of agreement of 95% (95% LOA), specificity and sensitivity of the device, and the grade of British Hypertension Society (BHS) criteria were used. RESULTS: The monitor measurements demonstrated lower measurement bias (mean difference [95% LOA]): 1.4 (-9.9 to 12.8) mmHg in children and 4.3 (-7.8 to 16.5) mmHg in adolescents for SBP. For DBP, it was 2.2 (-7.4 to 11.7) mmHg in children and 1.4 (-8.4 to 11.1) mmHg in adolescents. The sensitivity in children was 21.4 (95% CI = 16.3-26.6), and in adolescents, it was 20.0 (95% CI = 13.2-26.8); the specificity was 95.9 (95% CI = 93.4-98.4) in children and 100.0 (95% CI = 100.0-100.0) in adolescents. The monitor-tested ratings are Grade B for SBP in children and SBP and DBP in adolescents and Grade C for DBP in children. CONCLUSIONS: The automatic monitor presented high values of specificity and lower values of sensitivity to the diagnosis of HBP; however, it can be considered accurate (lower measurement bias) and valid for epidemiological and clinical practice in accordance with BHS criteria.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Monitores de Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitores de Pressão Arterial/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados , Grupos Étnicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , América do Sul/epidemiologia
18.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(5): 927-933, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether virtual reality games (VRGs) in stroke survivors produce significant and reproducible heart rate and oxygen consumption (V˙o2) responses during their execution, corresponding to an intensity between the anaerobic threshold (AT) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). DESIGN: Single-subject, repeated-measure design. SETTING: Stroke survivors registered from a rehabilitation program. PARTICIPANTS: Chronic hemiparetic stroke survivors (N=12; 10 men; mean age ± SD, 58±12y) rated at 3 or 4 in the Functional Ambulation Categories. INTERVENTIONS: Participants underwent, in a random order, 2 identical sessions of VRGs (console Xbox 360 + Kinect) and 1 control session (38min watching a movie). The VRG sessions were composed of 4 sets of VRGs (3min of tennis, 1min for changing the game, and 4min of boxing) interspaced with 2 minutes of rest. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate and V˙o2 were measured during the experimental sessions and compared with heart rate and V˙o2 obtained at AT and RCP assessed during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. RESULTS: Heart rate and V˙o2 during VRGs had good reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficients, ≥.91 and ≥.85, respectively; coefficients of variation, ≤6.7% and ≤13.7%, respectively). Heart rate during VRGs was similar to AT and significantly lower than RCP (P≤.05), while V˙o2 was significantly lower than AT and RCP (P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute session of VRGs composed of tennis and boxing games using the console XBox 360 + Kinect promotes reproducible responses of heart rate and V˙o2 that corresponded, respectively, to AT and below AT, characterizing a low-intensity aerobic stimulus.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Paresia/reabilitação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Limiar Anaeróbio , Boxe/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Paresia/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Tênis/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual
19.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 24(1): 73-77, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-899029

RESUMO

RESUMO Introdução: A relação negativa entre atividade física, aptidão física e risco cardiovascular está bem estabelecida em populações com baixos níveis de atividade física. Objetivo: O presente estudo investigou essa relação em adultos de Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, uma população com alta taxa de indivíduos fisicamente ativos. Métodos: Participaram 237 indivíduos (132 mulheres), na maioria jovens (44,3% entre 20 e 39 anos). Foram avaliados indicadores de risco cardiovascular (índice de massa corporal, circunferência da cintura, glicemia de jejum, colesterolemia de jejum e pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica), atividade física (volume semanal de atividade física total) e aptidão física (aptidão aeróbica e força manual relativa). Resultados: Mais de 90% dos indivíduos foram classificados como ativos (praticavam atividade física por mais de 150 min/semana). A regressão linear identificou associação negativa da força manual relativa e da aptidão aeróbica ao índice de massa corporal e a circunferência da cintura, bem como associação positiva da força manual relativa à pressão arterial diastólica. Os indicadores de atividade física e aptidão física não se associaram ao risco cardiovascular global. Conclusão: Nessa população, a relação inversa entre atividade física, aptidão física e risco cardiovascular limitou-se aos indicadores de aptidão física e aos de obesidade, sugerindo que em populações com alta taxa de indivíduos fisicamente ativos, o aumento da aptidão física, mas não da atividade física, pode ajudar a reduzir a obesidade. Nível de Evidência II; ECRC de menor qualidade.


ABSTRACT Introduction: The negative relationship between physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk is well established in populations with low levels of physical activity. Objective: The present study investigated this relationship in adults from Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, a population with a high rate of physically active individuals. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-seven individuals (132 women), mostly young adults (44.3% between 20 and 39 years) were assessed. Cardiovascular risk predictors (body mass index, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, fasting cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), physical activity (total weekly volume of total physical activity) and physical fitness (aerobic fitness and relative hand strength) were measured. Results: More than 90% of the individuals were classified as active (they practiced physical activity for more than 150 min/week). Linear regression identified a negative association of relative hand strength and aerobic fitness to body mass index and waist circumference, as well as a positive association of relative hand strength with diastolic blood pressure. The indicators of physical activity and physical fitness showed no association with global cardiovascular risk. Conclusion: In this population, the inverse relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and cardiovascular risk was limited to physical fitness and obesity indicators, suggesting that in populations with high rates of physically active individuals, the increase in physical fitness, but not in physical activity, can help reduce obesity. Level of Evidence II; Lesser quality RCT.


RESUMEN Introducción: La relación negativa entre actividad física, aptitud física y riesgo cardiovascular está bien establecida en poblaciones con bajos niveles de actividad física. Objetivo: Este estudio investigó esta relación en adultos de Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, una población con una alta tasa de individuos físicamente activos. Métodos: Participaron 237 individuos (132 mujeres), en su mayoría jóvenes (44,3% entre los 20 y 39 años). Se evaluaron indicadores de riesgo cardiovascular (índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, glucosa en ayunas, colesterol en ayunas y presión arterial sistólica y diastólica), actividad física (volumen semanal de actividad física total) y aptitud física (capacidad aeróbica y fuerza relativa de la mano). Resultados: Más del 90% de los individuos fueron clasificados como activos (practicaban actividad física por más de 150 min/semana). La regresión lineal identificó asociación negativa de la fuerza relativa de la mano y la capacidad aeróbica al índice de masa corporal y la circunferencia de la cintura, así como la asociación positiva de la fuerza relativa de la mano a la presión arterial diastólica. Los indicadores de actividad física y aptitud física no se asociaron al riesgo cardiovascular global. Conclusión: En esta población, la relación inversa entre actividad física, aptitud física y riesgo cardiovascular se limitó a los indicadores de aptitud física y obesidad, lo que sugiere que en poblaciones con alta tasa de individuos físicamente activos, el aumento de la aptitud física, pero no de la actividad física, puede ayudar a reducir la obesidad. Nivel de Evidencia II; ECRC de menor calidad.

20.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 38(4): 603-609, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR) is a non-invasive tool for cardiac autonomic function assessment. Reproducibility of HRR has been established in healthy subjects; however, no study has evaluated this reproducibility in clinical populations who may present autonomic dysfunction. Patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication (IC) often present altered cardiac autonomic function and HRR could be an interesting tool for evaluating autonomic responses to interventions in this population. Therefore, the reproducibility of HRR should be determined in this specific population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reproducibility of HRR indices in patients with IC. METHODS: Nineteen men with IC underwent two repeated maximal treadmill tests. Raw HR and relative HRR (difference to exercise peak) indices measured at 30, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300s of recovery were evaluated. The presence of systematic bias was assessed by comparing test and retest mean values via paired t-test. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and agreement by typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV) and minimal detectable difference (MDD). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the test and retest values of all raw HR and relative HRR indices (P ≥ 0·05), except for HR120s (P = 0·032). All indices exhibited excellent reliability (ICC ≥ 0·78). Raw HR and relative HRR indices showed TEs ≤ 6·4 bpm and MDDs ≤ 17·8 bpm. In addition, all indices showed CVs ≤ 13·2%, except HRR30s (CV = 45·6%). CONCLUSIONS: The current results demonstrated that most HRR indices were highly reproducible with no systematic error, excellent reliability and good agreement in patients with IC following maximal graded exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Claudicação Intermitente/fisiopatologia , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
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