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1.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214294, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913248

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming is considered a hallmark of cancer. Currently, the altered lipid metabolism in cancer is a topic of interest due to the prominent role of lipids regulating the progression of various types of tumors. Lipids and lipid-derived molecules have been shown to activate growth regulatory pathways and to promote malignancy in pancreatic cancer. In a previous work, we have described the antitumoral properties of Yarrow (Achillea Millefolium) CO2 supercritical extract (Yarrow SFE) in pancreatic cancer. Herein, we aim to investigate the underlaying molecular mechanisms by which Yarrow SFE induces cytotoxicity in pancreatic cancer cells. Yarrow SFE downregulates SREBF1 and downstream molecular targets of this transcription factor, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Importantly, we demonstrate the in vivo effect of Yarrow SFE diminishing the tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Our data suggest that Yarrow SFE can be proposed as a complementary adjuvant or nutritional supplement in pancreatic cancer therapy.

2.
Food Res Int ; 115: 400-407, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599958

RESUMO

Chia seeds constitute a promising source of α-linolenic acid (ALA). In the present work, an underutilized and cheaper set of chia seeds, which were discarded after the harvest according to quality criteria - named in this work as low oil content seeds (LOCS) - have been evaluated as a potential source for obtaining PUFA-enriched oils against the commonly studied high-quality chia seeds denoted as high oil content seeds (HOCS) in this study. Two efficient and environmental friendly techniques, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), were evaluated to optimize the extraction process of chia oil. At 60 °C, by using pressurized food-grade ethanol, recoveries close to 100% were achieved from both sets of seeds in a short extraction time (10 min). By using SFE, the greatest oil extraction yield (>95%) was attained at the highest pressure and temperature conditions (45 MPa and 60 °C) after 240 min. At the early stage of SFE extraction, both LOCS and HOCS exhibited a similar kinetic behavior, reaching oil extraction rates of 0.59 g oil/min and 0.64 g oil/min, respectively. No differences were found between the fatty acid profile of the oils extracted from LOCS and HOCS both by PLE and SFE. ALA and linoleic acid (LA) concentrations ranged between 65-68% and 17-23% respectively, and a predominance of high molecular weight triglycerides (≥ CN50), was found in all extracted oils. In conclusion, LOCS might constitute a new suitable raw material for the production of ALA-enriched oils. Concerning the extraction methods assayed, the oil was almost entirely recovered by both PLE and SFE at the used conditions.

3.
Food Chem ; 270: 509-517, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174080

RESUMO

Ethanol extracts (EE) from fenugreek and quinoa seeds with different total content of inhibitory compounds (TIC, total saponin plus phenolic) were prepared with and without concentration of TIC (CEE -concentrated EE-, and EE, respectively). Their inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase and α-amylase was assessed by traditional in vitro methods (with or without orbital shaking), and by simulating intestinal digestion. CEE contained higher contents of TIC than EE, being fenugreek superior to quinoa (p < 0.001). The extracts inhibited enzymes in a dose-dependent manner, CEE extracts being stronger (fenugreek for lipase -p = 0.009-, and quinoa for α-amylase -p < 0.001-). Shaking did not impact the activity. Intestinal conditions worsened the inhibition of lipase, but slightly catalyzed the α-amylase. Longer times of reaction worsened activities. The importance of assessing the inhibitory activity of extracts under simulated intestinal conditions is concluded, being fenugreek more interesting than quinoa, especially against pancreatic lipase.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Lipase/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trigonella/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipase/química , Fenóis , alfa-Amilases/química
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 3157-3167, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typical hydrolysis times of saponins generally do not take into consideration the effect of time on the degradation of the target compounds, namely sapogenins. When producing natural extracts, it should be borne in mind that conducting hydrolysis to yield a target compound might also affect the final composition of the extracts in terms of other bioactive compounds. In our study, saponin-rich extracts from fenugreek, quinoa, lentil, and soybean were produced and their acid hydrolysis to give sapogenin-rich extracts was conducted over different periods (0-6 h). The disappearance of saponins and appearance of sapogenins was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The impact of hydrolysis on the phytosterols and tocopherol in the extracts was also evaluated. RESULTS: Fenugreek showed the highest saponin content (169 g kg-1 ), followed by lentil (20 g kg-1 ), quinoa (15 g kg-1 ), and soybean (13 g kg-1 ). Hydrolysis for 1 h caused the complete disappearance of saponins and the greatest release of sapogenins. Hydrolyzed fenugreek and quinoa extracts contained the highest amounts of sapogenins and minor fractions of phytosterols and tocopherol. Hydrolyzed extracts of lentil and soybean contained a major fraction of phytosterols and a low fraction of sapogenins. In all cases, sapogenins decreased after 1 h of hydrolysis, phytosterols slightly decreased, and tocopherol was unaffected. Standards of diosgenin and oleanolic acid also showed this decreasing pattern under acid hydrolysis conditions. CONCLUSION: Hydrolysis times of 1 h for saponin-rich extracts from the assayed seeds guarantee the maximum transformation to sapogenin-rich extracts, along with phytosterols and tocopherol. Fenugreek and quinoa seeds are preferred for this. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Lens (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sapogeninas/química , Saponinas/química , Soja/química , Trigonella/química , Ácidos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrólise , Fitosteróis/química
5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 254, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30223811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and mortal cancers. Although several drugs have been proposed for its treatment, it remains resistant and new alternatives are needed. In this context, plants and their derivatives constitute a relevant source of bioactive components which might efficiently inhibit tumor cell progression. METHODS: In this study, we have analyzed the potential anti-carcinogenic effect of different Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) plant extracts obtained by different green technologies (Supercritical CO2 Extraction -SFE- and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction -UAE-) to identify efficient plant extracts against human pancreatic cancer cells that could constitute the basis of novel treatment approaches. RESULTS: Asteraceae extracts showed better results as antitumoral agents than Lamiaceae by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting cell transformation, and SFE extracts were most efficient than UAE extracts. In addition, SFE derived plant extracts from Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis displayed synergism with the chemotherapeutic 5-Fluororacil. CONCLUSION: These results show how Yarrow and Marigold SFE-derived extracts can inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth, and could be proposed for a comprehensive study to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in their bioactivity with the final aim to propose them as potential adjuvants in pancreatic cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Lamiaceae/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
6.
Mar Drugs ; 16(5)2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748479

RESUMO

Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of high qualify fatty acids that represent useful leads in the development of new nutraceutical agents. In this work, we investigated the lipid composition of six algae species from the Northwest of Spain (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus,Dictyota dichotoma, Cystoseira baccata and Himanthalia elongata) and compared the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts obtained by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Furthermore, Fucus vesiculosus (F. vesiculosus) PLE using five solvents of different polarities (hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50) at three temperatures (80 °C, 120 °C and 160 °C) was investigated. F. vesiculosus ethanolic PLE extract presents considerably higher capacity of inhibiting 50% of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (IC50 = 7.17 μg/mL) in comparison with the rest of macroalgae studied. Moreover, the potential antimicrobial activity tested on E. coli and S. aureus shows that F. vesiculosus extract produced the best inhibition (IC50 was 2.24 mg/mL (E. coli) and 1.27 mg/mL (S. aureus)). Furthermore, regarding the different solvents and temperatures used to investigate F. vesiculosus PLE, results showed that this technique using ethyl acetate is a selective method to enrich long chain fatty acids (oleic acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) with ω-6/ω-3 ratios close to 2.7.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Lipídeos/química , Feófitas/genética , Fucus/química , Alga Marinha/química , Solventes/química , Espanha
7.
Food Res Int ; 109: 440-447, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803470

RESUMO

The efficient production of saponin-rich extracts is of increasing interest due to the bioactive properties that have being demonstrated for these compounds. However, saponins have a poor bioavailability. In this respect, the knowledge about the bioaccessibility of saponins as a first step before bioavailability has been scarcely explored. In this study, the production of ultrasound-assisted extracts of saponins from edible seeds (quinoa, soybean, red lentil, fenugreek and lupin) was carried out with ethanol, ethanol:water or water. Extraction yield, total saponin (TSC), fat and total phenolics content (TPC) were determined. Then, the bioaccessibility of saponins after the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the extracts was determined and the effect of TPC and fat in the extracts on bioaccessibility was evaluated. The highest saponin-rich extracts were obtained by ethanol, being fenugreek and red lentil the richest extracts (12% and 10%, respectively). Saponins from ethanol:water extracts displayed variable bioaccessibility (from 13% for fenugreek to 83% for lentil), but a bioaccessibility closer to 100% was reached for all ethanol extracts. Correlation studies showed that TPC of the extracts negatively affected the bioaccessibility of saponins, whereas fat of the extracts enhanced this parameter. As summary, ultrasound-assisted extraction is shown as an efficient method for obtaining saponin-rich extracts from edible seeds, being ethanol the most advantageous solvent due to the richness of saponins and the successful bioaccessibility from these extracts, likely caused by the co-extracted fat with ethanol. Regardless of the extracts, phenolic compounds or fat may hinder or enhance the bioaccessibility of saponins, respectively. Additionally, an adequate balance between saponins to lipids has shown to be relevant on such an effect.

8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(1): 377-383, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28612382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (mortiño) constitutes a source of bioactive phytochemicals, but reports related to its efficient and green production are scarce. In this study, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction of mortiño were compared. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+ ) were determined. Beef burgers with 20 g kg-1 of mortiño (MM) or its PLE extract (ME) were manufactured. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) and instrumental color changes were measured after refrigerated storage. RESULTS: High TPC (up to 72 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 extract) was determined in mortiño extracts, which was positively correlated with antioxidant activity. TBARS values of beef burgers containing either MM or ME did not change after refrigerated storage, whereas lipid oxidation of control burgers increased significantly. The color of burgers with added MM or ME was different (lower b* and a* values) from that of control burgers. However, the evolution of color after storage was similar between control and ME samples. CONCLUSION: Mortiño extracts with high TPC can be obtained by PLE. Both mortiño and its PLE extract are able to control lipid oxidation of beef burgers, but the extract is preferred from the color quality point of view. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Vaccinium/química , Animais , Bovinos , Cor , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 34(5): 1489-1496, 2017 Nov 17.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280668

RESUMO

The human gastrointestinal tract harbours the most complex and abundant community of the human body, the colon being where the highest microbial concentration is found (1012 cell/g). The intestinal microbiota exerts metabolic, trophic and protective functions which are important in the maintenance of the host health. Over recent decades, numerous studies have attempted to provide scientific evidence about the environmental factors that can impact on human health through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota composition. However, this approach is changing, and a new focus on assessing changes at functional level is being developed. If we apply this dual approach to the role played by the diet, it is obvious the need of dynamic gastrointestinal simulation models such as simgi®  that allow to evaluate the transformations undergone by food and/or food ingredients during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract, as well as to determine potential changes in the composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota after food ingestion. So far the studies using the simgi® have confirmed its potential applications in the area of food as a prior step to its application in clinical nutrition to prevent and/or treat diseases associated with intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic disorders. Likewise, this review includes feasible perspectives of the use of simgi® in clinical research concerning to diseases related to the intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Disbiose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 34(6): 1489-1496, nov.-dic. 2017. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168992

RESUMO

Dentro de la microbiota humana, el tracto gastrointestinal alberga el ecosistema más complejo y abundante del cuerpo humano, siendo el colon donde se encuentra la concentración más alta de microorganismos (1012 cél/g). La microbiota intestinal desempeña funciones metabólicas, tróficas y de protección que son de gran importancia para el hospedador. Durante las últimas décadas, son numerosos los estudios que han tratado de aportar evidencias científicas acerca de los factores que, a través de cambios en la composición de la microbiota intestinal, influyen en la salud humana. Sin embargo, esta aproximación está cambiando, y son cada vez más los expertos que apuestan por evaluar cambios a nivel de funcionalidad de la microbiota. Si aplicamos este enfoque dual al papel desempeñado por la dieta, resulta obvia la necesidad de disponer de modelos dinámicos de simulación gastrointestinal, como es el simgi, que permitan evaluar las transformaciones que sufren los alimentos y/o ingredientes alimentarios durante el tránsito por el tracto gastrointestinal, así como para determinar los posibles cambios en la composición y funcionalidad de la microbiota intestinal derivados de la ingesta de alimentos. Los estudios llevados a cabo hasta el momento con el simgi constatan sus potenciales aplicaciones en el área de los alimentos como paso previo a su aplicación en nutrición clínica, para prevenir y/o tratar enfermedades asociadas a disbiosis intestinal, así como trastornos metabólicos. Asimismo, esta revisión recoge posibles perspectivas de utilización del simgi en la investigación clínica relativa a enfermedades vinculadas con disfunciones de la microbiota intestinal (AU)


The human gastrointestinal tract harbours the most complex and abundant community of the human body, the colon being where the highest microbial concentration is found (1012 cell/g). The intestinal microbiota exerts metabolic, trophic and protective functions which are important in the maintenance of the host health. Over recent decades, numerous studies have attempted to provide scientific evidence about the environmental factors that can impact on human health through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota composition. However, this approach is changing, and a new focus on assessing changes at functional level is being developed. If we apply this dual approach to the role played by the diet, it is obvious the need of dynamic gastrointestinal simulation models such as simgi, that allow to evaluate the transformations undergone by food and/or food ingredients during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract, as well as to determine potential changes in the composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota after food ingestion. So far the studies using the simgi have confirmed its potential applications in the area of food as a prior step to its application in clinical nutrition to prevent and/or treat diseases associated with intestinal dysbiosis and metabolic disorders. Likewise, this review includes feasible perspectives of the use of simgi in clinical research concerning to diseases related to the intestinal microbiota (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Simulação de Doença/terapia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise
11.
J Oncol ; 2017: 7351976, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555156

RESUMO

Cancer is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many of the chemotherapeutic agents used in cancer treatment exhibit cell toxicity and display teratogenic effect on nontumor cells. Therefore, the search for alternative compounds which are effective against tumor cells but reduce toxicity against nontumor ones is of great importance in the progress or development of cancer treatments. In this sense, scientific knowledge about relevant aspects of nutrition intimately involved in the development and progression of cancer progresses rapidly. Phytochemicals, considered as bioactive ingredients present in plant products, have shown promising effects as potential therapeutic/preventive agents on cancer in several in vitro and in vivo assays. However, despite their bioactive properties, phytochemicals are still not commonly used in clinical practice due to several reasons, mainly attributed to their poor bioavailability. In this sense, new formulation strategies are proposed as carriers to improve their bioefficacy, highlighting the use of lipid-based delivery systems. Here, we review the potential antitumoral activity of the bioactive compounds derived from plants and the current studies carried out in animal and human models. Furthermore, their association with lipids as a formulation strategy to enhance their efficacy in vivo is also reported. The development of high effective bioactive supplements for cancer treatment based on the improvement of their bioavailability goes through this association.

12.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 72(1): 96-102, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101823

RESUMO

Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Calendula/química , Melissa/química , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Solventes
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(46): 8828-8837, 2016 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796089

RESUMO

Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and ß-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Calendula/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Digestão , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
14.
Materials (Basel) ; 9(7)2016 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28773640

RESUMO

Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm³) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm³) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%-3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

15.
Virus Res ; 198: 9-14, 2015 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25550074

RESUMO

Previous studies using lipid extracts of heather (Calluna vulgaris) leaves showed the presence of high concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid. These two compounds have been reported to present antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV). In this work, the supercritical fluid extraction of heather was studied with the aim of assessing a potential anti-HCV activity of the extracts owing to their triterpenic acid content. Supercritical extraction assays were carried out exploring the pressure range of 20-50 MPa, temperatures of 40-70°C and 0-15% of ethanol cosolvent. The content of oleanolic and ursolic acid in the extracts were determined, and different samples were screened for cellular cytotoxicity and virus inhibition using a HCV cell culture infection system. Antiviral activity was observed in most extracts. In general, superior anti-HCV activity was observed for higher contents of oleanolic and ursolic acids in the extracts.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Calluna/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Oleanólico/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Triterpenos/análise
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(14): 2901-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25445203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil. This compound has revealed several biological properties, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this work, a comparison was made between the performance of different green solvents (ethanol, limonene and ethyl lactate), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at different conditions, to extract thymol from three different varieties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus citriodorus). Additionally, new solubility data of thymol in limonene and ethanol at ambient pressure and temperatures in the range 30-43 °C are reported. RESULTS: The highest thymol recoveries were attained with T. vulgaris (7-11 mg g(-1)). No thymol could be quantified in the PLE samples of T. citriodorus. The highest concentrations of thymol in the extracts were obtained with limonene. Thymol is very soluble in both solvents, particularly in ethanol (∼900 mg g(-1) at ∼40 °C), and is the main compound (in terms of peak area) present in the essential oil extracts obtained. CONCLUSION: The three solvents show good capacity to extract thymol from T. vulgaris and T. zygis by PLE. Although PLE proved to be a suitable technology to extract thymol from thyme plants, the highest concentrations of thymol were obtained by SFE with supercritical CO2 .


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/química , Etanol/química , Lactatos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Solventes/química , Terpenos/química , Timol/isolamento & purificação , Thymus (Planta)/química , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Limoneno , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pressão , Solubilidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Timol/química , Thymus (Planta)/genética
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 95(4): 722-9, 2015 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24930815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. RESULTS: The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO2 extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. CONCLUSION: PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Spinacia oleracea/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Spinacia oleracea/economia
18.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e98556, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24892299

RESUMO

Colorectal and pancreatic cancers remain important contributors to cancer mortality burden and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts and its components have been reported as natural potent antiproliferative agents against cancer cells. However, to potentially apply rosemary as a complementary approach for cancer therapy, additional information regarding the most effective composition, its antitumor effect in vivo and its main molecular mediators is still needed. In this work, five carnosic acid-rich supercritical rosemary extracts with different chemical compositions have been assayed for their antitumor activity both in vivo (in nude mice) and in vitro against colon and pancreatic cancer cells. We found that the antitumor effect of carnosic acid together with carnosol was higher than the sum of their effects separately, which supports the use of the rosemary extract as a whole. In addition, gene and microRNA expression analyses have been performed to ascertain its antitumor mechanism, revealing that up-regulation of the metabolic-related gene GCNT3 and down-regulation of its potential epigenetic modulator miR-15b correlate with the antitumor effect of rosemary. Moreover, plasmatic miR-15b down-regulation was detected after in vivo treatment with rosemary. Our results support the use of carnosic acid-rich rosemary extract as a complementary approach in colon and pancreatic cancer and indicate that GCNT3 expression may be involved in its antitumor mechanism and that miR-15b might be used as a non-invasive biomarker to monitor rosemary anticancer effect.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNAs/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Diterpenos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo
19.
Electrophoresis ; 35(11): 1719-27, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24615943

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and therefore the development of new therapeutic approaches is still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract possesses antitumor properties against tumor cells from several organs, including breast. However, in order to apply it as a complementary therapeutic agent in breast cancer, more information is needed regarding the sensitivity of the different breast tumor subtypes and its effect in combination with the currently used chemotherapy. Here, we analyzed the antitumor activities of a supercritical fluid rosemary extract (SFRE) in different breast cancer cells, and used a genomic approach to explore its effect on the modulation of ER-α and HER2 signaling pathways, the most important mitogen pathways related to breast cancer progression. We found that SFRE exerts antitumor activity against breast cancer cells from different tumor subtypes and the downregulation of ER-α and HER2 receptors by SFRE might be involved in its antitumor effect against estrogen-dependent (ER+) and HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) breast cancer subtypes. Moreover, SFRE significantly enhanced the effect of breast cancer chemotherapy (tamoxifen, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel). Overall, our results support the potential utility of SFRE as a complementary approach in breast cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
J Food Prot ; 76(7): 1226-39, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23834798

RESUMO

ALIBIRD, a test substance composed of oligosaccharides derived from lactulose, a hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate, and a supercritical extract of rosemary (1:0.5:0.05), was prepared in the laboratory and evaluated for its safety as a multifunctional food additive. In oral toxicity studies (acute and 28 days repeated dose) using Wistar rats, ALIBIRD was administered in a single oral gavage dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight and resulted in no adverse events or mortality; a daily dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight for 28 days by gavage also resulted in no adverse effects or mortality. No abnormal clinical signs, behavioral changes, body weight changes, or changes in food and water consumption occurred in either study. There were no changes in hematological and serum chemistry values, organ weights, or gross or histological characteristics. Based on test results, it is concluded that ALIBIRD is well tolerated in rats at an acute and subchronic (28 days) dose of 2,000 mg/kg of body weight.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Rosmarinus/química , Administração Oral , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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