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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(5): e032414, 2020 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Content elucidation for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in paediatric cancer survivorship is understudied. We aimed to compare differences in the contents of five PRO domains that are important to paediatric cancer survivorship through semistructured interviews with paediatric cancer survivors and caregivers, and identified new concepts that were not covered in the item banks of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). DESIGN: Semistructured interviews to collect qualitative PRO data from survivors and caregivers. SETTING: A survivorship care clinic of a comprehensive cancer centre in the USA. PARTICIPANTS: The study included 51 survivors (<18 years old) and 35 caregivers who completed interviews between August and December 2016. Content experts coded the transcribed interviews into 'meaningful concepts' per PROMIS item concepts and identified new concepts per a consensus. Frequencies of meaningful concepts used by survivors and caregivers were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: For pain and meaning and purpose, 'Hurt a lot' and 'Purpose in life' were top concepts for survivors and caregivers, respectively. For fatigue and psychological stress, 'Needed to sleep during the day'/'Trouble doing schoolwork' and 'Felt worried' were top concepts for survivors, and 'Felt tired' and 'Felt distress'/'Felt stressed' for caregivers. Survivors reported more physically relevant contents (eg, 'Hard to do sport/exercise'; 0.78 vs 0.23, p=0.007) for pain, fatigue and stress, whereas caregivers used more emotionally relevant concepts (eg, 'Too tired to enjoy things I like to do'; 0.31 vs 0.05, p=0.025). Both groups reported positive thoughts for meaning and purpose (eg, 'Have goals for myself'). One (psychological stress, meaning and purpose) to eleven (fatigue) new concepts were generated. CONCLUSIONS: Important PRO contents in the form of meaningful concepts raised by survivors and caregivers were different and new concepts emerged. PRO measures are warranted to include survivorship-specific items by accounting for the child's and the caregiver's viewpoints.

2.
Qual Life Res ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the association between children's sleep quality and life satisfaction; and to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of this relationship. METHODS: Three pediatric cohorts in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Environmental influences on Child Health (ECHO) Research Program administered Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) parent-proxy measures to caregivers (n = 1111) who reported on their 5- to 9-year-old children's (n = 1251) sleep quality, psychological stress, general health, and life satisfaction; extant sociodemographic data were harmonized across cohorts. Bootstrapped path modeling of individual patient data meta-analysis was used to determine whether and to what extent stress and general health mediate the relationship between children's sleep quality and life satisfaction. RESULTS: Nonparametric bootstrapped path analyses with 1000 replications suggested children's sleep quality was associated with lower levels of stress and better general health, which, in turn, predicted higher levels of life satisfaction. Family environmental factors (i.e., income and maternal mental health) moderated these relationships. CONCLUSION: Children who sleep well have happier lives than those with more disturbed sleep. Given the modifiable nature of children's sleep quality, this study offers evidence to inform future interventional studies on specific mechanisms to improve children's well-being.

3.
Phys Ther ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop self-report and parent-proxy measures of children's physical activity for clinical research and practice and to demonstrate a valid and reliable instrument of children's lived experience of physical activity as reported by the children themselves or their parent proxies. METHODS: This study involved qualitative development of item pools, followed by 2 cross-sectional validity and reliability studies. The NIH PROMIS instrument development standards were applied to create child self-report and parent-proxy physical activity instruments from previously developed, content-valid pools of physical activity items. Each item used a 7-day recall period and had 5 response options. Item bank calibration was based on national samples totaling 3033 children aged 8 to 17 years, and 2336 parents of children aged 5 to 17 years. Quantitative analyses included reliability assessments, factor analyses, item response theory (IRT) calibration, differential item functioning, and construct validation. RESULTS: The final item banks comprised 10 items each. The items were selected based on content and psychometric properties. The item banks appeared to be unidimensional and free from differential item functioning. They showed excellent reliability and a high degree of precision across the range of the latent variable. Child-report and parent-proxy 4- and 8-item fixed-length instruments were specified. The instruments showed moderate correlation with existing self-report measures of physical activity. CONCLUSION: The PROMIS Pediatric Physical Activity instruments provide precise and valid measurement of children's lived experiences of physical activity. IMPACT: The availability of the PROMIS Pediatric Physical Activity instruments will support advances in clinical practice and research that require measurement of pediatric physical activity by self and parent-proxy report.

4.
Behav Sleep Med ; : 1-18, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000516

RESUMO

Objective: To develop and evaluate the validity of a self-report measure of sleep practices for youth 8-17 years.Methods: Following recommended guidelines for the development of patient reported outcomes (PROs), sleep practice concepts were identified through expert (n = 8) and child (n = 28) concept elicitation interviews and a systematic literature review. Items were developed based on these concepts and tested in cognitive interviews with children (n = 32). Psychometric analyses were applied to item response data collected from a diverse sample of youth 8-17 years (n = 307). Construct validity was evaluated through tests of associations between sleep practices and sleep disturbance and sleep-related impairment. Finally, clinical validity of the tool was assessed by comparing scores of youth with and without a parent-identified sleep problem.Results: The final Pediatric Sleep Practices Questionnaire (PSPQ) included 15 items that were used to identify 5 sleep practices: sleep timing, sleep routines and consistency, technology use before bedtime, sleep environment, and the need for parental presence to fall asleep. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized structure (all factor loadings ≥ 0.72) and PSPQ indices were significantly associated with self-reported sleep disturbances and sleep-related impairment. Finally, children with parent-reported sleep problems had shorter sleep opportunity, later bedtimes, greater need for parental presence, poorer bedtime routines, and more technology use than children without parent-reported sleep problems.Conclusions: The PSPQ was developed using best-practice PRO development methodology. The PSPQ can be used in clinical settings and for research assessment to capture modifiable sleep practices that may promote or interfere with healthy sleep.

5.
Acad Pediatr ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044466

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to 1) quantify the frequency of wheezing episodes and asthma diagnosis in young children in a large pediatric primary care network and 2) assess the variability in practice-level asthma diagnosis, accounting for common asthma risk factors and comorbidities. We hypothesized that significant variability in practice-level asthma diagnosis rates would remain after adjusting for associated predictors. METHODS: We generated a retrospective longitudinal birth cohort of children who visited 1 of 31 pediatric primary care practices within the first 6 months of life from 1/2005 to 12/2016. Children were observed for up to 8 years or until the end of the observation window. We used multivariable discrete time survival models to evaluate predictors of asthma diagnosis by 3-month age intervals. We compared unadjusted and adjusted proportions of children diagnosed with asthma by practice. RESULTS: Of the 161,502 children in the cohort, 34,578 children (21%) received at least 1 asthma diagnosis. In multivariable modeling, male gender, minority race/ethnicity, gestational age <34 weeks, allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and prior wheezing episodes were associated with asthma diagnosis. After adjusting for variation in these predictors across practices, the cumulative incidence of asthma diagnosis by practice by age 6 years ranged from 11% to 47% (interquartile range: 24%-29%). CONCLUSIONS: Across pediatric primary care practices, adjusted incidence of asthma diagnosis by age 6 years ranged widely, though variation gauged by the interquartile range was more modest. Potential sources of practice-level variation, such as differing diagnosis thresholds and labeling of different wheezing phenotypes as "asthma," should be further investigated.

6.
Qual Life Res ; 29(5): 1147-1158, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900764

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify and evaluate methods for assessing pediatric patient-reported outcome (PRO) data quality at the individual level. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review to identify methods for detecting invalid responses to PRO measures. Eight data quality indicators were applied to child-report data collected from 1780 children ages 8-11 years. We grouped children with similar data quality patterns and tested for between-group differences in factors hypothesized to influence self-report capacity. RESULTS: We identified 126 articles that described 494 instances in which special measures or statistical techniques were applied to evaluate data quality at the individual level. We identified 22 data quality indicator subtypes: 9 direct methods (require administration of special items) and 13 archival techniques (statistical procedures applied to PRO data post hoc). Application of archival techniques to child-report PRO data revealed 3 distinct patterns (or classes) of the data quality indicators. Compared to class 1 (56%), classes 2 (36%) and 3 (8%) had greater variation in their PRO item responses. Three archival indicators were especially useful for differentiating plausible item response variation (class 2) from statistically unlikely response patterns (class 3). Neurodevelopmental conditions, which are associated with a range of cognitive processing challenges, were more common among children in class 3. CONCLUSION: A multi-indicator approach is needed to identify invalid PRO responses. Once identified, assessment environments and measurement tools should be adapted to best support these individuals' self-report capacity. Individual-level data quality indicators can be used to gauge the effectiveness of these accommodations.

7.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 27(3): 376-385, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816040

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We propose a one-shot, privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to perform logistic regression (ODAL) across multiple clinical sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ODAL effectively utilizes the information from the local site (where the patient-level data are accessible) and incorporates the first-order (ODAL1) and second-order (ODAL2) gradients of the likelihood function from other sites to construct an estimator without requiring iterative communication across sites or transferring patient-level data. We evaluated ODAL via extensive simulation studies and an application to a dataset from the University of Pennsylvania Health System. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by comparing it with the estimator based on the combined individual participant data or pooled data (ie, gold standard). RESULTS: Our simulation studies revealed that the relative estimation bias of ODAL1 compared with the pooled estimates was <3%, and the ratio of standard errors was <1.25 for all scenarios. ODAL2 achieved higher accuracy (with relative bias <0.1% and ratio of standard errors <1.05). In real data analysis, we investigated the associations of 100 medications with fetal loss during pregnancy. We found that ODAL1 provided estimates with relative bias <10% for 85% of medications, and ODAL2 has relative bias <10% for 99% of medications. For communication cost, ODAL1 requires transferring p numbers from each site to the local site and ODAL2 requires transferring (p×p+p) numbers from each site to the local site, where p is the number of parameters in the regression model. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that ODAL is privacy-preserving and communication-efficient with small bias and high statistical efficiency.

8.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the integration of developmental considerations into person-reported outcome (PRO) measurement development for application in early childhood pediatric psychology. METHODS: Combining the state-of-the-science Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) mixed-methods instrument development approach with considerations from developmental measurement science, we developed 12 PROMIS early childhood (PROMIS EC) parent report measures to evaluate common mental, social, and physical health outcomes for ages 1-5. Through this interdisciplinary effort, we identified key considerations for early childhood PROs that enable reliable and valid assessment within the real-world constraints of clinical care settings. RESULTS: Four key considerations are highlighted as key to this process: (a) Engage diverse content experts to identify meaningful and relevant constructs; (b) Balance salient features for early childhood with lifespan coherence of constructs; (c) Emphasize observable features across the typical/atypical spectrum; and (d) Ensure feasibility and relevancy for clinical and research application. Each consideration is discussed using exemplars from the PROMIS EC measurement development process. CONCLUSIONS: PROMIS EC provides an illustration of how well-established PRO measures for youth can be adapted for younger children by incorporating developmental considerations. This process and resulting key considerations provide clinicians and researchers in the field of pediatric psychology with guidance for adapting PROs to early childhood, enabling critical continuity in domains of high salience to pediatric psychologists.

9.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical validity of the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Sleep Disturbance (SD) and Sleep-Related Impairment (SRI) short forms. METHODS: Youth (8-17 years) from clinical populations with known SDs (sleep clinic n = 126, autism n = 276, asthma n = 82, asthma + eczema n = 68) and the general population (n = 902) completed the PROMIS Pediatric SD and SRI 8-item short forms, along with established measures of sleep (Children's Report of Sleep Patterns, Sleep Habits Survey), PROMIS Pediatric Fatigue, and parent-reported clinical indicators (does child have sleep problem, use melatonin, use prescription sleep medication). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated factorial invariance for all clinical groups. Significant differences between the general population and clinical groups were found for SD and SRI (medium to large effect sizes). Convergent validity was demonstrated through separate hierarchical regression models that showed significant associations between parent-reported clinical indicators and SD and SRI, above and beyond clinical group, as well as moderate to strong correlations between the PROMIS sleep measures and both established measures of sleep and fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The PROMIS Pediatric SD and SRI short forms provide clinicians and researchers a brief, accurate, and valid way to measure patient-reported sleep outcomes in pediatric populations.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(12): 2427-2435, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rarity of pediatric glomerular disease makes it difficult to identify sufficient numbers of participants for clinical trials. This leaves limited data to guide improvements in care for these patients. METHODS: The authors developed and tested an electronic health record (EHR) algorithm to identify children with glomerular disease. We used EHR data from 231 patients with glomerular disorders at a single center to develop a computerized algorithm comprising diagnosis, kidney biopsy, and transplant procedure codes. The algorithm was tested using PEDSnet, a national network of eight children's hospitals with data on >6.5 million children. Patients with three or more nephrologist encounters (n=55,560) not meeting the computable phenotype definition of glomerular disease were defined as nonglomerular cases. A reviewer blinded to case status used a standardized form to review random samples of cases (n=800) and nonglomerular cases (n=798). RESULTS: The final algorithm consisted of two or more diagnosis codes from a qualifying list or one diagnosis code and a pretransplant biopsy. Performance characteristics among the population with three or more nephrology encounters were sensitivity, 96% (95% CI, 94% to 97%); specificity, 93% (95% CI, 91% to 94%); positive predictive value (PPV), 89% (95% CI, 86% to 91%); negative predictive value, 97% (95% CI, 96% to 98%); and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 94% (95% CI, 93% to 95%). Requiring that the sum of nephrotic syndrome diagnosis codes exceed that of glomerulonephritis codes identified children with nephrotic syndrome or biopsy-based minimal change nephropathy, FSGS, or membranous nephropathy, with 94% sensitivity and 92% PPV. The algorithm identified 6657 children with glomerular disease across PEDSnet, ≥50% of whom were seen within 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed an EHR-based algorithm and demonstrated that it had excellent classification accuracy across PEDSnet. This tool may enable faster identification of cohorts of pediatric patients with glomerular disease for observational or prospective studies.

11.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Privacy-protecting analytic approaches without centralized pooling of individual-level data, such as distributed regression, are particularly important for vulnerable populations, such as children, but these methods have not yet been tested in multi-center pediatric studies. METHODS: Using the electronic health data from 34 healthcare institutions in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet), we fit 12 multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to assess the associations of antibiotic use <24 months of age with body mass index z-score at 48 to <72 months of age. We ran these models using pooled individual-level data and conventional multivariable-adjusted regression (reference method), as well as using the more privacy-protecting pooled summary-level intermediate statistics and distributed regression technique. We compared the results from these two methods. RESULTS: Pooled individual-level and distributed linear regression analyses produced virtually identical parameter estimates and standard errors. Across all 12 models, the maximum difference in any of the parameter estimates or standard errors was 4.4833 × 10-10. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated empirically the feasibility and validity of distributed linear regression analysis using only summary-level information within a large multi-center study of children. This approach could enable expanded opportunities for multi-center pediatric research, especially when sharing of granular individual-level data is challenging.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Johns Hopkins ACG System is widely used to predict patient healthcare service use and costs. Most applications have focused on adult populations. In this study, we evaluated the use of the ACG software to predict pediatric unplanned hospital admission in a given month, based on the past year's clinical information captured by electronic health records (EHRs). METHODS AND FINDINGS: EHR data from a multi-state pediatric integrated delivery system were obtained for 920,051 patients with at least one physician visit during January 2009 to December 2016. Over this interval an average of 0.36% of patients each month had an unplanned hospitalization. In a 70% training sample, we used the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to generate regression coefficients for demographic, clinical predictors derived from the ACG system, and prior year hospitalizations. Applying these coefficients to a 30% test sample to generate risk scores, we found that the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.82. Omitting prior hospitalizations decreased the AUC from 0.82 to 0.80, and increased under-estimation of hospitalizations at the greater risk levels. Patients in the top 5% of risk scores accounted for 43% and the top 1% of risk scores accounted for 20% of all unplanned hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: A predictive model based on 12-months of demographic and clinical data using the ACG system has excellent predictive performance for 30-day pediatric unplanned hospitalization. This model may be useful in population health and care management applications targeting patients likely to be hospitalized. External validation at other institutions should be done to confirm our results.

13.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 54(11): 1684-1693, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469258

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Obesity in children increases the risk for new asthma. How age, sex, race/ethnicity, and allergy status affect the relationship between obesity and asthma is unclear. This study describes the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and incident asthma. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare asthma incidence among normal weight, overweight, and obese 2 to 6, 7 to 11, and 12 to 17 year olds to define the effects of sex, race/ethnicity, and allergy status. Weight status was determined at baseline and asthma incidence was defined as ≥2 asthma encounters and ≥1 asthma prescriptions. We used multivariable Poisson regression to estimate adjusted incident asthma rates and risk ratios. RESULTS: Data from 192 843 2 to 6 year olds, 157 284 7 to 11 year olds, and 157 369 12 to 17 year olds were included. The relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of new asthma among obese children in 2 to 6 year olds, 7 to 11 year olds, and 12 to 17 year olds were 1.25 (1.15, 1.37), 1.49 (1.32, 1.69) and 1.40 (1.21, 1.63), respectively. Among children with underlying allergic rhinitis, obesity did not increase the risk of new asthma. In children without allergic rhinitis, the risk for obesity-related asthma was highest in 7 to 11 year olds (risk ratio = 1.50 95% CI, 1.33, 1.60). Before age 12, females had a higher risk for obesity-related asthma; but after age 12, obese males had a higher asthma risk (interaction P-value < .05). CONCLUSION: Obesity is a major preventable risk factor for pediatric asthma that appears to vary along the pediatric age continuum and depends on sex, race/ethnicity and atopy status.

15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(9): e27876, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread implementation of electronic health records (EHR) has created new opportunities for pediatric oncology observational research. Little attention has been given to using EHR data to identify patients with pediatric hematologic malignancies. METHODS: This study used EHR-derived data in a pediatric clinical data research network, PEDSnet, to develop and evaluate a computable phenotype algorithm to identify pediatric patients with leukemia and lymphoma who received treatment with chemotherapy. To guide early development, multiple computable phenotype-defined cohorts were compared to one institution's tumor registry. The most promising algorithm was chosen for formal evaluation and consisted of at least two leukemia/lymphoma diagnoses (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine codes) within a 90-day period, two chemotherapy exposures, and three hematology-oncology provider encounters. During evaluation, the computable phenotype was executed against EHR data from 2011 to 2016 at three large institutions. Classification accuracy was assessed by masked medical record review with phenotype-identified patients compared to a control group with at least three hematology-oncology encounters. RESULTS: The computable phenotype had sensitivity of 100% (confidence interval [CI] 99%, 100%), specificity of 99% (CI 99%, 100%), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, and C-statistic of 1 at the development institution. The computable phenotype performance was similar at the two test institutions with sensitivity of 100% (CI 99%, 100%), specificity of 99% (CI 99%, 100%), PPV of 96%, NPV of 100%, and C-statistic of 0.99. CONCLUSION: The EHR-based computable phenotype is an accurate cohort identification tool for pediatric patients with leukemia and lymphoma who have been treated with chemotherapy and is ready for use in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 44(9): 1074-1082, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pediatric Meaning and Purpose item banks, child-report and parent-proxy editions. METHODS: Data were collected from two samples. The first comprised 1,895 children (8-17 years old) and 927 parents of children 5-17 years old recruited from an Internet panel, medical clinics, and schools. The second comprised a nationally representative sample of 990 children 8-17 years old and 1,292 parents of children 5-17 years old recruited from a different Internet panel. Item pool evaluation was done with Sample 1 and analyses were used to support decisions about item retention. The combined sample was used for item response theory (IRT) calibration of the item bank. Both samples were used in validation studies. RESULTS: Eleven items were deleted from the item pool because of poor psychometric performance. The final versions of the scales showed excellent reliability (>0.90). Short form scales (4 or 8 items) had a high degree of precision across over 4 SD units of the latent variable. The item bank positively correlated with extant measures of positive psychological functioning, and negatively correlated with measures of emotional distress, pessimism, and pain. Lower meaning and purpose scores were associated with adolescence and presence of a special healthcare need. CONCLUSION: The PROMIS Pediatric Meaning and Purpose item banks and their short forms are ready for use in clinical research and practice. They are measures of children's eudaimonic well-being and indicative of children's hopefulness, optimism, goal-directedness, and feelings that life is worth living.

17.
Pediatrics ; 143(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate children's general health and life satisfaction in the context of chronic illness. METHODS: Caregivers (n = 1113) from 3 concurrent cohort studies completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Parent-Proxy Global Health measure, which is used to assess a child's overall physical, mental, and social health, as well as the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Parent-Proxy Life Satisfaction measure between March 2017 and December 2017 for 1253 children aged 5 to 9 years. We harmonized demographic factors and family environmental stressors (single parent, maternal mental health, and income) to common metrics across the cohorts. To examine associations between chronic illness and children's general health and life satisfaction, we fit linear regression models with cohort fixed effects and accounted for the multilevel data structure of multiple children nested within the same family (ie, twins and other siblings) with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Children with chronic illness had worse general health than those without illness (adjusted ß = -1.20; 95% confidence interval: -2.49 to 0.09). By contrast, children with chronic illness had similar levels of life satisfaction (adjusted ß = -.19; 95% confidence interval: -1.25 to 0.87). Additionally, children's psychological stress had the strongest negative association with both outcomes, even after adjusting for demographics and family environmental stressors. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with chronic illness have lower parent-reported general health, their life satisfaction appears comparable with that of peers without chronic illness. With this study, we provide evidence that chronic illnesses do not preclude children from leading happy and satisfying lives.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Satisfação Pessoal , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Análise Multivariada
18.
Int J Equity Health ; 18(1): 76, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric primary care visits are a foundational element in the health maintenance of children. Differential access may be a driver of racial inequities in health. We hypothesized that pediatric primary care accessibility would be lowest in neighborhoods with higher proportion of non-Hispanic Black residents. METHODS: Annual ratios (2008-2016) of providers to pediatric population were calculated by census tract in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Marginal logistic regression was used to estimate the independent association between neighborhood racial composition and access to pediatric primary care controlling for confounders. RESULTS: In general, low access to care was associated with greater neighborhood disadvantage (e.g., SES, % poverty, % public insurance). After controlling for neighborhood indicators of disadvantage, risk of being in the lowest quintile of access significantly increased as the percent of non-Hispanic Black residents increased. CONCLUSION: A new measure of pediatric primary care accessibility demonstrates a persistent disparity in primary care access for predominantly non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pediatria , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Philadelphia , Áreas de Pobreza , Análise Espacial
19.
EGEMS (Wash DC) ; 7(1): 11, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993145

RESUMO

Researchers often use prescribing data from electronic health records (EHR) or dispensing data from medication or medical claims to determine medication utilization. However, neither source has complete information on medication use. We compared antibiotic prescribing and dispensing records for 200,395 patients in the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) Antibiotics and Childhood Growth Study. We stratified analyses by delivery system type [closed integrated (cIDS) and non-cIDS]; 90.5 percent and 39.4 percent of prescribing records had matching dispensing records, and 92.7 percent and 64.0 percent of dispensing records had matching prescribing records at cIDS and non-cIDS, respectively. Most of the dispensings without a matching prescription did not have same-day encounters in the EHR, suggesting they were medications given outside the institution providing data, such as those from urgent care or retail clinics. The sensitivity of prescriptions in the EHR, using dispensings as a gold standard, was 99.1 percent and 89.9 percent for cIDS and non-cIDS, respectively. Only 0.7 percent and 6.1 percent of patients at cIDS and non-cIDS, respectively, were classified as false-negative, i.e. entirely unexposed to antibiotics when they in fact had dispensings. These patients were more likely to have a complex chronic condition or asthma. Overall, prescription records worked well to identify exposure to antibiotics. EHR data, such as the data available in PCORnet, is a unique and vital resource for clinical research. Closing data gaps by understanding why prescriptions may not be captured can improve this type of data, making it more robust for observational research.

20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(6): 1202-1209, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The benefits of antibiotic treatment during pregnancy are immediate, but there may be long-term risks to the developing child. Prior studies show an association between early life antibiotics and obesity, but few have examined this risk during pregnancy. SUBJECTS: To evaluate the association of maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy on childhood BMI-z at 5 years, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis. Using electronic health record data from seven health systems in PCORnet, a national distributed clinical research network, we included children with same-day height and weight measures who could be linked to mothers with vital measurements during pregnancy. The primary independent variable was maternal outpatient antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy (any versus none). We examined dose response (number of antibiotic episodes), spectrum and class of antibiotics, and antibiotic episodes by trimester. The primary outcome was child age- and sex-specific BMI-z at age 5 years. RESULTS: The final sample was 53,320 mother-child pairs. During pregnancy, 29.9% of mothers received antibiotics. In adjusted models, maternal outpatient antibiotic prescriptions during pregnancy were not associated with child BMI-z at age 5 years (ß = 0.00, 95% CI -0.03, 0.02). When evaluating timing during pregnancy, dose-response, spectrum and class of antibiotics, there were no associations of maternal antibiotics with child BMI-z at age 5 years. CONCLUSION: In this large observational cohort, provision of antibiotics during pregnancy was not associated with childhood BMI-z at 5 years.

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