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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(581)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597264

RESUMO

The accumulation of DNA and nuclear components in blood and their recognition by autoantibodies play a central role in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Despite the efforts, the sources of circulating autoantigens in SLE are still unclear. Here, we show that in SLE, platelets release mitochondrial DNA, the majority of which is associated with the extracellular mitochondrial organelle. Mitochondrial release in patients with SLE correlates with platelet degranulation. This process requires the stimulation of platelet FcγRIIA, a receptor for immune complexes. Because mice lack FcγRIIA and murine platelets are completely devoid of receptor capable of binding IgG-containing immune complexes, we used transgenic mice expressing FcγRIIA for our in vivo investigations. FcγRIIA expression in lupus-prone mice led to the recruitment of platelets in kidneys and to the release of mitochondria in vivo. Using a reporter mouse with red fluorescent protein targeted to the mitochondrion, we confirmed platelets as a source of extracellular mitochondria driven by FcγRIIA and its cosignaling by the fibrinogen receptor α2bß3 in vivo. These findings suggest that platelets might be a key source of mitochondrial antigens in SLE and might be a therapeutic target for treating SLE.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MetS) may both contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to examine the association of demographic factors, SLE phenotype, therapy and vitamin D levels with MetS and insulin resistance. METHODS: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) enrolled patients recently diagnosed with SLE (<15 months) from 33 centres across 11 countries from 2000. Clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. Vitamin D level was defined according to tertiles based on distribution across this cohort, which were set at T1 (10-36 nmol/l), T2 (37-60 nmol/l) and T3 (61-174 nmol/l). MetS was defined according to the 2009 consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin resistance was determined using the HOMA-IR model. Linear and logistic regressions were used to assess the association of variables with vitamin D levels. RESULTS: Of the 1847 patients, 1163 (63%) had vitamin D measured and 398 (34.2%) subjects were in the lowest 25(OH)D tertile. MetS was present in 286 of 860 (33%) patients whose status could be determined. Patients with lower 25(OH)D were more likely to have MetS and higher HOMA-IR. The MetS components, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and decreased HDL were all significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D. Increased average glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher insulin resistance. CONCLUSIONS: MetS and insulin resistance are associated with lower vitamin D in patients with SLE. Further studies could determine whether vitamin D repletion confers better control of these cardiovascular risk factors and improve long-term outcomes in SLE.

3.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 29, 2021 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While cross-sectional data suggest an association between IFN-induced gene expression and SLE disease activity, interest in this as a biomarker of flare has been tempered by a lack of fluctuation with disease activity in the majority of patients. This led us to question whether IFN-induced gene expression might instead be a biomarker of overall disease severity, with patients with high levels spending more time in an active disease state. METHODS: Levels of five interferon-responsive genes were measured in the whole peripheral blood at baseline visit for 137 SLE patients subsequently followed for 5 years. Log transformed values were summed to yield a composite IFN5 score, and the correlation with various disease outcomes examined. Receiver operator characteristic analyses were performed for outcomes of interest. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the proportion of flare-free patients with high and low IFN5 scores over time. RESULTS: The baseline IFN5 score was positively correlated with the adjusted mean SLE disease activity index-2000, number of flares, adjusted mean prednisone dose, and number of new immunosuppressive medications over the subsequent 5 years. Optimal cut-offs for the IFN5 score were determined using Youden's index and predicted more severe outcomes with 57-67% accuracy. A high baseline IFN5 level was associated with a significantly increased risk of subsequent flare. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of the type I IFN signature is a useful tool for predicting the subsequent disease activity course.

4.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: APS ACTION Registry studies long-term outcomes in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Our primary objective was to determine whether clinically meaningful aPL profiles at baseline remain stable over time. Our secondary objectives were to determine a) whether baseline characteristics differ between patients with stable and unstable aPL profiles, and b) predictors of unstable aPL profiles over time. METHODS: Clinically meaningful aPL profile was defined as positive lupus anticoagulant (LA) test and/or anticardiolipin (aCL)/anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I (aß2GPI) IgG/M ≥40 U. Stable aPL profile was defined as a clinically meaningful aPL profile in at least two-thirds of follow-up measurements. Generalized linear mixed models with logit link were used for primary objective analysis. RESULTS: Of 472 patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline (median follow up: 5.1 years), 366/472 (78%) patients had stable aPL profiles over time, 54 (11%) unstable; and 52 (11%) inconclusive. Time did not significantly affect odds of maintaining a clinically meaningful aPL profile at follow-up in univariate (p=0.906) and multivariable analysis (p=0.790). Baseline triple aPL positivity decreased (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.10-0.64, p=0.004) and isolated LA test positivity increased (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.53-7.13, p=0.002) the odds of an unstable aPL profile over time. CONCLUSION: Approximately 80% of our international cohort patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline maintain such at a median follow-up of five years; triple aPL-positivity increase the odds of a stable aPL profile. These results will guide future validation studies of stored blood samples through APS ACTION Core Laboratories.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369255

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a key systemic lupus (SLE) drug, making concerns of drug shortages grave. We evaluated factors associated with poor outcomes after HCQ taper or discontinuation in SLE. METHODS: We studied five Canadian SLE cohorts between 1999-2019, following patients from date of HCQ tapering (cohort 1) or discontinuation (cohort 2). A composite outcome was defined as any of the following: need for therapy augmentation, increase (of at least 4 points) in SLEDAI-2K, or hospitalization for SLE. In each cohort, multivariable Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical factors associated with time to the earliest of these events. A third cohort remaining on HCQ was also studied, to assess if the same factors influenced the outcome even when HCQ dose was unchanged. RESULTS: The poor outcome rate, per 100 person-years, was 35.7 (95% CI 31.6, 40.3) in the HCQ taper cohort (N=398), 29.0 (95% CI 25.5, 33.0) in the discontinuation cohort (N=395), and 16.1 (95%CI 13.2, 19.6) in the maintenance cohort (N=395). In patients tapering HCQ, baseline prednisone use was independently associated with greater risk of poor outcomes. In the discontinuation cohort, risk of poor outcomes was greater for blacks and those diagnosed with SLE at age ≤25 years. Among those maintaining HCQ, baseline immunosuppressive use and First Nation ethnicity were associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified demographic and clinical factors associated with poor outcomes after HCQ taper/discontinuation. This information is critical in the current setting of potential shortages, but long-term, this could inform personalized therapies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune disease with varied and unpredictable levels of disease activity. The ability to self-manage lupus is important in controlling disease activity. Our objective was to determine levels of patient activation toward self-management in lupus. METHODS: We used baseline results from the MyLupusGuideTM study that had recruited 541 lupus patients from ten centers. We used the Patient Activation Measure (PAM), a validated self-reported tool designed to measure activation towards self-management ability, as our primary variable and examined its association with demographic, disease-related, patient-provider communication and psychosocial variables captured in our study protocol. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed using linear mixed models, with a random effect for centers. RESULTS: The average age was 50±14 years, 93% were female, 74% were Caucasian and the average disease duration was 17±12 years. The mean PAM score was 61.2±13.5 with 36% of participants scoring in the two lower levels, indicating low activation. Variables associated with low activation included being single, lower physical health status, lower self-reported disease activity, lower self-efficacy, use of more emotional coping and less distraction and instrumental coping strategies, and perceived lack of clarity in patient-doctor communication. CONCLUSION: Low patient activation was observed in more than one third of lupus patients indicating a large proportion of patients perceived that they are lacking in lupus self-management skills. These results highlight a modifiable gap in perceived self-management ability among patients with lupus.

7.
Blood ; 136(25): 2933-2945, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331924

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by deposits of immune complexes (ICs) in organs and tissues. The expression of FcγRIIA by human platelets, which is their unique receptor for immunoglobulin G antibodies, positions them to ideally respond to circulating ICs. Whereas chronic platelet activation and thrombosis are well-recognized features of human SLE, the exact mechanisms underlying platelet activation in SLE remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the involvement of FcγRIIA in the course of SLE and platelet activation. In patients with SLE, levels of ICs are associated with platelet activation. Because FcγRIIA is absent in mice, and murine platelets do not respond to ICs in any existing mouse model of SLE, we introduced the FcγRIIA (FCGR2A) transgene into the NZB/NZWF1 mouse model of SLE. In mice, FcγRIIA expression by bone marrow cells severely aggravated lupus nephritis and accelerated death. Lupus onset initiated major changes to the platelet transcriptome, both in FcγRIIA-expressing and nonexpressing mice, but enrichment for type I interferon response gene changes was specifically observed in the FcγRIIA mice. Moreover, circulating platelets were degranulated and were found to interact with neutrophils in FcγRIIA-expressing lupus mice. FcγRIIA expression in lupus mice also led to thrombosis in lungs and kidneys. The model recapitulates hallmarks of human SLE and can be used to identify contributions of different cellular lineages in the manifestations of SLE. The study further reveals a role for FcγRIIA in nephritis and in platelet activation in SLE.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) frailty index (FI) predicts mortality and damage accrual in SLE, but its association with hospitalizations has not been described. We estimated the association of baseline SLICC-FI values with future hospitalizations in the SLICC inception cohort. METHODS: Baseline SLICC-FI scores were calculated. The number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations during follow-up were recorded. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate the association between baseline SLICC-FI values and the rate of hospitalizations per patient-year of follow-up. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of baseline SLICC-FI scores with the proportion of follow-up time spent in hospital. Multivariable models were adjusted for relevant baseline characteristics. RESULTS: The 1549 SLE patients eligible for this analysis were mostly female (88.7%) with mean (SD) age 35.7 (13.3) years and median (IQR) disease duration 1.2 (0.9-1.5) years at baseline. Mean (SD) baseline SLICC-FI was 0.17 (0.08). During mean (SD) follow-up of 7.2 (3.7) years, 614 patients (39.6%) experienced 1570 hospitalizations. Higher baseline SLICC-FI values (per 0.05 increment) were associated with more frequent hospitalizations during follow-up (Incidence Rate Ratio 1.21; 95%CI 1.13-1.30), adjusting for baseline age, sex, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressive use, ethnicity/location, SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K), SLICC/ACR damage index (SDI), and disease duration. Among patients with ≥1 hospitalization, higher baseline SLICC-FI values predicted a greater proportion of follow-up time spent hospitalized (Relative Rate 1.09; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). CONCLUSION: The SLICC-FI predicts future hospitalizations among incident SLE patients, further supporting the SLICC-FI as a valid health measure in SLE.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe baseline characteristics of antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients, overall and by clinical and laboratory subtypes, enrolled in an international registry. METHODS: AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking Registry includes persistently aPL-positive adults. We evaluated baseline sociodemographic and aPL-related (APS classification criteria and "non-criteria") characteristics of patients overall and in subgroups (aPL-positive without APS, APS overall, thrombotic APS [TAPS] only, obstetric APS [OAPS] only, and both TAPS/OAPS). We assessed baseline characteristics of patients tested for three aPL (lupus anticoagulant test [LA], anticardiolipin antibody [aCL], and anti-ß2 -Glycoprotein-I [aß2 GPI]) by aPL profiles (LA only, single, double, and triple aPL positivity). RESULTS: Of 804 aPL-positive patients (mean age: 45 ± 13y; female: 74%; white 68%; other systemic autoimmune diseases: 36%), 80% were classified as APS (55% TAPS, 9% OAPS, and 15% TAPS/OAPS). In the overall cohort, 71% had vascular thrombosis, 50% with pregnancy history had obstetric morbidity, and 56% had at least one non-criteria manifestation. Among those with three aPL tested (n: 660), 42% were triple aPL positive. While single, double and triple aPL positive subgroups had similar frequencies of vascular, obstetric, and non-criteria events, these events were lowest in the single aPL subgroup consisting of aCL or aß2 GPI only. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates the heterogeneity of aPL-related clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in a multicenter, international cohort. Within single aPL-positivity, LA may be a major contributor to clinical events. Future prospective analyses, using standardized core laboratory aPL tests, will help clarify aPL risk profiles and improve risk stratification.

10.
FASEB J ; 34(11): 15208-15221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946139

RESUMO

Autoimmune complexes are an important feature of several autoimmune diseases such as lupus, as they contribute to tissue damage through the activation of immune cells. Neutrophils, key players in lupus, interact with immune complexes through Fc gamma receptors (FcgR). Incubation of neutrophils with aggregated-IgGs caused degranulation and increased the surface expression of FcgRI within minutes in a concentration-dependent fashion. After 30 minutes, IgG aggregates (1 mg/mL) upregulated FcgRI by 4.95 ± 0.45-fold. FcgRI-positive neutrophils reached 67.24% ± 6.88% on HA-IgGs stimulated neutrophils, from 3.12% ± 1.62% in non-stimulated cells, ranking IgG-aggregates among the most potent known agonists. FcgRIIa, and possibly FcgRIIIa, appeared to mediate this upregulation. Also, FcgRI-dependent signaling proved necessary for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in response to IgG-aggregates. Finally, combinations of bacterial materials with aggregates dramatically boosted ROS production. This work suggests FcgRI as an essential component in the response of human neutrophils to immune complexes leading to the production of ROS, which may help explain how neutrophils contribute to tissue damage associated with immune complex-associated diseases, such as lupus.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813314

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess cancer risk factors in incident SLE. METHODS: Clinical variables and cancer outcomes were assessed annually among incident SLE patients. Multivariate hazard regression models (over-all risk, and most common cancers) included demographics and time-dependent medications (corticosteroids, antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants), smoking, and adjusted mean SLE Disease Activity Index-2K. RESULTS: Among 1668 patients (average 9 years follow-up), 65 cancers occurred: 15 breast, 10 non-melanoma skin, seven lung, six hematological, six prostate, five melanoma, three cervical, three renal, two each gastric, head and neck, and thyroid, and one each rectal, sarcoma, thymoma, and uterine cancers. Half of cancers (including all lung cancers) occurred in past/current smokers, versus one-third of patients without cancer. Multivariate analyses indicated over-all cancer risk was related primarily to male sex and older age at SLE diagnosis. In addition, smoking was associated with lung cancer. For breast cancer risk, age was positively and anti-malarial drugs were negatively associated. Anti-malarial drugs and higher disease activity were also negatively associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk, whereas age and cyclophosphamide were positively associated. Disease activity was associated positively with hematologic and negatively with NMSC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor, especially for lung cancer, in SLE. Immunosuppressive medications were not clearly associated with higher risk except for cyclophosphamide and NMSC. Antimalarials were negatively associated with breast cancer and NMSC risk. SLE activity was associated positively with hematologic cancer and negatively with NMSC. Since the absolute number of cancers was small, additional follow-up will help consolidate these findings.

12.
Lupus ; 29(12): 1623-1629, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondria are intracellular organelles of bacterial origin capable of stimulating the immune system when released into the extracellular milieu. We previously reported the expression of anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) targeting whole organelles (AwMA), mitochondrial DNA (AmtDNA) or mitochondrial RNA (AmtRNA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune condition that may be independent of, or associated with, other diseases, usually SLE. This study aimed to detect AMA in patients with APS and to explore the association with clinical features of APS. METHODS: AwMA-, AmtDNA- and AmtRNA-IgG and -IgM were detected in a pilot study (healthy controls n = 30 and APS patients n = 24) by direct ELISA, and their levels were associated with demographic and disease characteristics. RESULTS: AmtDNA-IgM and AmtRNA-IgG and IgM were elevated in APS compared to healthy controls (p = 0.009, p = 0.0005 and p = 0.01, respectively). AwMA-IgG were increased in patients positive for lupus anticoagulant (median ± interquartile range = 0.36 ± 0.31 vs. 0.14 ± 0.08, p = 0.008), and optical density values for AwMA-IgM were correlated with titres of IgM against cardiolipin (rs = 0.51, p = 0.01). An increment of 0.1 unit of AmtDNA-IgM levels was associated with reduced prior reporting of arterial events (odds ratio = 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.00; p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: Our pilot study suggests that AMA are represented within the autoantibody repertoire in APS and may display different associations with the clinical manifestations of the disease. Further studies should focus on reproducing these preliminary results by following AMA levels through time in larger prospective cohorts.

13.
Blood ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766888

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by deposits of immune complexes (IC) in organs and tissues. The expression of FcγRIIA by human platelets, which is their unique receptor for IgG antibodies, positions them to ideally respond to circulating IC. Whereas chronic platelet activation and thrombosis are well-recognized features of human SLE, the exact mechanisms underlying platelet activation in SLE are still unknown. Here, we evaluated the involvement of FcγRIIA in the course of SLE and platelet activation. In SLE patients, levels of IC are associated with platelet activation. As FcγRIIA is absent in mice and murine platelets do not respond to IC in any existing mouse model of SLE, we introduced the FcγRIIA (FCGR2A) transgene into the NZB/NZWF1 mouse model of SLE. In mice, FcγRIIA expression by bone-marrow cells severely aggravated lupus nephritis and accelerated death. Lupus onset initiated major changes to the platelet transcriptome, both in FcγRIIA-expressing and non-expressing mice, but an enrichment for type-I interferon response gene changes was specifically observed in the FcγRIIA mice. Moreover, circulating platelet were degranulated and were found interacting with neutrophils in FcγRIIA expressing lupus mice. FcγRIIA expression in lupus mice also led to thrombosis in lungs and kidneys. The model recapitulates hallmarks of human SLE and can be utilized to identify contributions of different cellular lineages in the manifestations of SLE. The study further reveals a role for FcγRIIA in nephritis and in platelet activation in SLE.

14.
Lupus ; : 961203320940776, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to use cluster analysis (CA) to identify different clinical phenotypes among antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive patients. METHODS: The Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking (APS ACTION) Registry includes persistently positive aPL of any isotype based on the Sydney antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) classification criteria. We performed CA on the baseline characteristics collected retrospectively at the time of the registry entry of the first 500 patients included in the registry. A total of 30 clinical data points were included in the primary CA to cover the broad spectrum of aPL-positive patients. RESULTS: A total of 497 patients from international centres were analysed, resulting in three main exclusive clusters: (a) female patients with no other autoimmune diseases but with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and triple-aPL positivity; (b) female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, VTE, aPL nephropathy, thrombocytopaenia, haemolytic anaemia and a positive lupus anticoagulant test; and (c) older men with arterial thrombosis, heart valve disease, livedo, skin ulcers, neurological manifestations and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our hierarchical cluster analysis, we identified different clinical phenotypes of aPL-positive patients discriminated by aPL profile, lupus or CVD risk factors. Our results, while supporting the heterogeneity of aPL-positive patients, also provide a foundation to understand disease mechanisms, create new approaches for APS classification and ultimately develop new management approaches.

15.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(10): 1734-1740, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, atherosclerotic vascular events (AVEs) were shown to occur in ~10% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We undertook this study to investigate the annual occurrence and potential risk factors for AVEs in a multinational, multiethnic inception cohort of patients with SLE. METHODS: A large 33-center cohort of SLE patients was followed up yearly between 1999 and 2017. AVEs were attributed to atherosclerosis based on SLE being inactive at the time of the AVE as well as typical atherosclerotic changes observed on imaging or pathology reports and/or evidence of atherosclerosis elsewhere. Analyses included descriptive statistics, rate of AVEs per 1,000 patient-years, and univariable and multivariable relative risk regression models. RESULTS: Of the 1,848 patients enrolled in the cohort, 1,710 had ≥1 follow-up visit after enrollment, for a total of 13,666 patient-years. Of these 1,710 patients, 3.6% had ≥1 AVEs attributed to atherosclerosis, for an event rate of 4.6 per 1,000 patient-years. In multivariable analyses, lower AVE rates were associated with antimalarial treatment (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-0.91]), while higher AVE rates were associated with any prior vascular event (HR 4.00 [95% CI 1.55-10.30]) and a body mass index of >40 kg/m2 (HR 2.74 [95% CI 1.04-7.18]). A prior AVE increased the risk of subsequent AVEs (HR 5.42 [95% CI 3.17-9.27], P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AVEs and the rate of AVE accrual demonstrated in the present study is much lower than that seen in previously published data. This may be related to better control of both the disease activity and classic risk factors.

16.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2274-2286, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and thromboembolism (TE) are at risk for recurrent TE. Few studies, however, distinguish patients based on the initial event. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate patients with aPL and venous TE (VTE), provoked or unprovoked, and patients with arterial TE (ATE). PATIENTS/METHODS: We conducted searches in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, and EMBASE. Inclusion criteria were prospective trials or cohort studies investigating patients with aPL and ATE or VTE. Excluded studies did not provide estimated recurrence rates, did not specify whether the incident event was ATE or VTE, included patients with multiple events, or included <10 patients. Two-year summary proportions were estimated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Ten studies described patients with VTE, 2 with ATE, and 5 with VTE or ATE. The 2-year proportion for recurrent TE in patients with VTE who were taking anticoagulant therapy was 0.054 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037-0.079); the 2-year proportion for patients not taking anticoagulant therapy was 0.178 (95% CI, 0.150-0.209). Most studies did not distinguish whether VTE were provoked or unprovoked. The 2-year proportion for recurrent TE in patients with ATE who were taking anticoagulant therapy was 0.220 (95% CI, 0.149-0.311); the 2-year proportion for patients taking antiplatelet therapy was 0.216 (95% CI, 0.177-0.261). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with aPL and ATE may benefit from a different antithrombotic approach than patients with aPL and VTE. Prospective studies with well-defined cohorts with aPL and TE are necessary to determine optimal antithrombotic strategies.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 SLE classification criteria and the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria are list-based, counting each SLE manifestation equally. We derived a classification rule based on giving variable weights to the SLICC criteria, and compared its performance to the revised ACR 1997, unweighted SLICC 2012 and the newly reported European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR 2019 criteria. METHODS: The physician-rated patient scenarios used to develop the SLICC 2012 classification criteria were re-employed to devise a new weighted classification rule using multiple linear regression. The performance of the rule was evaluated on an independent set of expert-diagnosed patient scenarios and compared to the performance of the previously reported classification rules. RESULTS: Weighted SLICC criteria and the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria had less sensitivity but better specificity compared to the list-based revised ACR 1997 and SLICC 2012 classification criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between any pair of rules with respect to overall agreement with the physician diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The two new weighted classification rules did not perform better than the existing list-based rules in terms of overall agreement on a dataset originally generated to assess the SLICC criteria. Given the added complexity of summing weights, researchers may prefer the unweighted SLICC criteria. However, the performance of a classification rule will always depend on the populations from which the cases and non-cases are derived, and whether the goal is to prioritize sensitivity or specificity.

18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(4): 929-942, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The lymphatic system is a circulatory system that unidirectionally drains the interstitial tissue fluid back to blood circulation. Although lymph is utilized by leukocytes for immune surveillance, it remains inaccessible to platelets and erythrocytes. Activated cells release submicron extracellular vesicles (EV) that transport molecules from the donor cell. In rheumatoid arthritis, EV accumulate in the joint where they can interact with numerous cellular lineages. However, whether EV can exit the inflamed tissue to recirculate is unknown. Here, we investigated whether vascular leakage that occurs during inflammation could favor EV access to the lymphatic system. Approach and Results: Using an in vivo model of autoimmune inflammatory arthritis, we show that there is an influx of platelet EV, but not EV from erythrocytes or leukocytes, in joint-draining lymph. In contrast to blood platelet EV, lymph platelet EV lacked mitochondrial organelles and failed to promote coagulation. Platelet EV influx in lymph was consistent with joint vascular leakage and implicated the fibrinogen receptor α2bß3 and platelet-derived serotonin. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that platelets can disseminate their EV in fluid that is inaccessible to platelets and beyond the joint in this disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/fisiopatologia , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Linfa/fisiologia , Animais , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade Capilar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Serotonina/metabolismo
19.
Orthopedics ; 43(3): e141-e146, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077963

RESUMO

A previously undescribed pitfall of lateral distal fibular locking plates is the risk of violating the lateral malleolar fossa (MF). No previous study has described the dimensions of this fossa. All cases using a lateral distal fibular plate for a fibula fracture from December 2012 to December 2015 (n=365) at a single institution were reviewed. Screws that violated the medial fibular cortical density corresponding to the MF were identified as "at-risk" screws. Available preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans were reviewed (n=69) to measure MF dimensions. Of 365 patients, 115 (31.5%) patients had distal fibular screws at risk of MF violation. There were no significant differences between MF violation and non-violation groups in terms of age, sex, open fracture, syndesmotic fixation, and Weber classification. The MF dimensions were measured on CT scans. Mean height was 12.96 mm (SD, 2.09 mm; range, 9.0-17.3 mm). Mean width was 7.52 mm (SD, 1.37 mm; range, 4.2-10.4 mm). Mean depth was 8.32 mm (SD, 1.59 mm; range, 5.3-11.8 mm). Mean ratio of MF to total fibular width was 0.46 mm (SD, 0.07 mm; range, 0.3-0.65 mm). Mean MF to total fibular depth was 0.42 mm (SD, 0.07 mm; range, 0.28-0.58 mm). There was a difference in dimensions of patients with screws at risk of MF violation compared with those without (MF height: 13.77 vs 12.56, P=.02; MF width: 7.98 vs 7.30, P=.05; MF to fibula width ratio: 0.49 vs 0.44, P=.01; MF to fibula depth ratio: 0.43 vs 0.42, P=.05). The MF violation is a previously unreported but potentially prevalent pitfall of lateral distal fibular plate fixation. Surgeons should be aware of the MF size and exhibit caution when placing screws in the distal locking holes during fibula fixation. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(3):e141-e146.].


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Articulação do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Placas Ósseas , Feminino , Fíbula/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(3): 356-362, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915121

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using a reversible multistate model, we prospectively examined neuropsychiatric (NP) events for attribution, outcome and association with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), in an international, inception cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. METHODS: Annual assessments for 19 NP events attributed to SLE and non-SLE causes, physician determination of outcome and patient HRQoL (short-form (SF)-36 scores) were measured. Time-to-event analysis and multistate modelling examined the onset, recurrence and transition between NP states. RESULTS: NP events occurred in 955/1827 (52.3%) patients and 592/1910 (31.0%) unique events were attributed to SLE. In the first 2 years of follow-up the relative risk (95% CI) for SLE NP events was 6.16 (4.96, 7.66) and non-SLE events was 4.66 (4.01, 5.43) compared with thereafter. Patients without SLE NP events at initial assessment had a 74% probability of being event free at 10 years. For non-SLE NP events the estimate was 48%. The majority of NP events resolved over 10 years but mortality was higher in patients with NP events attributed to SLE (16%) versus patients with no NPSLE events (6%) while the rate was comparable in patients with non-SLE NP events (7%) compared with patients with no non-SLE events (6%). Patients with NP events had lower SF-36 summary scores compared with those without NP events and resolved NP states (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: NP events occur most frequently around the diagnosis of SLE. Although the majority of events resolve they are associated with reduced HRQoL and excess mortality. Multistate modelling is well suited for the assessment of NP events in SLE.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/psicologia , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/mortalidade , Vasculite Associada ao Lúpus do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Multinível , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
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