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1.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e579-e587, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many regions of the world are now facing more frequent and unprecedentedly large wildfires. However, the association between wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality has not been well characterised. We aimed to comprehensively assess the association between short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 and mortality across various regions of the world. METHODS: For this time series study, data on daily counts of deaths for all causes, cardiovascular causes, and respiratory causes were collected from 749 cities in 43 countries and regions during 2000-16. Daily concentrations of wildfire-related PM2·5 were estimated using the three-dimensional chemical transport model GEOS-Chem at a 0·25°â€ˆ× 0·25° resolution. The association between wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure and mortality was examined using a quasi-Poisson time series model in each city considering both the current-day and lag effects, and the effect estimates were then pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Based on these pooled effect estimates, the population attributable fraction and relative risk (RR) of annual mortality due to acute wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure was calculated. FINDINGS: 65·6 million all-cause deaths, 15·1 million cardiovascular deaths, and 6·8 million respiratory deaths were included in our analyses. The pooled RRs of mortality associated with each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 3-day moving average (lag 0-2 days) of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure were 1·019 (95% CI 1·016-1·022) for all-cause mortality, 1·017 (1·012-1·021) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1·019 (1·013-1·025) for respiratory mortality. Overall, 0·62% (95% CI 0·48-0·75) of all-cause deaths, 0·55% (0·43-0·67) of cardiovascular deaths, and 0·64% (0·50-0·78) of respiratory deaths were annually attributable to the acute impacts of wildfire-related PM2·5 exposure during the study period. INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to wildfire-related PM2·5 was associated with increased risk of mortality. Urgent action is needed to reduce health risks from the increasing wildfires. FUNDING: Australian Research Council, Australian National Health & Medical Research Council.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 674, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570284

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution is of great concern for public health although studies on the associations between exposure estimates and personal exposure are limited and somewhat inconsistent. The aim of this study was to quantify the associations between personal nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) exposure levels and ambient levels, and the impact of climate and time spent outdoors in two cities in Sweden. Subjects (n = 65) from two Swedish cities participated in the study. The study protocol included personal exposure measurements at three occasions, or waves. Personal exposure measurements were performed for NOx and O3 for 24 h and PM10 for 24 h, and the participants kept an activity diary. Stationary monitoring stations provided hourly data of NOx, O3 and PM, as well as data on air temperature and relative humidity. Data were analysed using mixed linear models with the subject-id as a random effect and stationary exposure and covariates as fixed effects. Personal exposure levels of NOx, O3 and PM10 were significantly associated with levels measured at air pollution monitoring stations. The associations persisted after adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, city and wave, but the modelled estimates were slightly attenuated from 2.4% (95% CI 1.8-2.9) to 2.0% (0.97-2.94%) for NOx, from 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4) to 2.1% (95% CI 1.1-2.9%) for O3 and from 2.6% (95% 0.9-4.2%) to 1.3% (95% CI - 1.5-4.0) for PM10. After adding covariates, the degree of explanation offered by the model (coefficient of determination, or R2) did not change for NOx (0.64 to 0.63) but increased from 0.46 to 0.63 for O3, and from 0.38 to 0.43 for PM10. Personal exposure to NOx, O3 and PM has moderate to good association with levels measured at urban background sites. The results indicate that stationary measurements are valid as measure of exposure in environmental health risk assessments, especially if they can be refined using activity diaries and meteorological data. Approximately 50-70% of the variation of the personal exposure was explained by the stationary measurement, implying occurrence of misclassification in studies using more crude exposure metrics, potentially leading to underestimates of the effects of exposure to ambient air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Suécia
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046040, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497075

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate concentration-response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels. SETTING: Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden. DESIGN: High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990-2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1-5 years (lag1-5) and 6-10 years (lag6-10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort. PARTICIPANTS: During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: Both PM10 (range: 6.3-41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2-6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0-22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI -9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality. CONCLUSION: The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carbono , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia/epidemiologia
4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a well-known marker of type-2 inflammation. FeNO is elevated in asthma and allergic rhinitis, with IgE sensitization as a major determinant. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to see whether there was an independent association between upper airway inflammatory disorders (UAID) and FeNO, after adjustment for asthma and sensitization, in a multi-centre population-based study. METHODS: A total of 741 subjects with current asthma and 4155 non-asthmatic subjects participating in the second follow-up of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS III) underwent FeNO measurements. Sensitization status was based on measurement of IgE against airborne allergens; information on asthma, UAID and medication was collected through interview-led questionnaires. Independent associations between UAID and FeNO were assessed in adjusted multivariate regression models and test for interaction with perennial sensitization and asthma on the relation between UAID and FeNO were made. RESULTS: UAID were associated with higher FeNO after adjusting for perennial sensitization, asthma and other confounders: with 4.4 (0.9-7.9) % higher FeNO in relation to current rhinitis and 4.8 (0.7-9.2) % higher FeNO in relation to rhinoconjunctivitis. A significant interaction with perennial sensitization was found in the relationship between current rhinitis and FeNO (p = .03) and between rhinoconjunctivitis and FeNO (p = .03). After stratification by asthma and perennial sensitization, the association between current rhinitis and FeNO remained in non-asthmatic subjects with perennial sensitization, with 12.1 (0.2-25.5) % higher FeNO in subjects with current rhinitis than in those without. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Current rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was associated with higher FeNO, with an interaction with perennial sensitization. This further highlights the concept of united airway disease, with correlations between symptoms and inflammation in the upper and lower airways and that sensitization needs to be accounted for in the relation between FeNO and rhinitis.

5.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461775

RESUMO

Growing evidence indicates that air pollution can negatively impact cognitive functions. The olfactory system is interesting in this context as it is directly exposed to pollutants and also associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate long- and short-term PM2.5 exposure in association with olfactory functions. Scores from odor tests were obtained from the Betula project - a longitudinal cohort study. Estimates of annual mean PM2.5 concentrations at the participants' residential address were obtained from a dispersion-model. Daily mean PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from a measuring station close to the test location. We found a positive association between long-term PM2.5 exposure and odor identification, i.e. exposure was associated with a better ability to identify odors. We also found an interaction effect between PM2.5 and age on odor identification. We found no associations between any PM2.5 exposure and odor detection or between short-term PM2.5 exposure and olfactory functions.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444225

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the mortality risk associated with air pollution in a Swedish cohort with relatively low exposure. Air pollution models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), primary emitted carbonaceous particles (BC/pOC), sea salt, chemically formed particles grouped as secondary inorganic and organic aerosols (SIA and SOA) as well as ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The exposure, as a moving average was calculated based on home address for the time windows 1 year (lag 1), 1-5 years (lag 1-5) and 1-10 years (lag 1-10) preceding the death. During the study period, 1151 cases of natural mortality, 253 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 113 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed during 369,394 person-years of follow-up. Increased natural mortality was observed in association with NO2 (3% [95% CI -8-14%] per IQR) and PM2.5 (2% [95% CI -5-9%] for an IQR increase) and its components, except for SOA where a decreased risk was observed. Higher risk increases were observed for CVD mortality (e.g., 18% [95% CI 1-39%] per IQR for NO2). These findings at low exposure levels are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(7): e415-e425, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to cold or hot temperatures is associated with premature deaths. We aimed to evaluate the global, regional, and national mortality burden associated with non-optimal ambient temperatures. METHODS: In this modelling study, we collected time-series data on mortality and ambient temperatures from 750 locations in 43 countries and five meta-predictors at a grid size of 0·5°â€ˆ× 0·5° across the globe. A three-stage analysis strategy was used. First, the temperature-mortality association was fitted for each location by use of a time-series regression. Second, a multivariate meta-regression model was built between location-specific estimates and meta-predictors. Finally, the grid-specific temperature-mortality association between 2000 and 2019 was predicted by use of the fitted meta-regression and the grid-specific meta-predictors. Excess deaths due to non-optimal temperatures, the ratio between annual excess deaths and all deaths of a year (the excess death ratio), and the death rate per 100 000 residents were then calculated for each grid across the world. Grids were divided according to regional groupings of the UN Statistics Division. FINDINGS: Globally, 5 083 173 deaths (95% empirical CI [eCI] 4 087 967-5 965 520) were associated with non-optimal temperatures per year, accounting for 9·43% (95% eCI 7·58-11·07) of all deaths (8·52% [6·19-10·47] were cold-related and 0·91% [0·56-1·36] were heat-related). There were 74 temperature-related excess deaths per 100 000 residents (95% eCI 60-87). The mortality burden varied geographically. Of all excess deaths, 2 617 322 (51·49%) occurred in Asia. Eastern Europe had the highest heat-related excess death rate and Sub-Saharan Africa had the highest cold-related excess death rate. From 2000-03 to 2016-19, the global cold-related excess death ratio changed by -0·51 percentage points (95% eCI -0·61 to -0·42) and the global heat-related excess death ratio increased by 0·21 percentage points (0·13-0·31), leading to a net reduction in the overall ratio. The largest decline in overall excess death ratio occurred in South-eastern Asia, whereas excess death ratio fluctuated in Southern Asia and Europe. INTERPRETATION: Non-optimal temperatures are associated with a substantial mortality burden, which varies spatiotemporally. Our findings will benefit international, national, and local communities in developing preparedness and prevention strategies to reduce weather-related impacts immediately and under climate change scenarios. FUNDING: Australian Research Council and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210080

RESUMO

During the summer of 2018 Sweden experienced a high occurrence of wildfires, most intense in the low-densely populated Jämtland Härjedalen region. The aim of this study was to investigate any short-term respiratory health effects due to deteriorated air quality generated by the smoke from wildfires. For each municipality in the region Jämtland Härjedalen, daily population-weighted concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were calculated through the application of the MATCH chemistry transport model. Modelled levels of PM2.5 were obtained for two summer periods (2017, 2018). Potential health effects of wildfire related levels of PM2.5 were examined by studying daily health care contacts concerning respiratory problems in each municipality in a quasi-Poisson regression model, adjusting for long-term trends, weekday patterns and weather conditions. In the municipality most exposed to wildfire smoke, having 9 days with daily maximum 1-h mean of PM2.5 > 20 µg/m3, smoke days resulted in a significant increase in daily asthma visits the same and two following days (relative risk (RR) = 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-5.47). Meta-estimates for all eight municipalities revealed statistically significant increase in asthma visits (RR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.09-2.57) and also when grouping all disorders of the lower airways (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.01-1.92).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202261

RESUMO

When mortality or other health outcomes attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are estimated, the same exposure-response function (ERF) is usually assumed regardless of the source and composition of the particles, and independently of the spatial resolution applied in the exposure model. While several recent publications indicate that ERFs based on exposure models resolving within-city gradients are steeper per concentration unit (µgm-3), the ERF for PM2.5 recommended by the World Health Organization does not reflect this observation and is heavily influenced by studies based on between-city exposure estimates. We evaluated the potential health benefits of three air pollution abatement strategies: electrification of light vehicles, reduced use of studded tires, and introduction of congestion charges in Stockholm and Gothenburg, using different ERFs. We demonstrated that using a single ERF for PM2.5 likely results in an underestimation of the effect of local measures and may be misleading when evaluating abatement strategies. We also suggest applying ERFs that distinguish between near-source and regional contributions of exposure to PM2.5. If separate ERFs are applied for near-source and regional PM2.5, congestion charges as well as a reduction of studded tire use are estimated to be associated with a significant reduction in the mortality burden in both Gothenburg and Stockholm. In some scenarios the number of premature deaths is more than 10 times higher using separate ERFs in comparison to using a single ERF irrespective of sources as recommended by the WHO. For electrification, the net change in attributable deaths is small or within the uncertainty range depending on the choice of ERF.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Cidades , Material Particulado/análise
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e044911, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Habitual snoring is associated with fatigue, headaches and low work performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate if snoring is affected by environmental factors such as home dampness and exposure to air pollution. SETTING: General population sample from four Swedish cities. PARTICIPANTS: 25 848 participants from the Swedish part of the epidemiological Global Asthma and Allergy and European network of excellence study carried out in 2008. The participants completed a postal questionnaire on snoring and, indoor and outdoor environmental exposure as well as potential confounders including smoking, weight, height and educational level. RESULTS: Of the participants, 4211 (16.3%) were habitual snorers. Habitual snorers reported water damage (8.3% vs 7.0% p<0.0001), floor dampness (4.6% vs 3.8% % p<0.0001) and visible mould (5.2% vs 3.8% p<0.0001) in their homes more often than non-snorers. Habitual snorers stated being annoyed by air pollution more often than non-snorers with habitual snorers reporting being irritated with the air in their residential area to a higher extent (sometimes 16.2% vs 13.9%, and daily 4.6% vs 3.1%) as well as annoyance from traffic fumes (somewhat 19% vs 18.5% and very 5% vs 3.6%) (p<0.0001). These results remained significant after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking history and educational level. CONCLUSION: Snoring is more prevalent in subjects reporting home dampness and air pollution. These association should be confirmed in further research using objective measurements and a longitudinal approach.


Assuntos
Ronco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ronco/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
11.
Environ Int ; 155: 106667, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077855

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disease and one of the most common chronic diseases among children. Exposure to ambient air pollution in early life and childhood may influence asthma aetiology, but it is uncertain which specific components of air pollution and exposure windows are of importance. The role of socio-economic status (SES) is also unclear. The aims of the present study are, therefore, to investigate how various exposure windows of different pollutants affect risk-induced asthma in early life and to explore the possible effect SES has on that relationship. METHODS: The study population was constructed using register data on all singleton births in the greater Stockholm area between 2006 and 2013. Exposure to ambient black carbon (BC), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), primary organic carbon (pOC) secondary organic aerosols (SOA), secondary inorganic aerosols, and oxidative potential at the residential address was modelled as mean values for the entire pregnancy period, the first year of life and the first three years of life. Swedish national registers were used to define the outcome: asthma diagnosis assessed at hospital during the first six years of life. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were modelled with Cox proportional hazards model with age as the underlying time-scale, adjusting for relevant potential confounding variables. RESULTS: An increased risk for developing childhood asthma was observed in association with exposure to PM2.5, pOC and SOA during the first three years of life. With an interquartile range increase in exposure, the HRs were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10), 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.09) and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00-1.04), for PM2.5, pOC and SOA, respectively, in the fully adjusted models. Exposure during foetal life or the first year of life was not associated with asthma risk, and the other pollutants were not statistically significantly associated with increased risk. Furthermore, the increase in risk associated with PM2.5 and the components BC, pOC and SOA were stronger in areas with lower SES. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during the first three years of life may increase the risk for asthma in early childhood. The findings further imply a possible increased vulnerability to air pollution-attributed asthma among low SES children.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Suécia/epidemiologia
12.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(5): 100544, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093956

RESUMO

Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of type-2 inflammation used both to support diagnosis of asthma and follow up asthma patients. The associations of FeNO with lung function decline and bronchodilator (BD) response have been studied only scarcely in large populations. Objectives: To study the association between FeNO and a) retrospective lung function decline over 20 years, and b) lung function response to BD among asthmatic subjects compared with non-asthmatic subjects and with regards to current smoking and sex. Methods: Longitudinal analyses of previous lung function decline and FeNO level at follow-up and cross-sectional analyses of BD response and FeNO levels in 4257 participants (651 asthmatics) from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Results: Among asthmatic subjects, higher percentage declines of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were associated with higher FeNO levels (p = 0.001 for both) at follow-up. These correlations were found mainly among non-smoking individuals (p = 0.001) and females (p = 0.001) in stratified analyses.Percentage increase in FEV1 after BD was positively associated with FeNO levels in non-asthmatic subjects. Further, after stratified for sex and smoking separately, a positive association was seen between FEV1 and FeNO levels in non-smokers and women, regardless of asthma status. Conclusions: We found a relationship between elevated FeNO and larger FEV1 decline over 20 years among subjects with asthma who were non-smokers or women. The association between elevated FeNO levels and larger BD response was found in both non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects, mainly in women and non-smoking subjects.

13.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 65, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias currently represent the fifth most common cause of death in the world, according to the World Health Organization, with a projected future increase as the proportion of the elderly in the population is growing. Air pollution has emerged as a plausible risk factor for AD, but studies estimating dementia cases attributable to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and resulting monetary estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used data on average population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 for the entire population of Sweden above 30 years of age. To estimate the annual number of dementia cases attributable to air pollution in the Swedish population above 60 years of age, we used the latest concentration response functions (CRF) between PM2.5 exposure and dementia incidence, based on ten longitudinal cohort studies, for the population above 60 years of age. To estimate the monetary burden of attributable cases, we calculated total costs related to dementia, including direct and indirect lifetime costs and intangible costs by including quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost. Two different monetary valuations of QALYs in Sweden were used to estimate the monetary value of reduced quality-of-life from two different payer perspectives. RESULTS: The annual number of dementia cases attributable to PM2.5 exposure was estimated to be 820, which represents 5% of the annual dementia cases in Sweden. Direct and indirect lifetime average cost per dementia case was estimated to correspond € 213,000. A reduction of PM2.5 by 1 µg/m3 was estimated to yield 101 fewer cases of dementia incidences annually, resulting in an estimated monetary benefit ranging up to 0.01% of the Swedish GDP in 2019. CONCLUSION: This study estimated that 5% of annual dementia cases could be attributed to PM2.5 exposure, and that the resulting monetary burden is substantial. These findings suggest the need to consider airborne toxic pollutants associated with dementia incidence in public health policy decisions.


Assuntos
Demência , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Material Particulado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/economia , Demência/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/economia , Qualidade de Vida , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Scand J Public Health ; : 14034948211010024, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977822

RESUMO

AIMS: To estimate the overall health impact of transferring commuting trips from car to bicycle. METHODS: In this study registry information on the location of home and work for residents in Stockholm County was used to obtain the shortest travel route on a network of bicycle paths and roads. Current modes of travel to work were based on travel survey data. The relation between duration of cycling and distance cycled was established as a basis for selecting the number of individuals that normally would drive a car to work, but have a distance to work that they could bicycle within 30 minutes. The change in traffic flows was estimated by a transport model (LuTrans) and effects on road traffic injuries and fatalities were estimated by using national hospital injury data. Effects on air pollution concentrations were modelled using dispersion models. RESULTS: Within the scenario, 111,000 commuters would shift from car to bicycle. On average the increased physical activity reduced the one-year mortality risk by 12% among the additional bicyclists. Including the number of years lost due to morbidity, the total number of disability adjusted life-years gained was 696. The amount of disability adjusted life-years gained in the general population due to reduced air pollution exposure was 471. The number of disability adjusted life-years lost by traffic injuries was 176. Also including air pollution effects among bicyclists, the net benefit was 939 disability adjusted life-years per year. CONCLUSIONS: Large health benefits were estimated by transferring commuting by car to bicycle.

15.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(4): e191-e199, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on short-term association between ambient carbon monoxide (CO) and mortality is inconclusive and limited to single cities, regions, or countries. Generalisation of results from previous studies is hindered by potential publication bias and different modelling approaches. We therefore assessed the association between short-term exposure to ambient CO and daily mortality in a multicity, multicountry setting. METHODS: We collected daily data on air pollution, meteorology, and total mortality from 337 cities in 18 countries or regions, covering various periods from 1979 to 2016. All included cities had at least 2 years of both CO and mortality data. We estimated city-specific associations using confounder-adjusted generalised additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, and then pooled the estimates, accounting for their statistical uncertainty, using a random-effects multilevel meta-analytical model. We also assessed the overall shape of the exposure-response curve and evaluated the possibility of a threshold below which health is not affected. FINDINGS: Overall, a 1 mg/m3 increase in the average CO concentration of the previous day was associated with a 0·91% (95% CI 0·32-1·50) increase in daily total mortality. The pooled exposure-response curve showed a continuously elevated mortality risk with increasing CO concentrations, suggesting no threshold. The exposure-response curve was steeper at daily CO levels lower than 1 mg/m3, indicating greater risk of mortality per increment in CO exposure, and persisted at daily concentrations as low as 0·6 mg/m3 or less. The association remained similar after adjustment for ozone but was attenuated after adjustment for particulate matter or sulphur dioxide, or even reduced to null after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide. INTERPRETATION: This international study is by far the largest epidemiological investigation on short-term CO-related mortality. We found significant associations between ambient CO and daily mortality, even at levels well below current air quality guidelines. Further studies are warranted to disentangle its independent effect from other traffic-related pollutants. FUNDING: EU Horizon 2020, UK Medical Research Council, and Natural Environment Research Council.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807925

RESUMO

We aimed to assess a possible interaction effect between physical activity and particulate air pollution exposure on recurrence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. We followed 2221 adult participants comprising first time IHD (1403) and stroke (818) cases from the Västerbotten Intervention Program between 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2013. During mean follow-up times of 5.5 years, 428 and 156 participants developed IHD and stroke recurrence, respectively. PM2.5 concentrations above the median (5.48 µg/m3) were associated with increased risk of IHD and stroke recurrence by 13% (95% CI -17-45%) and 21% (95% CI -19-80%), respectively. These risk increases were however only observed among those that exercised at most once a week at 21% (95% CI -5-50%) and 25% (95% CI -19-90%) for IHD and stroke recurrence, respectively. Higher frequency of exercise at recruitment was positively associated with IHD and stroke recurrence but only the association with IHD recurrence among participants with low residential PM2.5 was statistically significant (96% increased risk (95%-CI 22-215%)). However, no interaction effect between physical activity and PM2.5 exposure was found. Our findings suggest that physical activity may reduce the air pollution exposure associated risk for recurrent cardiovascular disease, likely by reducing the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e040912, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess a possible interaction effect between physical activity and air pollution on first incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Umeå, Northern Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 34 748 adult participants of Västerbotten Intervention Programme cohort from 1990 to January 2014. Annual particulate matter concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) at the participants' residential addresses were modelled and a questionnaire on frequency of exercise and active commuting was completed at baseline. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to estimate (1) association with physical activity at different levels of air pollution and (2) the association with particulate matter at different levels of physical activity. OUTCOME: First incidence of IHD. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up of 12.4 years, there were 1148 IHD cases. Overall, we observed an increased risk of IHD among individuals with higher concentrations of particles at their home address. Exercise at least twice a week was associated with a lower risk of IHD among participants with high residential PM2.5 (hazard ratio (HR) 0.60; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.82) and PM10 (HR 0.55; 95% CI: 0.4 to 0.76). The same beneficial effect was not observed with low residential PM2.5 (HR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.72 to 1.22) and PM10 (HR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.29). An increased risk associated with higher long-term exposure to particles was only observed among participants that exercised in training clothes at most one a week and among those not performing any active commuting. However, only the interaction effect on HRs for exercise was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Exercise was associated with a lower risk of first incidence of IHD among individuals with higher residential particle concentrations. An air pollution-associated risk was only observed among those who exercised less. The findings support the promotion of physical activity and a mitigation of air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Isquemia Miocárdica , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795316

RESUMO

Mechanistic research suggests that lifestyle and environmental factors impact respiratory health across generations by epigenetic changes transmitted through male germ cells. Evidence from studies on humans is very limited.We investigated multi-generation causal associations to estimate the causal effects of tobacco smoking on lung function within the paternal line. We analysed data from 383 adult offspring (age: 18-47; female: 52.0%) and their 274 fathers, who had participated in the ECRHS/RHINESSA generation study and had provided valid measures of pre-bronchodilator lung function. Two counterfactual-based, multi-level mediation models were developed with: paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty as exposures; fathers' FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as potential mediators (proxies of unobserved biological mechanisms that are true mediators); offspring's FEV1 and FVC, or FEV1/FVC z-scores as outcomes. All effects were summarised as differences in expected z-scores related to fathers' and grandmothers' smoking history.Fathers' smoking initiation in prepuberty had a negative direct effect on both offspring's FEV1 (-0.36; 95% confidence interval: -0.63, -0.10) and FVC (-0.50; -0.80, -0.20) compared to fathers' never smoking. Paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy had a negative direct effect on fathers' FEV1/FVC (-0.57; -1.09, -0.05) and a negative indirect effect on offspring's FEV1/FVC (-0.12; -0.21, -0.03) compared to grandmothers' not smoking before fathers' birth nor during fathers' childhood.Fathers' smoking in prepuberty and paternal grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy may cause lower lung function in offspring. Our results support the concept that lifestyle-related exposures during these susceptibility periods influence the health of future generations.

19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(1): 83-85, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749652

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is emerging as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but existing studies are still limited and heterogeneous. We have previously studied the association between dementia (AD and vascular dementia) and PM2.5 stemming from vehicle exhaust and wood-smoke in the Betula cohort in Northern Sweden. The aim of this commentary is to estimate the association between total PM2.5 and dementia in the Betula cohort, which is more relevant to include in future meta-estimates than the source-specific estimates. The hazard ratio for incident dementia associated with a 1µg/m3 increase in local PM2.5 was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 0.99 -1.92). The interpretation of our results is that they indicate an association between local contrasts in concentration of PM2.5 at the residential address and incidence of dementia in a low-level setting.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
BMJ ; 372: n534, 2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short term associations between nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality across multiple countries/regions worldwide, using a uniform analytical protocol. DESIGN: Two stage, time series approach, with overdispersed generalised linear models and multilevel meta-analysis. SETTING: 398 cities in 22 low to high income countries/regions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily deaths from total (62.8 million), cardiovascular (19.7 million), and respiratory (5.5 million) causes between 1973 and 2018. RESULTS: On average, a 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 concentration on lag 1 day (previous day) was associated with 0.46% (95% confidence interval 0.36% to 0.57%), 0.37% (0.22% to 0.51%), and 0.47% (0.21% to 0.72%) increases in total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained robust after adjusting for co-pollutants (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm or ≤2.5 µm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide). The pooled concentration-response curves for all three causes were almost linear without discernible thresholds. The proportion of deaths attributable to NO2 concentration above the counterfactual zero level was 1.23% (95% confidence interval 0.96% to 1.51%) across the 398 cities. CONCLUSIONS: This multilocation study provides key evidence on the independent and linear associations between short term exposure to NO2 and increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, suggesting that health benefits would be achieved by tightening the guidelines and regulatory limits of NO2.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Cidades , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente
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