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1.
EBioMedicine ; 76: 103868, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The manufacturing of any standard mechanical ventilator cannot rapidly be upscaled to several thousand units per week, largely due to supply chain limitations. The aim of this study was to design, verify and perform a pre-clinical evaluation of a mechanical ventilator based on components not required for standard ventilators, and that met the specifications provided by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) for rapidly-manufactured ventilator systems (RMVS). METHODS: The design utilises closed-loop negative feedback control, with real-time monitoring and alarms. Using a standard test lung, we determined the difference between delivered and target tidal volume (VT) at respiratory rates between 20 and 29 breaths per minute, and the ventilator's ability to deliver consistent VT during continuous operation for >14 days (RMVS specification). Additionally, four anaesthetised domestic pigs (3 male-1 female) were studied before and after lung injury to provide evidence of the ventilator's functionality, and ability to support spontaneous breathing. FINDINGS: Continuous operation lasted 23 days, when the greatest difference between delivered and target VT was 10% at inspiratory flow rates >825 mL/s. In the pre-clinical evaluation, the VT difference was -1 (-90 to 88) mL [mean (LoA)], and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) difference was -2 (-8 to 4) cmH2O. VT delivery being triggered by pressures below PEEP demonstrated spontaneous ventilation support. INTERPRETATION: The mechanical ventilator presented meets the MHRA therapy standards for RMVS and, being based on largely available components, can be manufactured at scale. FUNDING: Work supported by Wellcome/EPSRC Centre for Medical Engineering,King's Together Fund and Oxford University.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
2.
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 683-693, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541721

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review presents the fundamental concepts of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, with particular reference to lung mechanics and the pulmonary phenotype associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and subsequent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. What advances does it highlight? The review provides a critical summary of the main physiological aspects to be considered for safe and effective mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19 in the intensive care unit. ABSTRACT: Severe respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia not responding to non-invasive respiratory support requires mechanical ventilation. Although ventilation can be a life-saving therapy, it can cause further lung injury if airway pressure and flow and their timing are not tailored to the respiratory system mechanics of the individual patient. The pathophysiology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to a pattern of lung injury in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia typically associated with two distinct phenotypes, along a temporal and pathophysiological continuum, characterized by different levels of elastance, ventilation-to-perfusion ratio, right-to-left shunt, lung weight and recruitability. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology, duration of symptoms, radiological characteristics and lung mechanics at the individual patient level is crucial for the appropriate choice of mechanical ventilation settings to optimize gas exchange and prevent further lung injury. By critical analysis of the literature, we propose fundamental physiological and mechanical criteria for the selection of ventilation settings for COVID-19 patients in intensive care units. In particular, the choice of tidal volume should be based on obtaining a driving pressure < 14 cmH2 O, ensuring the avoidance of hypoventilation in patients with preserved compliance and of excessive strain in patients with smaller lung volumes and lower lung compliance. The level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be informed by the measurement of the potential for lung recruitability, where patients with greater recruitability potential may benefit from higher PEEP levels. Prone positioning is often beneficial and should be considered early. The rationale for the proposed mechanical ventilation settings criteria is presented and discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Lesão Pulmonar/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Respiração Artificial/normas , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(2): 343-351, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to personalise mechanical ventilation strategies for patients with respiratory failure. However, current methodological deficiencies could limit clinical impact. We identified common limitations and propose potential solutions to facilitate translation of AI to mechanical ventilation of patients. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed Central to February 2021. Studies investigating the application of AI to patients undergoing mechanical ventilation were included. Algorithm design and adherence to reporting standards were assessed with a rubric combining published guidelines, satisfying the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis [TRIPOD] statement. Risk of bias was assessed by using the Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST), and correspondence with authors to assess data and code availability. RESULTS: Our search identified 1,342 studies, of which 95 were included: 84 had single-centre, retrospective study design, with only one randomised controlled trial. Access to data sets and code was severely limited (unavailable in 85% and 87% of studies, respectively). On request, data and code were made available from 12 and 10 authors, respectively, from a list of 54 studies published in the last 5 yr. Ethnicity was frequently under-reported 18/95 (19%), as was model calibration 17/95 (18%). The risk of bias was high in 89% (85/95) of the studies, especially because of analysis bias. CONCLUSIONS: Development of algorithms should involve prospective and external validation, with greater code and data availability to improve confidence in and translation of this promising approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO - CRD42021225918.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Algoritmos , Viés , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas
5.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(1): 9-16, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34907979

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: More than 230 million people have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection globally by September 2021. The infection affects primarily the function of the respiratory system, where ∼20% of infected individuals develop coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pneumonia. This review provides an update on the pathophysiology of the COVID-19 acute lung injury. RECENT FINDINGS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio is typically <26.7 kPa (200 mmHg), whereas lung volume appears relatively unchanged. This hypoxaemia is likely determined by a heterogeneous mismatch of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, mainly associated with immunothrombosis, endothelialitis and neovascularisation. During the disease, lung weight, elastance and dead space can increase, affecting respiratory drive, effort and dyspnoea. In some severe cases, COVID-19 pneumonia may lead to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. SUMMARY: This review summarises the fundamental pathophysiological features of COVID-19 in the context of the respiratory system. It provides an overview of the key clinical manifestations of COVID-19 pneumonia, including gas exchange impairment, altered pulmonary mechanics and implications of abnormal chemical and mechanical stimuli. It also critically discusses the clinical implications for mechanical ventilation therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pulmão , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891243

RESUMO

Patients undergoing mechanical lung ventilation are at risk of lung injury. A noninvasive bedside lung monitor may benefit these patients. The Inspired Sinewave Test (IST) can measure cardio-pulmonary parameters noninvasively. We propose a lung simulation to improve the measurement of pulmonary blood flow using IST. The new method was applied to 12 pigs' data before lung injury (control) and after lung injury (ARDS model). Results using the lung simulation shown improvements in correlation in both simulated data (R2 increased from 0.98 to 1) and pigs' data (R2 increased from <0.001 to 0.26). Paired blood flow measurements were performed by both the IST (noninvasive) and thermodilution (invasive). In the control group, the bias of the two methods was negligible (0.02L/min), and the limit of agreement was from -1.20 to 1.18 L/min. The bias was -0.68 L/min in the ARDS group and with a broader limit of agreement (-2.49 to 1.13 L/min).Clinical Relevance- the inspired sinewave test can be used to measure cardiac output noninvasively in mechanically ventilated subjects with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Assuntos
Circulação Pulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Suínos , Termodiluição
8.
Br J Anaesth ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903360

RESUMO

Patient self-inflicted lung injury may be associated with worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality. Patient-ventilator asynchrony is associated with increased ventilator days and mortality, and it has been hypothesised as one of the important mechanisms leading to patient self-inflicted lung injury. However, given the observational nature of the key studies in the field so far, the hypothesis that patient-ventilator asynchrony causes patient self-inflicted lung injury has not been supported by evidence yet. Wittenstein and colleagues present a novel approach that enables controlling patient-ventilator asynchrony in a pig model of acute lung injury, to investigate the patient-ventilator asynchrony and patient self-inflicted lung injury causality. Their results suggest that increased patient-ventilator asynchrony associated with poor clinical outcomes reported in observational trials could be a marker, rather than a cause of patient self-inflicted lung injury. These findings on their own are not sufficient to justify a greater tolerance of patient-ventilator asynchrony amongst clinicians, a change for which further experimental work and clinical evidence is needed.

9.
Equine Vet J ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The possibility of accurately and continuously measuring arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 ) in horses may facilitate the management of hypoxaemia during general anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel fibreoptic sensor to measure PaO2 (PaO2Sensor ) continuously and in real time in horses undergoing ventilatory manoeuvres during general anaesthesia. STUDY DESIGN: In vivo experimental study. METHODS: Six adult healthy horses were anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated in dorsal recumbency. A fibreoptic sensor was placed in one of the facial arteries through a catheter to continuously measure and record PaO2Sensor . After an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre, a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using 20-minute steps of 5 cm H2 O from 20 to 0 cm H2 O was performed. An arterial blood sample was collected at 15 minutes of ventilation at each PEEP level for PaO2 measurement using an automated blood gas machine (PaO2Ref ). The agreement between PaO2Sensor and PaO2Ref was assessed by Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman plot and four-quadrant plot analysis. In the last minute of ventilation at each PEEP level, a slow tidal inflation/deflation manoeuvre was performed. RESULTS: The mean relative bias between PaO2Sensor and PaO2Ref was 4% with limits of agreement between -17% and 29%. The correlation coefficient between PaO2Sensor and PaO2Ref was 0.98 (P < .001). The PaO2Sensor and PaO2Ref concordance rate for changes was 95%. Measurements of PaO2Sensor during the slow inflation/deflation manoeuvre at PEEP 15 and 10 cm H2 O were not possible because of significant noise on the PaO2 signal generated by a small blood clot. MAIN LIMITATIONS: Small sample size. CONCLUSION: The tested fibreoptic probe was able to accurately and continuously measure PaO2Sensor in anaesthetised horses undergoing ventilatory manoeuvres. A heparinised system in the catheter used by the fibreoptic sensor should be used to avoid blood clots and artefacts in the PaO2 measurements.

12.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 9(1): 3, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside measurement of lung volume may provide guidance in the personalised setting of respiratory support, especially in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome at risk of ventilator-induced lung injury. We propose here a novel operator-independent technique, enabled by a fibre optic oxygen sensor, to quantify the lung volume available for gas exchange. We hypothesised that the continuous measurement of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decline during a breath-holding manoeuvre could be used to estimate lung volume in a single-compartment physiological model of the respiratory system. METHODS: Thirteen pigs with a saline lavage lung injury model and six control pigs were studied under general anaesthesia during mechanical ventilation. Lung volumes were measured by simultaneous PaO2 rate of decline (VPaO2) and whole-lung computed tomography scan (VCT) during apnoea at different positive end-expiratory and end-inspiratory pressures. RESULTS: A total of 146 volume measurements was completed (range 134 to 1869 mL). A linear correlation between VCT and VPaO2 was found both in control (slope = 0.9, R2 = 0.88) and in saline-lavaged pigs (slope = 0.64, R2 = 0.70). The bias from Bland-Altman analysis for the agreement between the VCT and VPaO2 was - 84 mL (limits of agreement ± 301 mL) in control and + 2 mL (LoA ± 406 mL) in saline-lavaged pigs. The concordance for changes in lung volume, quantified with polar plot analysis, was - 4º (LoA ± 19°) in control and - 9° (LoA ± 33°) in saline-lavaged pigs. CONCLUSION: Bedside measurement of PaO2 rate of decline during apnoea is a potential approach for estimation of lung volume changes associated with different levels of airway pressure.

14.
Br J Haematol ; 191(3): 390-393, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037620

RESUMO

Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with hypoxaemia and are mechanically ventilated to support gas exchange. We performed a retrospective, observational study of blood gas analyses (n = 3518) obtained from patients with COVID-19 to investigate changes in haemoglobin oxygen (Hb-O2 ) affinity. Calculated oxygen tension at half-saturation (p50 ) was on average (±SD) 3·3 (3·13) mmHg lower than the normal p50 value (23·4 vs. 26·7 mmHg; P < 0·0001). Compared to an unmatched historic control of patients with other causes of severe respiratory failure, patients with COVID-19 had a significantly higher Hb-O2 affinity (mean [SD] p50 23·4 [3·13] vs. 24·6 [5.4] mmHg; P < 0·0001). We hypothesise that, due to the long disease process, acclimatisation to hypoxaemia could play a role.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Dispneia/sangue , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Oxigênio/sangue , Pandemias , Pressão Parcial , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Physiol Meas ; 41(11)2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049721

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, as patients undergoing mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-induced lung injuries.Objective: To measure the lung heterogeneity and deadspace volume to find safer ventilator strategies. The ventilator settings could then offer homogeneous ventilation and theoretically equalize and reduce tidal strain/stress in the lung parenchyma.Approach: The inspired sinewave test (IST) is a non-invasive lung measurement tool which does not require cooperation from the patient. The IST can measure the effective lung volume, pulmonary blood flow and deadspace volume. We developed a computational simulation of the cardiopulmonary system to allow lung heterogeneity to be quantified using data solely derived from the IST. Then, the method to quantify lung heterogeneity using two IST tracer gas frequencies (180 and 60 s) was introduced and used in lung simulations and animal models. Thirteen anaesthetized pigs were studied with the IST both before and after experimental lung injury (saline-lavage ARDS model). The deadspace volume was compared between the IST and the SF6washout method.Main results: The IST could measure lung heterogeneity using two tracer gas frequencies. Furthermore, the value of IST ventilation heterogeneity in ARDS lungs was higher than in control lungs at a positive end-expiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O (area under the curve = 0.85,p<0.001). Values for the deadspace volume measured by the IST have a strong relationship with the measured values of SF6(9 ml bias and limits of agreement from -79 to 57 ml in control animals).Significance: The IST technique has the potential for use in the identification of ventilation and perfusion heterogeneity during ventilator support.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
17.
Exp Physiol ; 105(4): 606-612, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189419

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic for this review? This review summarizes recent discoveries in mitochondrial development and morphology studied with electron microscopy. What advances does it highlight? Although mitochondria are generally considered to be isolated from each other, this review highlights recently discovered evidence for the presence of intermitochondrial communication structures in cardiac and skeletal muscle, in animal models and humans. Within striated muscles, the means of intermitochondrial exchange and the reaction of mitochondria to external stimuli are uniquely dependent on the tissue, and we clearly differentiate between nanotunnels, the active protrusion of cardiac mitochondria, and the connecting ducts of skeletal muscle derived from fusion-fission and elongation events. ABSTRACT: This review focuses on recent discoveries in skeletal and cardiac muscles indicating that mitochondria behave as an interactive cohort with inter-organelle communication and specific reactions to stress signals. Our new finding is that intermitochondrial communications in cardiac and skeletal muscles rely on two distinct methods. In cardiac muscle, mitochondria are discrete entities and are fairly well immobilized in a structural context. The organelles have developed a unique method of communication, via nanotunnels, which allow temporary connection from one mitochondrion to another over distances of up to several micrometres, without overall movement of the individual organelles and loss of their identity. Skeletal muscle mitochondria, in contrast, are dynamic. Through fusion, fission and elongation, they form connections that include constrictions and connecting ducts (distinct from nanotunnels) and lose individual identity in the formation of extensive networks. Connecting elements in skeletal muscle are distinct from nanotunnels in cardiac muscle.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias Musculares/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Miocárdio
18.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 8(1): 10, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-time bedside information on regional ventilation and perfusion during mechanical ventilation (MV) may help to elucidate the physiological and pathophysiological effects of MV settings in healthy and injured lungs. We aimed to study the effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (VT) on the distributions of regional ventilation and perfusion by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) in healthy and injured lungs. METHODS: One-hit acute lung injury model was established in 6 piglets by repeated lung lavages (injured group). Four ventilated piglets served as the control group. A randomized sequence of any possible combination of three VT (7, 10, and 15 ml/kg) and four levels of PEEP (5, 8, 10, and 12 cmH2O) was performed in all animals. Ventilation and perfusion distributions were computed by EIT within three regions-of-interest (ROIs): nondependent, middle, dependent. A mixed design with one between-subjects factor (group: intervention or control), and two within-subjects factors (PEEP and VT) was used, with a three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA). RESULTS: Two-way interactions between PEEP and group, and VT and group, were observed for the dependent ROI (p = 0.035 and 0.012, respectively), indicating that the increase in the dependent ROI ventilation was greater at higher PEEP and VT in the injured group than in the control group. A two-way interaction between PEEP and VT was observed for perfusion distribution in each ROI: nondependent (p = 0.030), middle (p = 0.006), and dependent (p = 0.001); no interaction was observed between injured and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Large PEEP and VT levels were associated with greater pulmonary ventilation of the dependent lung region in experimental lung injury, whereas they affected pulmonary perfusion of all lung regions both in the control and in the experimental lung injury groups.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 382(9): 835-844, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101665

RESUMO

Mutations in VHL, which encodes von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), are associated with divergent diseases. We describe a patient with marked erythrocytosis and prominent mitochondrial alterations associated with a severe germline VHL deficiency due to homozygosity for a novel synonymous mutation (c.222C→A, p.V74V). The condition is characterized by early systemic onset and differs from Chuvash polycythemia (c.598C→T) in that it is associated with a strongly reduced growth rate, persistent hypoglycemia, and limited exercise capacity. We report changes in gene expression that reprogram carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, impair muscle mitochondrial respiratory function, and uncouple oxygen consumption from ATP production. Moreover, we identified unusual intermitochondrial connecting ducts. Our findings add unexpected information on the importance of the VHL-hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) axis to human phenotypes. (Funded by Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul Cancro and others.).


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Hipoglicemia/genética , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/deficiência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Expressão Gênica , Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metaboloma/genética , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
20.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 345-353, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bedside lung volume measurement could personalise ventilation and reduce driving pressure in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We investigated a modified gas-dilution method, the inspired sinewave technique (IST), to measure the effective lung volume (ELV) in pigs with uninjured lungs and in an ARDS model. METHODS: Anaesthetised mechanically ventilated pigs were studied before and after surfactant depletion by saline lavage. Changes in PEEP were used to change ELV. Paired measurements of absolute ELV were taken with IST (ELVIST) and compared with gold-standard measures (sulphur hexafluoride wash in/washout [ELVSF6] and computed tomography (CT) [ELVCT]). Measured volumes were used to calculate changes in ELV (ΔELV) between PEEP levels for each method (ΔELVIST, ΔELVSF6, and ΔELVCT). RESULTS: The coefficient of variation was <5% for repeated ELVIST measurements (n=13 pigs). There was a strong linear relationship between ELVIST and ELVSF6 in uninjured lungs (r2=0.97), and with both ELVSF6 and ELVCT in the ARDS model (r2=0.87 and 0.92, respectively). ELVIST had a mean bias of -12 to 13% (95% limits=±17 - 25%) compared with ELVSF6 and ELVCT. ΔELVIST was concordant with ΔELVSF6 and ΔELVCT in 98-100% of measurements, and had a mean bias of -73 to -77 ml (95% limits=±128 - 186 ml) compared with ΔELVSF6 and -1 ml (95% limits ±333 ml) compared with ΔELVCT. CONCLUSIONS: IST provides a repeatable measure of absolute ELV and shows minimal bias when tracking PEEP-induced changes in lung volume compared with CT in a saline-lavage model of ARDS.


Assuntos
Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Solução Salina , Sus scrofa , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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