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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(17): e013686, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475601

RESUMO

Background Frailty is a predictor of adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results We estimated the prevalence of frailty among adults age ≥75 years admitted with AMI and examined the relationship between frailty, interventions, and mortality. We used the Premier Healthcare Database to identify older adults with primary diagnoses of AMI. We classified individuals as frail or not using the validated Claims-based Frailty Index. We described patients' characteristics and receipt of percutaneous coronary intervention stratified by frailty status. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. From 2000 to 2016, we identified 469 390 encounters for older patients admitted with AMI. The median age was 82 years, 53% were women, and 75% were white. The prevalence of frailty was 19%. Frail patients were less likely to receive percutaneous coronary intervention than nonfrail (15% versus 33%, P<0.001) and much less likely to receive coronary artery bypass surgery (1% versus 9%, P<0.001). There were far fewer interventions in individuals over age 85 years. Frailty was associated with higher mortality during AMI admission (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, CI 1.39-1.46). While there was a differential benefit of the interventions because of frailty, frail patients had reduced hospital mortality with percutaneous coronary intervention (frail: OR 0.59, CI 0.55-0.63; nonfrail: OR 0.49, CI 0.47-0.50, P for interaction <0.001) and with coronary artery bypass surgery (frail: OR 0.77, CI 0.65-0.93; nonfrail: OR 0.74, CI 0.71-0.77, P for interaction <0.001) relative to no intervention. Conclusions In the United States, frailty is common among older patients admitted with AMI. While these vulnerable patients are at an increased risk for mortality, judicial use of revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention in frail older patients still confers immediate survival benefit.

3.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(4): 407-421, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543175

RESUMO

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases with age and is endemic in the burgeoning population of older adults. Older adults with CVD are susceptible not only to high mortality but also to increased likelihood of disability, dependency, functional decline, and poor quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidimensional and comprehensive treatment program that can potentially address many of the distinctive challenges of older adults with CVD. In this review, the wide range of potential benefits of CR for older adults with CVD is summarized.

5.
Clin Geriatr Med ; 35(4): 549-560, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543185

RESUMO

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an inherently patient-centered program that provides holistic care to adults with cardiovascular conditions to promote lifelong health and fitness, facilitate self-care and self-efficacy, and improve clinical outcomes. CR offers an excellent platform for patient-centered optimization of medication regimens for older adults with heart failure through its potential to address several aspects of care that have historically served as major challenges to clinicians-diuretic management, the use of guideline-directed medical therapy, review and reconciliation of noncardiovascular medications, and optimization of medication adherence. In this review, these challenges are described and strategies offered for leveraging CR toward addressing them.

7.
Drugs Aging ; 36(8): 687-699, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049807

RESUMO

The risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease rises with age and remains the leading cause of death in older adults. Evidence for the use of statins for primary prevention in older adults is limited, despite the possibility that this population may derive significant clinical benefit given its increased cardiovascular risk. Until publication of the 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol, and the 2019 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, guidelines for statin prescription in older adults remained unchanged despite new evidence of possible benefit in older adults. In this review, we present key updates in the 2018 and 2019 guidelines and the evidence informing these updates. We compare the discordant recommendations of the seven major North American and European guidelines on cholesterol management released in the past 5 years and highlight gaps in the literature regarding primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults. As most cardiovascular events in older adults are nonfatal, we ask how clinicians should weigh the risks and benefits of continuing a statin for primary prevention in older adults. We also reframe the concept of deprescribing of statins in the older population, using the Geriatrics 5Ms framework: Mind, Mobility, Medications, Multi-complexity, and what Matters Most to older adults. A recent call from the National Institute on Aging for a statin trial focusing on older adults extends from similar concerns.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(1): 133-153, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097258

RESUMO

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention that uses patient education, health behavior modification, and exercise training to improve secondary prevention outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. CR programs reduce morbidity and mortality rates in adults with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or cardiac surgery but are significantly underused, with only a minority of eligible patients participating in CR in the United States. New delivery strategies are urgently needed to improve participation. One potential strategy is home-based CR (HBCR). In contrast to center-based CR services, which are provided in a medically supervised facility, HBCR relies on remote coaching with indirect exercise supervision and is provided mostly or entirely outside of the traditional center-based setting. Although HBCR has been successfully deployed in the United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries, most US healthcare organizations have little to no experience with such programs. The purpose of this scientific statement is to identify the core components, efficacy, strengths, limitations, evidence gaps, and research necessary to guide the future delivery of HBCR in the United States. Previous randomized trials have generated low- to moderate-strength evidence that HBCR and center-based CR can achieve similar improvements in 3- to 12-month clinical outcomes. Although HBCR appears to hold promise in expanding the use of CR to eligible patients, additional research and demonstration projects are needed to clarify, strengthen, and extend the HBCR evidence base for key subgroups, including older adults, women, underrepresented minority groups, and other higher-risk and understudied groups. In the interim, we conclude that HBCR may be a reasonable option for selected clinically stable low- to moderate-risk patients who are eligible for CR but cannot attend a traditional center-based CR program.

9.
Circulation ; 140(1): e69-e89, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082266

RESUMO

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention that uses patient education, health behavior modification, and exercise training to improve secondary prevention outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. CR programs reduce morbidity and mortality rates in adults with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or cardiac surgery but are significantly underused, with only a minority of eligible patients participating in CR in the United States. New delivery strategies are urgently needed to improve participation. One potential strategy is home-based CR (HBCR). In contrast to center-based CR services, which are provided in a medically supervised facility, HBCR relies on remote coaching with indirect exercise supervision and is provided mostly or entirely outside of the traditional center-based setting. Although HBCR has been successfully deployed in the United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries, most US healthcare organizations have little to no experience with such programs. The purpose of this scientific statement is to identify the core components, efficacy, strengths, limitations, evidence gaps, and research necessary to guide the future delivery of HBCR in the United States. Previous randomized trials have generated low- to moderate-strength evidence that HBCR and center-based CR can achieve similar improvements in 3- to 12-month clinical outcomes. Although HBCR appears to hold promise in expanding the use of CR to eligible patients, additional research and demonstration projects are needed to clarify, strengthen, and extend the HBCR evidence base for key subgroups, including older adults, women, underrepresented minority groups, and other higher-risk and understudied groups. In the interim, we conclude that HBCR may be a reasonable option for selected clinically stable low- to moderate-risk patients who are eligible for CR but cannot attend a traditional center-based CR program.

10.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 39(4): 208-225, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082934

RESUMO

Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an evidence-based intervention that uses patient education, health behavior modification, and exercise training to improve secondary prevention outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. CR programs reduce morbidity and mortality rates in adults with ischemic heart disease, heart failure, or cardiac surgery but are significantly underused, with only a minority of eligible patients participating in CR in the United States. New delivery strategies are urgently needed to improve participation. One potential strategy is home-based CR (HBCR). In contrast to center-based CR services, which are provided in a medically supervised facility, HBCR relies on remote coaching with indirect exercise supervision and is provided mostly or entirely outside of the traditional center-based setting. Although HBCR has been successfully deployed in the United Kingdom, Canada, and other countries, most US healthcare organizations have little to no experience with such programs. The purpose of this scientific statement is to identify the core components, efficacy, strengths, limitations, evidence gaps, and research necessary to guide the future delivery of HBCR in the United States. Previous randomized trials have generated low- to moderate-strength evidence that HBCR and center-based CR can achieve similar improvements in 3- to 12-month clinical outcomes. Although HBCR appears to hold promise in expanding the use of CR to eligible patients, additional research and demonstration projects are needed to clarify, strengthen, and extend the HBCR evidence base for key subgroups, including older adults, women, underrepresented minority groups, and other higher-risk and understudied groups. In the interim, we conclude that HBCR may be a reasonable option for selected clinically stable low- to moderate-risk patients who are eligible for CR but cannot attend a traditional center-based CR program.

11.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005320, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early readmissions among older adults hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are costly and difficult to predict. Aging-related functional impairments may inform risk prediction but are unavailable in most studies. Our objective was to, therefore, develop and validate an AMI readmission risk model for older patients who considered functional impairments and was suitable for use before hospital discharge. METHODS AND RESULTS: SILVER-AMI (Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk in Older Adults with AMI) is a prospective cohort study of 3006 patients of age ≥75 years hospitalized with AMI at 94 US hospitals. Participants underwent in-hospital assessment of functional impairments including cognition, vision, hearing, and mobility. Other variables plausibly associated with readmissions were also collected. The outcome was all-cause readmission at 30 days. We used backward selection and Bayesian model averaging to derive (N=2004) a risk model that was subsequently validated (N=1002). Mean age was 81.5 years, 44.4% were women, and 10.5% were nonwhite. Within 30 days, 547 participants (18.2%) were readmitted. Readmitted participants were older, had more comorbidities, and had a higher prevalence of functional impairments, including activities of daily living disability (17.0% versus 13.0%; P=0.013) and impaired functional mobility (72.5% versus 53.6%; P<0.001). The final risk model included 8 variables: functional mobility, ejection fraction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arrhythmia, acute kidney injury, first diastolic blood pressure, P2Y12 inhibitor use, and general health status. Functional mobility was the only functional impairment variable retained but was the strongest predictor. The model was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow P value >0.05) with moderate discrimination (C statistics: 0.65 derivation cohort and 0.63 validation cohort). Functional mobility significantly improved performance of the risk model (net reclassification improvement index =20%; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In our final risk model, functional mobility, previously not included in readmission risk models, was the strongest predictor of 30-day readmission among older adults after AMI. The modest discrimination indicates that much of the variability in readmission risk among this population remains unexplained by patient-level factors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01755052.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(15): 1890-1900, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults ≥75 years of age carry an increased risk of mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in older adults with STEMI and shock and its influence on in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We used a large publicly available all-payer inpatient health care database sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality between 1999 and 2013. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The influence of PCI on in-hospital mortality was assessed by quintiles of propensity score (PS). RESULTS: Of the 317,728 encounters with STEMI and shock in the United States, 111,901 (35%) were adults age ≥75 years. Of these, 53% were women and 83% were Caucasians. The median number of chronic conditions was 8 (interquartile range: 6 to 10). The diagnosis of STEMI and cardiogenic shock in older patients decreased significantly over time (proportion of older adults with STEMI and shock: 1999: 42% vs. 2013: 29%). Concomitantly, the rate of PCI utilization in older adults increased (1999: 27% vs. 2013: 56%, p < 0.001), with declining in-hospital mortality rates (1999: 64% vs. 2013: 46%; p < 0.001). Utilizing PS matching methods, PCI was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality across quintiles of propensity score (Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 to 0.51). This reduction in hospital mortality risk was seen across the 4 different U.S. census bureau regions (adjusted odds ratio: Northeast: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.47; Midwest: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.57; South: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.46 to 0.56; West: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.41 to 0.53). CONCLUSIONS: This large and contemporary analysis shows that utilization of PCI in older adults with STEMI and cardiogenic shock is increasing and paralleled by a substantial reduction in mortality. Although clinical judgment is critical, older adults should not be excluded from early revascularization based on age in the absence of absolute contraindications.

14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(5): 841-844, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773806

RESUMO

Essentials Spontaneous HIT syndrome clinically/serologically resembles HIT but without proximate heparin. Rarely, spontaneous HIT syndrome complicates total knee arthroplasty surgery. Mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare presentation of spontaneous HIT syndrome. IVIg rapidly corrects thrombocytopenia by inhibiting heparin-independent platelet activation. SUMMARY: Spontaneous heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome is an autoimmune HIT (aHIT) disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, thrombosis, and HIT antibodies despite no proximate heparin exposure. For unknown reasons, many cases occur after total knee arthroplasty. A 52-year-old woman presented 12 days posttotal knee replacement (aspirin thromboprophylaxis) with gastrointestinal bleeding (superior mesenteric vein thrombosis); the platelet count was 63 × 109 L-1 . After bowel resection and a brief course of heparin, treatment was changed to argatroban followed by fondaparinux. In addition, high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), 1 g kg-1 on 2 consecutive days, resulted in abrupt platelet count rise from 21 (nadir) pre-IVIg to 137 (post-IVIg), and 2 days later to 200 × 109 L-1 . Heparin-independent serum-induced serotonin-release abruptly decreased from 91% (pre-IVIg) to 14% (post-IVIg); although serotonin-release later rebounded to 49%, the patient's platelet counts remained normal. Our observations support the emerging concept that high-dose IVIg is effective for treating aHIT disorders, including spontaneous HIT syndrome.

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