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1.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compliance with college emergency notifications can minimize injury; however, time is often wasted in alert verification. Building on prior research, this study assesses using health-behavior theory to predict rapid compliance to emergency notifications across a range of scenarios and within a diverse college population. METHODS: Cross-sectional, student data were collected in 2017-2018 (n = 1529). The Theory of Planned Behavior and Protection Motivation Theory were used to explain intention to comply with emergency notifications in scenarios: robbery, shooter, fire, chemical spill, protest, health emergency, and air quality. Regression models assessed associations between constructs and intention to rapidly comply with each notification. RESULTS: The most consistent predictors of rapid compliance were attitudes and subjective norms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.057-1.118; 95% CI: 1.009-1.168). Scenarios prone to rapid developments such as robbery, shooter, and fire were associated with increased perceived threat and response efficacy (AOR: 1.024-1.082; 95% CI: 1.003-1.132) Slower developing situations such as air quality and health hazards were associated with increased perceived control (AOR: 1.027-1.073; 95% CI: 1.031-1.117). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified attitude and subjective norms as consistent predictors of rapid compliance and improves understanding of additional constructs across scenarios. Campuses may benefit from leveraging concepts from health-behavior theory to provide targeted intervention focusing on factors associated with rapid compliance.

2.
J Interpers Violence ; 35(3-4): 662-681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29294639

RESUMO

Retrospective studies using adult self-report data have demonstrated that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase risk of violence perpetration and victimization. However, research examining the associations between adolescent reports of ACE and school violence involvement is sparse. The present study examines the relationship between adolescent reported ACE and multiple types of on-campus violence (bringing a weapon to campus, being threatened with a weapon, bullying, fighting, vandalism) for boys and girls as well as the risk of membership in victim, perpetrator, and victim-perpetrator groups. The analytic sample was comprised of ninth graders who participated in the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n ~ 37,000). Multinomial logistic regression models calculated the risk of membership for victim only, perpetrator only, and victim-perpetrator subgroups, relative to no violence involvement, for students with ACE as compared with those with no ACE. Separate logistic regression models assessed the association between cumulative ACE and school-based violence, adjusting for age, ethnicity, family structure, poverty status, internalizing symptoms, and school district size. Nearly 30% of students were exposed to at least one ACE. Students with ACE represent 19% of no violence, 38% of victim only, 40% of perpetrator only, and 63% of victim-perpetrator groups. There was a strong, graded relationship between ACE and the probability of school-based victimization: physical bullying for boys but not girls, being threatened with a weapon, and theft or property destruction (ps < .001) and perpetration: bullying and bringing a weapon to campus (ps < .001), with boys especially vulnerable to the negative effects of cumulative ACE. We recommend that schools systematically screen for ACE, particularly among younger adolescents involved in victimization and perpetration, and develop the infrastructure to increase access to trauma-informed intervention services. Future research priorities and implications are discussed.

3.
Addict Behav ; 103: 106253, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Associations between discrimination and substance use have been identified cross-sectionally in multiple populations including Hispanics. However, there is limited research exploring this phenomenon longitudinally in Hispanic youth over the transition from adolescence through emerging adulthood (EA). METHODS: Hispanic youth in Southern California (n = 1457) completed surveys over 11 years, from 2006 to 2017, including three high school collection waves and five EA collection waves. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between perceived discrimination during high school and cigarette and marijuana use in both high school and EA, controlling for gender, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and EA discrimination. RESULTS: Compared with those who never used cigarettes or marijuana in high school and EA, perceived discrimination in high school was a significant predictor of two patterns of use: high school initiators who discontinued use of smoking (RRR = 1.677, 95%CI = 1.292-2.176) and/or marijuana (RRR = 1.464, 95%CI = 1.162-1.844), and high school initiators who continued smoking (RRR = 1.492, 95%CI = 1.196-1.861) and/or marijuana use (RRR = 1.249, 95%CI = 1.052-1.482) into EA. For late initiators who did not use in high school but started in EA, perceived high school discrimination was a significant predictor for cigarette smoking (RRR = 1.193, 95%CI = 1.036-1.373) but not for marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived discrimination during adolescence is associated with substance use trajectories across both adolescence and EA. Culturally tailored prevention programs that provide training in skills to cope with psychosocial stressors could improve Hispanic adolescent health.

4.
Subst Use Misuse ; 54(14): 2368-2379, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407958

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite college students reporting high rates of substance use and adverse childhood experiences (ACE), few studies have examined ACE-related substance use patterns with diverse student samples. We estimated the prevalence of ACE and substance use and investigated ethnic differences in the relationship between ACE and substance use among college students from two states. Design: Data are responses (N = 7,148) on the National College Health Assessment (in California) and the College Student Health Survey (in Minnesota). Multivariable regression models assessed the associations between individual and accumulated ACE and alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit substance use and binge drinking (adjusting for age, gender, depression, and state) among non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, African American/Black, Asian Pacific Islanders, multiracial, and other students. Interaction terms were calculated to test for ethnic differences. Results: In the month preceding the survey, 22% of students used marijuana, 28% used tobacco, 75% drank alcohol; 6% used an illicit drug in the past year and 30% acknowledged past 2-week binge drinking. Although ACE were associated with all substance use behaviors (AORs ranged from 1.19 to 1.54, p < .001), there was significant ethnic variation in ACE exposure (40-52%) and the dose-response relationship between ACE and marijuana and tobacco use and binge drinking. Conclusions: The variability in ACE-related substance use patterns across ethnic groups highlights the need for research that advances our understanding of sociocultural influences in trauma response and the role that campus communities could have in the development of culturally sensitive services that address this issue.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging adulthood (ages 18-26) is a time of identity exploration, experimentation, focusing on self or others, and instability, themes captured in the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA). Preliminary evidence suggests that emerging adults (EAs) with a history of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) score differently on transition dimensions than their peers, however, the role of ACE in the IDEA-substance use relationship is unknown. METHOD: Data are from a longitudinal study of acculturation and health among Hispanics in California (N = 1,065). Multivariable regression models assessed the association between IDEA and ACE (no ACE, 1-3 ACE, and ≥ 4 ACE) for substance use behaviors over 2 time points. Interaction terms assessed whether ACE moderated the association between subjective perceptions of IDEA at age 20 and substance use at age 24. RESULTS: ACE-exposed EAs scored higher on identity exploration, instability, self-focus, and experimentation dimensions than their peers (ps < .01-.001). Scores on experimentation, identity exploration, and self-focus at age 20 were associated with divergent patterns of substance use across ACE exposure categories. In comparison to other groups, individuals in ≥ 4 ACE group who strongly identified with these transition themes at age 20 had the highest probability of binge drinking, past 30-day alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drug use at age 24 (adjusted odds ratios = 1.09-1.49, confidence interval [1.02-2.58]). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that ACE can affect subjective perceptions of transition themes and increased risk for substance use over time. Implications for substance use prevention efforts tailored to Hispanic EAs are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

6.
Am J Community Psychol ; 64(1-2): 191-201, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968420

RESUMO

Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults; however, contextual risks and cultural factors are rarely studied in the context of ethnic minority suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal attempt (SA). This study assessed the association between familial incarceration and suicide behaviors and examined ethnic identity as a potential moderator. Data from a longitudinal study of health among Hispanics (n = 1,094) in California were used to test associations between familial incarceration, ethnic identity, and SA and SI, adjusting for demographic factors and covariates. Approximately 18% and 8% of respondents reported SI and SA, respectively. Compared to no incarceration, or the incarceration of a relative, parental incarceration was associated with higher odds (AOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.23-3.34) of SI whereas higher affective ethnic identity reduced the odds (AOR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31-0.89) of SA. Ethnic identity moderated the association between parental incarceration and SI (AOR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.79). Incarceration of a family member can set the stage for exclusion from critical institutions and can have long-term consequences for adult mental health. Promoting a positive ethnic identity may be a promising prevention strategy that could bolster resilience among at-risk, urban minority youth.

7.
Addict Behav ; 89: 240-247, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e.g., combustible, non-combustible, alternative delivery systems) and assessed whether IAs moderated the relationship between psychosocial risks and tobacco use. RESULTS: Results indicate that every additional psychosocial risk factor was associated with an estimated 100% (AOR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.88-2.22) to 57% (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.52-1.62) increase in the odds of using tobacco and a 60% increase in the estimated number of products used. IAs were inversely associated with tobacco use and attenuated the association between cumulative psychosocial risks and use. Among students experiencing all five psychosocial risks, boys had an estimated 20% reduction, and girls an estimated 50% reduction, in the probability of tobacco use at the highest mean scores of IAs. CONCLUSION: Universal, school-based prevention programs will benefit from identifying and targeting a set of shared risk and protective factors for tobacco use. Bolstering resilience by facilitating students' IAs represents a promising direction for youth focused prevention efforts.

8.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; : 1-13, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346915

RESUMO

This study investigates whether Hispanic emerging adults exposed to household incarceration before age 18 report higher rates of past 30-day cigarette, alcohol, binge drinking, marijuana use, and negative substance use consequences, relative to participants not exposed to incarceration of a household member. Respondents were matched on key characteristics to create balanced groups of exposed and nonexposed respondents. Negative binomial regression models assessed primary research questions. There were significant long-term associations between household incarceration and the frequency of past 30-day binge drinking, marijuana use, and number of negative substance use consequences. Policies and health programs addressing household incarceration may be a promising prevention approach to reduce negative substance use outcomes among Hispanic emerging adults.

9.
J Adolesc ; 68: 146-151, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922). RESULTS: The model fit the data well with path estimates showing that poor family management predicted greater antisocial peer associations at the next wave but not the reverse. A second model included a third autoregressive path to control for youth's own antisocial behavior; the direction of the relationships between poor family management and antisocial peer associations did not change. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that across adolescence poor family management predicts greater antisocial peer association, which provides evidence that family-focused interventions are an important prevention strategy even in adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta/etiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Austrália , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Addict Behav Rep ; 7: 96-102, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892703

RESUMO

Introduction: Financial strain and discrimination are consistent predictors of negative health outcomes and maladaptive coping behaviors, including tobacco use. Although there is considerable information exploring stress and smoking, limited research has examined the relationship between patterns of stress domains and specific tobacco/nicotine product use. Even fewer studies have assessed ethnic variations in these relationships. Methods: This study investigated the relationship between discrimination and financial strain and current tobacco/nicotine product use and explored the ethnic variation in these relationships among diverse sample of US adults (N = 1068). Separate logistic regression models assessed associations between stress domains and tobacco/nicotine product use, adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, and household income). Due to statistically significant differences, the final set of models was stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Higher levels of discrimination were associated with higher odds of all three tobacco/nicotine product categories. Financial strain was positively associated with combustible tobacco and combined tobacco/nicotine product use. Financial strain was especially risky for Non-Hispanic Whites (AOR:1.191, 95%CI:1.083-1.309) and Blacks/African Americans (AOR:1.542, 95%CI:1.106-2.148), as compared to other groups, whereas discrimination was most detrimental for Asians/Pacific Islanders (AOR:3.827, 95%CI:1.832-7.997) and Hispanics/Latinas/Latinos (AOR:2.517, 95%CI:1.603-3.952). Conclusions: Findings suggest discrimination and financial stressors are risk factors for use of multiple tobacco/nicotine products, highlighting the importance of prevention research that accounts for these stressors. Because ethnic groups may respond differently to stress/strain, prevention research needs to identify cultural values, beliefs, and coping strategies that can buffer the negative consequences of discrimination and financial stressors.

11.
J Sch Health ; 88(7): 531-537, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alternative (or continuation) high schools are institutions designed for students at risk for not graduating due to behavioral, educational, or medical problems. The present study explored the relationship between negative substance use consequences (eg, having trouble at school or work) and noncondom use in this at-risk population and whether these associations varied by sex. METHODS: Participants (N = 1101; 62.9% Hispanic; Mage = 16.85) were sampled from 24 alternative high schools in California, and data were analyzed using cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed a relationship between the number of negative substance use consequences and probability of noncondom use at the last sexual encounter for boys (p < .001) but not girls (p > .05). There were significant associations between specific social consequences (missing school/work) and dependence symptoms (selling personal items to get alcohol or drugs) with noncondom use for boys only. There was a similar association between substance use frequency and noncondom use for boys. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that substance use consequences may be a useful and advantageous indicator of risky sexual behaviors such as noncondom use for boys, but not girls, in alternative high school settings. Future research and intervention programming recommendations are discussed.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , California , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(10): 1624-1632, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early adolescence is a critical risk period for initiation of substance use. Internal assets (IAs), which are individual qualities guiding positive choices, and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important protective and risk factors, respectively, against substance use. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether IAs modify associations between ACEs and early initiation of alcohol and marijuana use. METHOD: Data were from 9th and 11th graders who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (n = 79,339). Students reported on experiences of abuse, household dysfunction, and substance use. Multivariable logistic regressions examined associations between different types of ACEs and substance use. Interactions between IAs and ACEs were added to models to test effect modification. For significant interactions, main effects models were re-estimated at different percentiles of IAs. RESULT: IAs moderated associations of both abuse and household dysfunction with early initiation of marijuana (p <.003) and alcohol (p =.007) for females but not for males. For females with low IAs, odds of early initiation of marijuana were approximately twice as high as students without any ACEs. A similar pattern was detected for females' initiation of alcohol use. No effect modification was detected for IAs and experiencing only abuse or household dysfunction on initiation. CONCLUSION: Special attention should be paid to improving IAs among girls who have already experienced ACEs. Future research should examine protective factors that buffer the effects of ACEs for boys.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle Interno-Externo , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Addict Behav ; 76: 298-304, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28889058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that college students are an especially vulnerable subset of the population for substance use and misuse. However, despite evidence of the high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) among students and the link between family-based ACE and substance use among older adults, this relationship remains understudied in college populations. Moreover, whether ACE represents a shared risk across substance use behaviors and ethnic groups is unknown. METHODS: Data are student responses (n=2953) on the 2015 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) administered at one of the largest, most diverse public universities in California. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between individual and accumulated ACE and past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drug use, past 12-month prescription medication misuse and polysubstance use. RESULTS: Between 50% and 75% of students involved in substance use were ACE exposed. There was a significant dose-response relationship between ACE and substance use and polysubstance use. Although accumulated ACE increased risk for substance use, there was considerable ethnic variability in these associations. CONCLUSIONS: The graded effects of ACE for substance use underscore the link between family-based stressors and these behaviors in emergent adult college students. Our findings make a compelling case for investing in health initiatives that prioritize ACE screening and access to trauma-informed care in campus communities. Continued research with college populations is needed to replicate findings and clarify the role of ethnicity and culture in trauma response and help seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prev Sci ; 19(6): 813-821, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29032496

RESUMO

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience disproportionate rates of bullying compared to their heterosexual peers. Schools are well-positioned to address these disparities by creating supportive school climates for LGBT youth, but more research is needed to examine the variety of practices and professional development opportunities put in place to this end. The current study examines how school practices to create supportive LGBT student climate relate to student reports of bullying. Student-level data come from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey, a state-wide survey of risk and protective factors. Ninth and eleventh grade students (N = 31,183) reported on frequency of physical and relational bullying victimization and perpetration and sexual orientation-based harassment. School administrators reported on six practices related to creating supportive LGBT school climate (N = 103 schools): having a point person for LGBT student issues, displaying sexual orientation-specific content, having a gay-straight alliance, discussing bullying based on sexual orientation, and providing professional development around LGBT inclusion and LGBT student issues. An index was created to indicate how many practices each school used (M = 2.45; SD = 1.76). Multilevel logistic regressions indicated that students attending schools with more supportive LGBT climates reported lower odds of relational bullying victimization, physical bullying perpetration, and sexual orientation-based harassment compared to students in schools with less supportive LGBT climates. Sexual orientation did not moderate these relations, indicating that LGBT-supportive practices may be protective for all students, regardless of their sexual orientation. Findings support school-wide efforts to create supportive climates for LGBQ youth as part of a larger bullying prevention strategy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Meio Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Addict Dis ; 37(1-2): 87-95, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625032

RESUMO

Background: Stigma and discrimination are often experienced by individuals going through substance use treatment, and can influence treatment seeking, retention, and outcomes including long-term recovery. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Micro-Condescension Scale (MCS), a newly developed tool to measure individuals' perceptions of microlevel stigma and discrimination for seeking substance use treatment or being in recovery. Methods: The MCS was administered to individuals (n = 90) at the beginning and end of a mindfulness treatment program implemented in a substance use treatment facility in Southern California. Principal components analysis was used to evaluate the factor solution and psychometric analyses were applied to investigate reliability and validity of the MCS. Results: The principal component analysis yielded a single factor solution for the 12-item scale. Cronbach's alpha was 0.93 at treatment entry (pretest) and 0.91 at treatment exit (posttest). The scale showed acceptable test-retest reliability and correlated with measures of impulsivity, perceived devaluation-discrimination scores, and self-awareness in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Discussion: Following additional validation research, future studies on discriminatory experiences and substance use treatment outcomes should consider using the MCS due to its brevity and acceptable psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Discriminação Social/psicologia , Estigma Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Atenção Plena , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 23(4): 576-582, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28333477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of interpersonal violence (IPV), scientific understanding of the risk and protective factors for unidirectional and bidirectional IPV, and especially the role of sociocultural variables in these behaviors, is limited. This study investigates the association between ethnic-identity search, ethnic-identity affirmation, perceived discrimination, and unidirectional (victimization only, perpetration only) and bidirectional (reciprocal violence) IPV behaviors among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults. METHOD: Data are from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a study investigating the effect of psychosocial and sociocultural factors on health behavior among a community sample of Hispanic young adults in Southern California (n = 1,267). RESULTS: Approximately 40% of the sample reported unidirectional or bidirectional IPV, with significant gender differences across the three categories. Compared with men, women had approximately 70% lower odds of victimization (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15-0.71), over twice the odds of perpetration (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.98-3.62), and 35% higher odds (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.81) of bidirectional IPV. Higher ethnic-identity affirmation was protective for victimization (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99) and bidirectional IPV (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.89), whereas higher perceived discrimination scores increased the odds for bidirectional IPV (OR = 1.37 95% CI = 1.26-1.56) and was particularly detrimental for foreign-born participants. CONCLUSION: Intervention strategies should consider gender-specific risk profiles, cultural contexts, and the influence of sociocultural stressors. Addressing the harmful effects of perceived discrimination and leveraging the protective effects of ethnic-identity affirmation may be promising IPV-prevention strategies for Hispanic young adults. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Características Culturais , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Aculturação , Adolescente , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Behav ; 68: 30-34, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) in population-based samples of adolescents, and even fewer have examined whether promotive factors might buffer these effects. The present study assesses the direct effects of ACE and positive student-teacher relationships on NUMPD and whether positive student-teacher relationships moderate this association. DESIGN: Data were from the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (MSS), an in-school survey administered every three years to students throughout Minnesota. The analytic sample (n=104,332) was comprised of 8th, 9th, and 11th graders. RESULTS: Approximately 3% of students acknowledged past year NMUPM, the majority of whom reported at least one ACE. The most frequently used prescription drug was Ritalin/ADHD medications (1.71%) followed by opiate-based painkillers (1.67%), tranquilizers (0.92%), and stimulants (0.75%). Students who reported any use tended to use more than one medication. For every additional ACE, there was a 56%, 51%, 47%, and 52% increase in the odds of past year stimulant use, ADHD medication, pain reliever, and tranquilizer use, respectively. The estimated rate of the number of prescription drugs used increased by 62% for every additional ACE. Positive student- teacher relationships buffered the association between ACE and NMUPD, especially at higher levels of ACEs. CONCLUSION: Our findings have important implications for prevention work. Training educators to recognize trauma symptomology and cultivating strong student-teacher relationships are important considerations for future school-based substance use prevention initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 16(2): 137-154, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822557

RESUMO

We examine whether peer substance use and cultural factors differentially influence the initiation of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in adolescence and emerging adulthood (EA) among a community-based sample of Hispanics. Participants provided data in 11th grade (M = 16.8 years old, SD = 0.54) and emerging adulthood (M = 20.3 years old, SD = 0.6). Peer tobacco use had a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use in emerging adulthood (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.89) than in adolescence (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.40), but this pattern was not observed with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use. Cultural orientation is associated with initiation of tobacco use during EA but not with initiation of alcohol or marijuana use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Infuência dos Pares , Fumar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Adolesc ; 48: 18-35, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26871952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/complicações , Consumo de Álcool por Menores , Adolescente , Comportamento Perigoso , Coleta de Dados , Previsões , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
20.
Ethn Health ; 21(1): 58-70, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25650806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Culturally relevant education is needed to improve rates of successful kidney transplantation among Hispanic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study examined whether patients' knowledge about kidney disease, postoperative care, and proactive health practices improved after watching a telenovela series about ESRD. DESIGN: 334 ESRD patients and 94 family members/caregivers were assigned to watch a telenovela ('Fixing Paco,' a bilingual health education film) or receive standard of care at a transplant center or at a dialysis clinic. Outcomes for pre-transplant patients assigned to standard of care at dialysis centers or at a transplant center were compared to pre-transplant patients in the treatment condition (standard of care + telenovela). RESULTS: Knowledge and behavioral intention scores at baseline across conditions and locations were similar, suggesting that assignment resulted in comparable groups at baseline. Using linear regression, this study found statistically significant improvements in knowledge scores among the telenovela group as compared to the standard of care groups. The telenovela group also had greater improvements in behavioral intention scores compared to the standard of care groups. Family members assigned to the telenovela group had significant improvements in knowledge scores as compared to the standard of care groups. CONCLUSION: Being well informed about ESRD and adopting proactive health behaviors are important mechanisms in improving transplantation outcomes. These findings suggest that knowledge about kidney disease, postoperative care, and proactive health practices could be improved by viewing a telenovela. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Intenção , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , California , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Transplante de Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Televisão
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