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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 17(1): 70, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with liver cirrhosis may develop hepatic encephalopathy. Rats with chronic hyperammonemia exhibit neurological alterations mediated by peripheral inflammation and neuroinflammation. Motor incoordination is due to increased TNF-a levels and activation of its receptor TNFR1 in the cerebellum. The aims were to assess (a) whether peripheral inflammation is responsible for TNF-a induction in hyperammonemic rats, (b) the cell type(s) in which TNF-a is increased, (c) whether this increase is associated with increased nuclear NF-κB and TNFR1 activation, (d) the time course of TNF-a induction, and (e) if TNF-a is induced in the Purkinje neurons of patients who die with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We analyzed the level of TNF-a mRNA and NF-κB in microglia, astrocytes, and Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of hyperammonemia. We assessed whether preventing peripheral inflammation by administering an anti-TNF-a antibody prevents TNF-a induction. We tested whether TNF-a induction is reversed by R7050, which inhibits the TNFR1-NF-κB pathway, in ex vivo cerebellar slices. RESULTS: Hyperammonemia induced microglial and astrocyte activation at 1 week. This was followed by TNF-a induction in both glial cell types at 2 weeks and in Purkinje neurons at 4 weeks. The level of TNF-a mRNA increased in parallel with the TNF-a protein level, indicating that TNF-a was synthesized in Purkinje cells. This increase was associated with increased NF-κB nuclear translocation. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the increase in TNF-a were reversed by R7050, indicating that they were mediated by the activation of TNFR1. Preventing peripheral inflammation with an anti-TNF-a antibody prevents TNF-a induction. CONCLUSION: Sustained (4 weeks) but not short-term hyperammonemia induces TNF-a in Purkinje neurons in rats. This is mediated by peripheral inflammation. TNF-a is also increased in the Purkinje neurons of patients who die with liver cirrhosis. The results suggest that hyperammonemia induces TNF-a in glial cells and that TNF-a released by glial cells activates TNFR1 in Purkinje neurons, leading to NF-κB nuclear translocation and the induction of TNF-a expression, which may contribute to the neurological alterations observed in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

2.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 660, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506430

RESUMO

The high resistance against current therapies found in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been associated to cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), a population for which the identification of targets and biomarkers is still under development. In this study, primary cultures from early-stage NSCLC patients were established, using sphere-forming assays for CSC enrichment and adherent conditions for the control counterparts. Patient-derived tumorspheres showed self-renewal and unlimited exponential growth potentials, resistance against chemotherapeutic agents, invasion and differentiation capacities in vitro, and superior tumorigenic potential in vivo. Using quantitative PCR, gene expression profiles were analyzed and NANOG, NOTCH3, CD44, CDKN1A, SNAI1, and ITGA6 were selected to distinguish tumorspheres from adherent cells. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses confirmed that proteins encoded by these genes were consistently increased in tumorspheres from adenocarcinoma patients and showed differential localization and expression patterns. The prognostic role of genes significantly overexpressed in tumorspheres was evaluated in a NSCLC cohort (N = 661) from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Based on a Cox regression analysis, CDKN1A, SNAI1, and ITGA6 were found to be associated with prognosis and used to calculate a gene expression score, named CSC score. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with high CSC score have shorter overall survival (OS) in the entire cohort [37.7 vs. 60.4 months (mo), p = 0.001] and the adenocarcinoma subcohort [36.6 vs. 53.5 mo, p = 0.003], but not in the squamous cell carcinoma one. Multivariate analysis indicated that this gene expression score is an independent biomarker of prognosis for OS in both the entire cohort [hazard ratio (HR): 1.498; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.167-1.922; p = 0.001] and the adenocarcinoma subcohort [HR: 1.869; 95% CI, 1.275-2.738; p = 0.001]. This score was also analyzed in an independent cohort of 114 adenocarcinoma patients, confirming its prognostic value [42.90 vs. not reached (NR) mo, p = 0.020]. In conclusion, our findings provide relevant prognostic information for lung adenocarcinoma patients and the basis for developing novel therapies. Further studies are required to identify suitable markers and targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma patients.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 145(8): 2267-2281, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860605

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive, metastatic and recurrent breast cancer (BC) subtype, currently suffers from a lack of adequately described spontaneously metastatic preclinical models that faithfully reproduce the clinical scenario. We describe two preclinical spontaneously metastatic TNBC orthotopic murine models for the development of advanced therapeutics: an immunodeficient human MDA-MB-231-Luc model and an immunocompetent mouse 4T1 model. Furthermore, we provide a broad range of multifactorial analysis for both models that could provide relevant information for the development of new therapies and diagnostic tools. Our comparisons uncovered differential growth rates, stromal arrangements and metabolic profiles in primary tumors, and the presence of cancer-associated adipocyte infiltration in the MDA-MB-231-Luc model. Histopathological studies highlighted the more rapid metastatic spread to the lungs in the 4T1 model following a lymphatic route, while we observed both homogeneous (MDA-MB-231-Luc) and heterogeneous (4T1) metastatic spread to axillary lymph nodes. We encountered unique metabolomic signatures in each model, including crucial amino acids and cell membrane components. Hematological analysis demonstrated severe leukemoid and lymphoid reactions in the 4T1 model with the partial reestablishment of immune responses in the immunocompromised MDA-MB-231-Luc model. Additionally, we discovered ß-immunoglobulinemia and increased basal levels of G-CSF correlating with a metastatic switch, with G-CSF also promoting extramedullary hematopoiesis (both models) and causing hepatosplenomegaly (4T1 model). Overall, we believe that the characterization of these preclinical models will foster the development of advanced therapeutic strategies for TNBC treatment, especially for the treatment of patients presenting both, primary tumors and metastatic spread.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation which mediates cognitive impairment. How hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation remains unclear. We propose the hypothesis that chronic hyperammonemia would induce peripheral inflammation that would induce neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment, which would be prevented by reducing peripheral inflammation. The aims of this work were to assess whether: 1) chronic hyperammonemia induces peripheral inflammation; 2) peripheral inflammation contributes to hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation, altered neurotransmission and impaired spatial learning; 3) hyperammonemia-induced inflammation and neurpoinflammation are reversible following hyperammonemia elimination; 4) reducing peripheral inflammation with anti-TNFa reduces neuroinflammation and improves neurotransmission and cognitive impairment in hyperammonemic rats. METHODS: Chronic hyperammonemia was induced by feeding rats an ammonia-containing diet. Peripheral inflammation was analyzed by measuring prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNFa, IL-6 and IL-10. We tested whether chronic anti-TNFa treatment improves peripheral inflammation, neuroinflammation, membrane expression of glutamate receptors in hippocampus and spatial learning. RESULTS: Hyperammonemic rats show a rapid and reversible induction of peripheral inflammation, with increased pro-inflammatory PGE2, TNFa and IL-6, followed at around 10 days by reduced anti-inflammatory IL-10. Peripheral anti-TNFa treatment prevents peripheral inflammation induction and the increase in IL-1b and TNFa and microglia activation in hippocampus of the rats, which remain hyperammonemic. This is associated with prevention of the altered membrane expression of glutamate receptors and of the impairment of spatial memory assessed in the radial and Morris water mazes. CONCLUSIONS: This report unveils a new mechanism by which chronic hyperammonemia induces neurological alterations: induction of peripheral inflammation. This supports that reducing peripheral inflammation by safe procedures would improve cognitive function in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. LAY SUMMARY: This article unveils a new mechanism by which chronic hyperammonemia induces cognitive impairment in rats: chronic hyperammonemia per se induces peripheral inflammation, which mediates many of its effects on brain, including induction of neuroinflammation, which alters neurotransmission, leading to cognitive impairment. It is also shown that reducing peripheral inflammation by treating rats with anti-TNFa, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, prevents hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation, alterations in neurotransmission and cognitive impairment. This new view may have an important impact on the understanding of the mechanisms involved in minimal hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients and may allow developing new therapeutic approaches.

5.
Biomaterials ; 186: 8-21, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278346

RESUMO

The intrinsic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment (TME), including acidic pH and overexpression of hydrolytic enzymes, offer an exciting opportunity for the rational design of TME-drug delivery systems (DDS). We developed and characterized a pH-responsive biodegradable poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA)-based combination conjugate family with the aim of optimizing anticancer effects. We obtained combination conjugates bearing Doxorubicin (Dox) and aminoglutethimide (AGM) with two Dox loadings and two different hydrazone pH-sensitive linkers that promote the specific release of Dox from the polymeric backbone within the TME. Low Dox loading coupled with a short hydrazone linker yielded optimal effects on primary tumor growth, lung metastasis (∼90% reduction), and toxicological profile in a preclinical metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) murine model. The use of transcriptomic analysis helped us to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for such results including a differential immunomodulation and cell death pathways among the conjugates. This data highlights the advantages of targeting the TME, the therapeutic value of polymer-based combination approaches, and the utility of -omics-based analysis to accelerate anticancer DDS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Poliglutâmico/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Microambiente Tumoral , Aminoglutetimida/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 288, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) are today extensively studied in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent years, human and veterinary medicine prefer to avoid using traumatic techniques and choose low or non-invasive procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PRGF, ASCs and the combination of both in wound healing of full-thickness skin defects in rabbits. With this purpose, a total of 144 rabbits were used for this study. The animals were divided in three study groups of 48 rabbits each depending on the administered treatment: PRGF, ASCs, and PGRF+ASCs. Two wounds of 8 mm of diameter and separated from each other by 20 mm were created on the back of each rabbit: the first was treated with saline solution, and the second with the treatment assigned for each group. Macroscopic and microscopic evolution of wounds was assessed at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post-surgery. With this aim, 8 animals from each treatment group and at each study time were euthanized to collect wounds for histopathological study. RESULTS: Wounds treated with PRGF, ASCs and PRGF+ASCs showed significant higher wound healing and epithelialization rates, more natural aesthetic appearance, significant lower inflammatory response, significant higher collagen deposition and angiogenesis compared with control wounds. The combined treatment PRGF+ASCs showed a significant faster cutaneous wound healing process. CONCLUSIONS: The combined treatment PRGF+ASCs showed the best results, suggesting this is the best choice to enhance wound healing and improve aesthetic results in acute wounds.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/veterinária , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Coelhos , Cicatrização , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
7.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 77(9): 837-845, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016459

RESUMO

Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) affect 29 million people in the European Union. Patients with ASH and NASH may exhibit cognitive impairment, reducing their quality of life. Steatohepatitis induces cerebral alterations. It is not known if histological analysis could allow distinguishing ASH, NASH, and/or cirrhosis neuropathology and other entities. The aim of this work was to analyze a set of histopathological features characterizing the brain lesions due to ASH, NASH, and cirrhosis. We performed a histological study using hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical techniques in cerebellum of 31 subjects who died with healthy liver (n = 6), NASH (n = 14), ASH (n = 3), nonalcoholic cirrhosis (n = 4), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 4). We analyzed in cerebellum, as an early marker for brain injury: 1) vascular damage; 2) cerebellar atrophy and neurodegeneration in Purkinje layer; and 3) microglia and astrocytes activation in white matter and molecular layer. Patients with steatohepatitis have increased number of microtrombi in cerebellar parenchyma, neuronal loss in Purkinje layer and microglial and astrocyte activation in white matter and molecular layer. These alterations are stronger in patients with ASH than in those with NASH. These results provide a set of histopathological features in brain that may allow differentiation of steatohepatitis from other conditions.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Atrofia/etiologia , Atrofia/metabolismo , Atrofia/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Contagem de Células , Cerebelo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações
8.
Oncotarget ; 9(13): 11020-11045, 2018 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541394

RESUMO

Goodpasture antigen-binding protein (GPBP) is an exportable1 Ser/Thr kinase that induces collagen IV expansion and has been associated with chemoresistance following epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we demonstrate that cancer EMT phenotypes secrete GPBP (mesenchymal GPBP) which displays a predominant multimeric oligomerization and directs the formation of previously unrecognized mesh collagen IV networks (mesenchymal collagen IV). Yeast two-hybrid (YTH) system was used to identify a 260SHCIE264 motif critical for multimeric GPBP assembly which then facilitated design of a series of potential peptidomimetics. The compound 3-[4''-methoxy-3,2'-dimethyl-(1,1';4',1'')terphenyl-2''-yl]propionic acid, or T12, specifically targets mesenchymal GPBP and disturbs its multimerization without affecting kinase catalytic site. Importantly, T12 reduces growth and metastases of tumors populated by EMT phenotypes. Moreover, low-dose doxorubicin sensitizes epithelial cancer precursor cells to T12, thereby further reducing tumor load. Given that T12 targets the pathogenic mesenchymal GPBP, it does not bind significantly to normal tissues and therapeutic dosing was not associated with toxicity. T12 is a first-in-class drug candidate to treat cancer by selectively targeting the collagen IV of the tumor cell microenvironment.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3004, 2018 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29445232

RESUMO

Peripheral inflammation contributes to minimal hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver diseases, which could be mediated by neuroinflammation. Neuroinflammation in cerebellum of patients with chronic liver diseases has not been studied in detail. Our aim was to analyze in cerebellum of patients with different grades of liver disease, from mild steatohepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy: (a) neuronal density in Purkinje and granular layers; (b) microglial activation; (c) astrocyte activation; (d) peripheral lymphocytes infiltration; (e) subtypes of lymphocytes infiltrated. Steatohepatitis was classified as SH1, SH2 and SH3. Patients with SH1 show Th17 and Tfh lymphocytes infiltration in the meninges, microglia activation in the molecular layer and loss of 16 ± 4% of Purkinje and 19 ± 2% of granular neurons. White matter remains unaffected. With the progression of liver disease to worse stages (SH2, SH3, cirrhosis) activation of microglia and astrocytes extends to white matter, Bergman glia is damaged in the molecular layer and there is a further loss of Purkinje neurons. The results reported show that neuroinflammation in cerebellum occurs at early stages of liver disease, even before reaching cirrhosis. Neuroinflammation occurs earlier in the molecular layer than in white matter, and is associated with infiltration of peripheral Th17 and Tfh lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/imunologia , Fígado Gorduroso/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Células de Purkinje/fisiologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Apoptose , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inflamação Neurogênica
10.
J Oral Pathol Med ; 47(4): 375-381, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29344992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is a major public health problem worldwide, with a poor survival. Our aim was to evaluate several protein markers in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and analyse their prognostic value on patient's survival. METHODS: We analysed the expression of EGFR, p53, p27, p16, cyclin D1, cyclin A2, COX-2, Ki-67, Bcl-2, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, by immunohistochemistry on 67 primary OSCC. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) analysis was evaluated by the Cox regression model. RESULTS: Markers showed variable expression between 27.9% and 95.2%. In univariate analysis for CSS, we found that four of the tested markers, namely high expression of p53 (P = .001), EGFR (P = .003), cyclin A2 (P = .005) and low expression of p16 (P = .019), along with clinical stage (P < .001), tumour size (P < .001), presence of nodal metastasis (P < .001) and perineural permeation (P = .039) were related to decreased survival. On the basis of these results, we constructed an immunohistochemical score hinging on the possibility that any tumour could express none of these four markers (score 0), one or two markers (score 1) and three or more markers (score 2). In multivariable analysis, this immunohistochemical score revealed an independent prognostic value on cancer-specific survival (P = .001; HR: 3.7: 95%CI 1.7-7.9). Moreover, we confirmed that in early-stage tumours (stage I or II) this score maintained its independent prognostic value (P = .025; HR: 7.9, 95%CI 1.3-49.1) on CSS. CONCLUSION: The expression of the markers p53, p16, EGFR and cyclin A in OSCC, combined to give an immunohistochemical score, may identify high-risk subgroups for decreased survival and to further guide therapeutic decisions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/química , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
J Neuroinflammation ; 14(1): 145, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. RESULTS: We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1ß, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects). These changes are associated with long-term behavioral impairments, in the 66-day-old alcohol-exposed pups. TLR4-deficient mice are protected against ethanol-induced cytokine/chemokine production in alcohol-treated dams and offspring, along with synaptic and myelin alterations, and the log-term behavioral dysfunction induced by ethanol in offspring. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the immune system activation, through the TLR4 response, might play an important role in the neurodevelopmental defects in FASD.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Etanol/toxicidade , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica , Proteínas da Mielina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
12.
Eur Spine J ; 26(12): 3216-3224, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of cisplatin- or methotrexate-containing acrylic cement for local and systemic antineoplastic drug diffusion. Among the uses of acrylic cement or Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), there is the possibility to employ it as vehicle for drug diffusion. This capability is of interest in the treatment of pathological fractures: The curative effects of the cement (cytotoxicity of the monomer and increased temperature) are added to the antineoplastic effect of the drugs. METHODS: In the experimental study, two groups of ten pigs underwent vertebroplasty using cement mixed with 500 mg of powder cisplatin or 1000 mg of powder methotrexate. Vertebroplasty was performed in two non-consecutive lumbar vertebrae with bipedicular cement injection. Transpedicular bone biopsy was performed weekly to measure levels of antineoplastic agent in bone tissue and blood plasma. Cisplatin was studied by atomic absorption spectrometry and methotrexate by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Renal and hepatic function and blood analysis were performed weekly. RESULTS: Cisplatin and methotrexate levels were found in bone tissue at more than 5 weeks following surgery. The cisplatin peak occurred at week 3 (mean 1269 µg/g bone) and the methotrexate peak at week 1 (mean 862.76 µg/g bone). Plasma drug levels were found 72 h after surgery, with a peak at 24 h for cisplatin (mean 0.23 µmol/L) and at 30 min for methotrexate (mean 0.92 µmol/L). None of the animals died during the study. Animals with intracanal cement leaks showed no neurological involvement. Renal, hepatic and hemogram studies remained within normal limits. CONCLUSIONS: There is local diffusion of antineoplastic agents from the cement to bone and plasma. We found methotrexate and cisplatin levels in bone at up to 5 weeks, comparable to previous in vitro reports. At the doses administered, there were no cases of myelosuppression, hepatotoxicity, or nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Cimentos para Ossos/farmacocinética , Cisplatino , Vértebras Lombares , Metotrexato , Vertebroplastia/métodos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/análise , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/análise , Cisplatino/farmacocinética , Vértebras Lombares/química , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/análise , Metotrexato/farmacocinética , Suínos
13.
Eur Spine J ; 26(1): 49-55, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25862652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the degree of acute or progressive lateral compression needed to cause neurologic injury to the spinal cord assessed by electrophysiological monitoring. METHODS: In five domestic pigs, the spinal cord was exposed and compressed between T8-T9 roots using a precise compression device. Two sticks placed on both sides of the spinal cord were sequentially brought together (0.5 mm every 2 min), causing progressive spinal cord compression. Acute compression was reproduced by a 2.5-mm displacement of the sticks. Cord-to-cord evoked potentials were obtained with two epidural catheters. RESULTS: Increasing latency and decreasing amplitude of the evoked potentials were observed after a mean progressive displacement of the sticks of 3.2 ± 0.9 mm, disappearing after a mean displacement of 4.6 ± 1.2 mm. The potential returned after compression removal (16.8 ± 3.2 min). The potentials disappeared immediately after an acute compression of 2.5 ± 0.3 mm, without any sign of recovering after 30 min. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental model replicates the mechanism of a spinal cord injury caused by medially displaced screws into the spinal canal. The spinal cord had more ability for adaptation to progressive and slow compression than to acute mechanisms.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória , Compressão da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais , Suínos
14.
Prostate ; 77(3): 321-333, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27813116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Prostate cancer frequently expresses an osteomimetic phenotype, but it is unclear how it is regulated and what biological and clinical implications it confers. Because mechanical forces physiologically regulate bone-remodeling activity in osteocytes, we hypothesized that mechanical action of fluid flow (MAFF) at the cancer microenvironment may similarly foster prostate cancer cell osteomimicry. RESULTS: We showed that in vitro MAFF on androgen-dependent (LNCap) and androgen-independent (PC3) prostate cancer cells remarkably increased OPG, VEGF, RunX2, PTH1R, and PTHrP gene expression in both cell lines irrespective of their androgen dependency. MAFF also altered the cytokine secretion pattern of prostate cancer cells, including Ang2, SCF, and TNFα increase with TRAIL decrease in the supernatant of both cell lines; preferential increase of Leptin and PDGF-BB in LnCap and of VEGF, IL-8, and G-CSF in PC3; and exclusive increase of FGFß, MIF, and PECAM-1 with HGF decrease in LnCap, and of TGBß1, HGF, M-CSF, CXCL1, and CCL7 with NGF decrease in PC3. Murine MLO-Y4 osteocyte-conditioned medium (CM) abrogated M-CSF, G-CSG, IL-8, TNFα, and FGFß secretion-stimulating activity of mechanical stimulation on PC3 cells, and did the opposite effect on LnCap cells. However, MAFF fostered osteomimetic gene expression response of PC3 cells, but not of LnCap cells, to mechanically stimulated osteocyte-CM. Moreover, it abrogated TNFα and IL-8 secretion inhibitory effect of osteocyte-CM on mechanically stimulated PC3 cells and G-CSF, TNFα, and FGFß-stimulating effect on mechanically stimulated LnCap cells. CONCLUSIONS: MAFF activated osteoblast-like phenotype of prostate cancer cells and altered their responses to osteocyte soluble factors. It also induced osteocyte production of osteomimetic gene expression- and cytokine secretion-stimulating factors for prostate cancer cells, particularly, when they were mechanically stimulated. Importantly, MAFF induced a prometastatic response in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, suggesting the interest of mechanical stimulation-dependent transcription and secretion patterns as diagnostic biomarkers, and as therapeutic targets for the screening of bone-metastasizing phenotype inhibitors upregulated during prostate cancer cell response to MAFF at the cancer microenvironment. Prostate 77:321-333, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Materiais Biomiméticos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Osteócitos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Estimulação Física/métodos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
15.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 9: 106, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27853420

RESUMO

Inflammation contributes to cognitive impairment in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the process by which peripheral inflammation results in cognitive impairment remains unclear. In animal models, neuroinflammation and altered neurotransmission mediate cognitive impairment. Taking into account these data, we hypothesized that in rats with HE: (1) peripheral inflammation is a main contributor to neuroinflammation; (2) neuroinflammation in hippocampus impairs spatial learning by altering AMPA and/or NMDA receptors membrane expression; (3) reducing peripheral inflammation with infliximab (anti-TNF-a) would improve spatial learning; (4) this would be associated with reduced neuroinflammation and normalization of the membrane expression of glutamate receptors. The aims of this work were to assess these hypotheses. We analyzed in rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) and control rats, treated or not with infliximab: (a) peripheral inflammation by measuring prostaglandin E2, IL10, IL-17, and IL-6; (b) neuroinflammation in hippocampus by analyzing microglial activation and the content of TNF-a and IL-1b; (c) AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus; and (d) spatial learning in the Radial and Morris water mazes. We assessed the effects of treatment with infliximab on peripheral inflammation, on neuroinflammation and AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and on spatial learning and memory. PCS rats show increased serum prostaglandin E2, IL-17, and IL-6 and reduced IL-10 levels, indicating increased peripheral inflammation. PCS rats also show microglial activation and increased nuclear NF-kB and expression of TNF-a and IL-1b in hippocampus. This was associated with altered AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and impaired spatial learning and memory in the radial and Morris water maze. Treatment with infliximab reduces peripheral inflammation in PCS rats, normalizing prostaglandin E2, IL-17, IL-6, and IL-10 levels in serum. Infliximab also prevents neuroinflammation, reduces microglial activation, translocates NF-kB into nucleoli and normalizes TNF-a and IL-1b content in hippocampus. This was associated with normalization of AMPA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and of spatial learning and memory. The results suggest that peripheral inflammation contributes to spatial learning impairment in PCS rats. Treatment with anti-TNF-a could be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with HE.

16.
J Neuroinflammation ; 13(1): 245, 2016 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27623772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral inflammation contributes to the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Neuroinflammation and altered GABAergic neurotransmission mediate cognitive and motor alterations in rats with HE. It remains unclear (a) if neuroinflammation and neurological impairment in HE are a consequence of peripheral inflammation and (b) how neuroinflammation impairs GABAergic neurotransmission. The aims were to assess in rats with HE whether reducing peripheral inflammation with anti-TNF-α (1) prevents cognitive impairment and motor in-coordination, (2) normalizes neuroinflammation and extracellular GABA in the cerebellum and also (3) advances the understanding of mechanisms linking neuroinflammation and increased extracellular GABA. METHODS: Rats with HE due to portacaval shunt (PCS) were treated with infliximab. Astrocytes and microglia activation and TNF-α and IL-1ß were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Membrane expression of the GABA transporters GAT-3 and GAT-1 was analyzed by cross-linking with BS3. Extracellular GABA was analyzed by microdialysis. Motor coordination was tested using the beam walking and learning ability using the Y maze task. RESULTS: PCS rats show peripheral inflammation, activated astrocytes, and microglia and increased levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß. Membrane expression of GAT-3 and extracellular GABA are increased, leading to impaired motor coordination and learning ability. Infliximab reduces peripheral inflammation, microglia, and astrocyte activation and neuroinflammation and normalizes GABAergic neurotransmission, motor coordination, and learning ability. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroinflammation is associated with altered GABAergic neurotransmission and increased GAT-3 membrane expression and extracellular GABA (a); peripheral inflammation is a main contributor to the impairment of motor coordination and of the ability to learn the Y maze task in PCS rats (b); and reducing peripheral inflammation using safe procedures could be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive and motor function in patients with HE


Assuntos
Cerebelo/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Psicomotores/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/metabolismo , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/complicações , Inflamação/etiologia , Infliximab/farmacologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicomotores/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
17.
Oncotarget ; 7(33): 52849-52861, 2016 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463005

RESUMO

The prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains poor and heterogeneous and new biomarkers are needed. As the immune system plays a pivotal role in cancer, the study of immune-related markers may provide valuable prognostic information of NSCLC. In 122 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from early-stage NSCLC, tumor and tumor-near stromal areas were microdissected and gene expression levels of conventional and regulatory T cell markers were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Also, the presence of infiltrating CD4+, CD8+, and FOXP3+ cells in tumor samples was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The relative proportion of conventional and regulatory T cells present in the tumor environment was assessed and found to be key to understand the importance that the immune system analysis has in the prognostics of NSCLC patients. The presence of CD8+ cells in the tumor compartment was associated with better outcome, whereas the presence of FOXP3+ cells was associated with worse overall survival. The negative prognostic value of combined biomarkers, indicating high levels of FOXP3 in the stroma and low levels of CD4 or CD8 in tumors, was observed at mRNA level and was validated by immunohistochemistry.In conclusion, the proportion of T helper and cytotoxic cells vs. regulatory T cells in different locations of the tumor microenvironment have opposite prognostic impacts in resected NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Antígenos CD4/genética , Antígenos CD4/imunologia , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/genética , Antígenos CD8/imunologia , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Hepatol Res ; 45(4): 423-31, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24906075

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of our study was develop and validate an algorithm system based on morphological features for finding the differences between recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) and acute cellular rejection (ACR) in liver biopsies of HCV-transplanted patients. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-eight liver biopsies were analyzed from 121 patients transplanted for HCV. A diagnostic consensus was reached between clinicians and pathologists in 214 biopsies for the diagnosis of recurrent HCV or ACR. A random sample of 114 liver biopsies (derivation cohort) was taken to generate the diagnostic tree and was subsequently evaluated using the validation cohort in 100 liver biopsies by recursive partitioning analysis of morphological variables and time since transplantation. RESULTS: The presence of endotheliitis together with a time of less than 6 weeks since LT definitely excluded recurrent HCV. After obtaining the regression tree, diagnostic accuracy was 96% and 93% in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively. Both cases surpassed the pathologist's original diagnosis, which had a diagnostic accuracy of 91% (P < 0.05, for both comparisons). CONCLUSION: A recursive partitioning analysis of the morphological features in liver biopsies from HCV-transplanted patients may be useful for easily distinguishing between recurrent HCV and ACR.

19.
Int J Oncol ; 45(6): 2250-66, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25201346

RESUMO

Phosphatases are proteins with the ability to dephosphorylate different substrates and are involved in critical cellular processes such as proliferation, tumor suppression, motility and survival. Little is known about their role in the different breast cancer (BC) phenotypes. We carried out microarray phosphatome profiling in 41 estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) BC patients, as determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), containing both ERBB2+ and ERBB2- in order to characterize the differences between these two groups. We characterized and confirmed the distinct phosphatome of the two main ER- BC subgroups (in two independent microarrays series) and that of ER+ BC (in three large independent series). Our findings point to the importance of the MAPK and PI3K pathways in ER- BCs as some of the most differentially expressed phosphatases (like DUSP4 and DUSP6) sharing ERK as substrate, or regulating the PI3K pathway (INPP4B, PTEN). It was possible to identify a selective group of phosphatases upregulated only in the ER- ERBB2+ subgroup and not in ER+ (like DUSP6, DUSP10 and PPAPDC1A among others), suggesting a role of these phosphatases in specific BC subtypes, unlike other differentially expressed phosphatases (DUSP4 and ENPP1) that seemed to have a role in multiple BC subtypes. Significant correlation was found at the protein level by IHC between the expression of DUSP6 and phospho-ERK (p=0.04) but not of phospho-ERK with DUSP4. To show the potential prognostic relevance of phosphatases as a functional group of genes, we derived and validated in two large independent BC microarray series a multiphosphatase signature enriched in differentially expressed phosphatases, to predict distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS). ER- ERBB2+, ER- ERBB2- and ER+ BC patients have a distinct pattern of phosphatase RNA expression with a potential prognostic relevance. Further studies of the most relevant phosphatases found in this study are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/biossíntese , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fosfatase 6 de Especificidade Dupla/biossíntese , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/biossíntese , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Fosfatases da Proteína Quinase Ativada por Mitógeno/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais
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