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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 695114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527667

RESUMO

Dysregulation of the Notch pathway is implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but, as of today, therapies based on the re-establishing the physiological levels of Notch in the heart and vessels are not available. A possible reason is the context-dependent role of Notch in the cardiovascular system, which would require a finely tuned, cell-specific approach. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short functional endogenous, non-coding RNA sequences able to regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional levels influencing most, if not all, biological processes. Dysregulation of miRNAs expression is implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying many CVDs. Notch is regulated and regulates a large number of miRNAs expressed in the cardiovascular system and, thus, targeting these miRNAs could represent an avenue to be explored to target Notch for CVDs. In this Review, we provide an overview of both established and potential, based on evidence in other pathologies, crosstalks between miRNAs and Notch in cellular processes underlying atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, heart failure, calcification of aortic valve, and arrhythmias. We also discuss the potential advantages, as well as the challenges, of using miRNAs for a Notch-based approach for the diagnosis and treatment of the most common CVDs.

2.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440201

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction characterizes every aspect of the so-called cardiovascular continuum, a series of events ranging from hypertension to the development of atherosclerosis and, finally, to coronary heart disease, thrombus formation, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Endothelial dysfunction is the main prognostic factor for the progression of vascular disorders, which responds to drug intervention and lifestyle changes. Virtually all of the drugs used to prevent cardiovascular disorders, such as long-used and new antilipidemic agents and inhibitors of angiotensin enzyme (ACEi), exert an important effect on the endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction is a central feature of coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19), and it is now clear that life-risk complications of the disease are prompted by alterations of the endothelium induced by viral infection. As a consequence, the progression of COVID-19 is worse in the subjects in whom endothelial dysfunction is already present, such as elderly, diabetic, obese, and hypertensive patients. Importantly, circulating biomarkers of endothelial activation and injury predict the severity and mortality of the disease and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatments. The purpose of this review is to provide updates on endothelial function by discussing its clinical relevance in the cardiovascular continuum, the latest insights from molecular and cellular biology, and their implications for clinical practice, with a focus on new actors, such as the Notch signaling and emerging therapies for cardiovascular disease.

3.
Life Sci Alliance ; 4(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226277

RESUMO

Here, we recorded serum proteome profiles of 33 severe COVID-19 patients admitted to respiratory and intensive care units because of respiratory failure. We received, for most patients, blood samples just after admission and at two more later time points. With the aim to predict treatment outcome, we focused on serum proteins different in abundance between the group of survivors and non-survivors. We observed that a small panel of about a dozen proteins were significantly different in abundance between these two groups. The four structurally and functionally related type-3 cystatins AHSG, FETUB, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and KNG1 were all more abundant in the survivors. The family of inter-α-trypsin inhibitors, ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, and ITIH4, were all found to be differentially abundant in between survivors and non-survivors, whereby ITIH1 and ITIH2 were more abundant in the survivor group and ITIH3 and ITIH4 more abundant in the non-survivors. ITIH1/ITIH2 and ITIH3/ITIH4 also showed opposite trends in protein abundance during disease progression. We defined an optimal panel of nine proteins for mortality risk assessment. The prediction power of this mortality risk panel was evaluated against two recent COVID-19 serum proteomics studies on independent cohorts measured in other laboratories in different countries and observed to perform very well in predicting mortality also in these cohorts. This panel may not be unique for COVID-19 as some of the proteins in the panel have previously been annotated as mortality markers in aging and in other diseases caused by different pathogens, including bacteria.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , Proteoma/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Sobreviventes
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767713

RESUMO

Background: Deficient interferon responses have been proposed as one of the relevant mechanisms prompting severe manifestations of COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the interferon (IFN)-α levels in a cohort of COVID-19 patients in relation to severity, evolution of the clinical manifestations and immune/inflammatory profile. Methods: This is prospective study recruiting consecutive hospitalized patients with respiratory failure associated with SARS-COV-2 infection and matched controls. After enrollment, patients were assessed every 7 ± 2 days for additional 2 consecutive visits, for a total of 21 days. The severity of the clinical condition was ranked based on the level of respiratory support required. At each time-point blood samples were obtained to assess immune cells and mediators by multiplex immunoassay. Results: Fifty-four COVD-19 and 11 control patients matched for severity were enrolled. At recruitment, lower levels of blood IFN-α were found in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (3.8-fold difference, p < 0.01). Improvements in COVID-19 severity were paralleled by a significant increase of blood IFN-α levels. A significant increase in blood IFN-α was found over the study period in survivors (70% of the study population). A similar trend was found for blood IFN-ß with IFN-ß levels below the threshold of detectability in a substantial proportion of subjects. Significantly higher values of blood lymphocytes and lower levels of IL-10 were found at each time point in patients who survived compared to patients who died. In patients who clinically improved and survived during the study, we found an inverse association between IL-10 and IFN-α levels. Conclusion: The study identifies a blood immune profile defined by deficient IFN-α levels associated with increased IL-10 expression in patients progressing to severe/life threatening COVID-19 conditions, suggesting the involvement of immunological pathways that could be target of pharmacological intervention. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT04343053.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hospitalização , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 74, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers can be used to detect the presence of endothelial and/or alveolar epithelial injuries in case of ARDS. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), P-selectin and E-selectin are biomarkers of endothelial injury, whereas the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) reflects alveolar epithelial injury. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether the plasma concentration of the above-mentioned biomarkers was different 1) in survivors and non-survivors of COVID-19-related ARDS and 2) in COVID-19-related and classical ARDS. METHODS: This prospective study was performed in two COVID-19-dedicated Intensive Care Units (ICU) and one non-COVID-19 ICU at Ferrara University Hospital. A cohort of 31 mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 ARDS and a cohort of 11 patients with classical ARDS were enrolled. Ang-2, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, P-selectin, E-selectin and RAGE were determined with a bead-based multiplex immunoassay at three time points: inclusion in the study (T1), after 7 ± 2 days (T2) and 14 ± 2 days (T3). The primary outcome was to evaluate the plasma trend of the biomarker levels in survivors and non-survivors. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the differences in respiratory mechanics variables and gas exchanges between survivors and non-survivors. Furthermore, we compared the plasma levels of the biomarkers at T1 in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS and classical ARDS. RESULTS: In COVID-19-related ARDS, the plasma levels of Ang-2 and ICAM-1 at T1 were statistically higher in non-survivors than survivors, (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively), whereas those of P-selectin, E-selectin and RAGE did not differ. Ang-2 and ICAM-1 at T1 were predictors of mortality (AUROC 0.650 and 0.717, respectively). At T1, RAGE and P-selectin levels were higher in classical ARDS than in COVID-19-related ARDS. Ang-2, ICAM-1 and E-selectin were lower in classical ARDS than in COVID-19-related ARDS (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by an early pulmonary endothelial injury, as detected by Ang-2 and ICAM-1. COVID-19 ARDS and classical ARDS exhibited a different expression of biomarkers, suggesting different pathological pathways. Trial registration NCT04343053 , Date of registration: April 13, 2020.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias/análise , Antígenos de Neoplasias/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Selectina E/análise , Selectina E/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/análise , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/análise , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/sangue , Selectina-P/análise , Selectina-P/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Respiração Artificial/normas , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Versicanas/análise , Versicanas/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/análise , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/sangue
7.
Platelets ; 32(4): 560-567, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270471

RESUMO

The aim of this study (NCT04343053) is to investigate the relationship between platelet activation, myocardial injury, and mortality in patients affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Fifty-four patients with respiratory failure due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were enrolled as cases. Eleven patients with the same clinical presentation, but negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included as controls. Blood samples were collected at three different time points (inclusion [T1], after 7 ± 2 days [T2] and 14 ± 2 days [T3]). Platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry and the circulating levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and P-selectin were measured. Platelet biomarkers did not differ between cases and controls, except for sCD40L which was higher in COVID-19 patients (p = .003). In COVID-19 patients, P-selectin and sCD40L levels decreased from T1 to T3 and were higher in cases requiring admission to intensive care unit (p = .004 and p = .008, respectively). Patients with myocardial injury (37%), as well as those who died (30%), had higher values of all biomarkers of platelet activation (p < .05 for all). Myocardial injury was an independent predictor of mortality. In COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital for respiratory failure, heightened platelet activation is associated with severity of illness, myocardial injury, and mortality.ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04343053.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Traumatismos Cardíacos , Miocárdio , Insuficiência Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ligante de CD40/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , Feminino , Traumatismos Cardíacos/sangue , Traumatismos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Traumatismos Cardíacos/patologia , Traumatismos Cardíacos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Selectina-P/sangue , Agregação Plaquetária , Insuficiência Respiratória/sangue , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255450

RESUMO

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the result of maladaptive fibrocalcific processes leading to a progressive thickening and stiffening of aortic valve (AV) leaflets. CAVD is the most common cause of aortic stenosis (AS). At present, there is no effective pharmacotherapy in reducing CAVD progression; when CAVD becomes symptomatic it can only be treated with valve replacement. Inflammation has a key role in AV pathological remodeling; hence, anti-inflammatory therapy has been proposed as a strategy to prevent CAVD. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a key mediator of the inflammation and it is the target of widely used anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-2-inhibitor celecoxib was initially shown to reduce AV calcification in a murine model. However, in contrast to these findings, a recent retrospective clinical analysis found an association between AS and celecoxib use. In the present study, we investigated whether variations in COX-2 expression levels in human AVs may be linked to CAVD. We extracted total RNA from surgically explanted AVs from patients without CAVD or with CAVD. We found that COX-2 mRNA was higher in non-calcific AVs compared to calcific AVs (0.013 ± 0.002 vs. 0.006 ± 0.0004; p < 0.0001). Moreover, we isolated human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) from AVs and found that COX-2 expression is decreased in AVICs from calcific valves compared to AVICs from non-calcific AVs. Furthermore, we observed that COX-2 inhibition with celecoxib induces AVICs trans-differentiation towards a myofibroblast phenotype, and increases the levels of TGF-ß-induced apoptosis, both processes able to promote the formation of calcific nodules. We conclude that reduced COX-2 expression is a characteristic of human AVICs prone to calcification and that COX-2 inhibition may promote aortic valve calcification. Our findings support the notion that celecoxib may facilitate CAVD progression.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/tratamento farmacológico , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Valva Aórtica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/genética , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcinose/genética , Calcinose/patologia , Celecoxib/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/genética
9.
J Clin Med ; 9(8)2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748835

RESUMO

Some random mutations can confer a selective advantage to a hematopoietic stem cell. As a result, mutated hematopoietic stem cells can give rise to a significant proportion of mutated clones of blood cells. This event is known as "clonal hematopoiesis." Clonal hematopoiesis is closely associated with age, and carriers show an increased risk of developing blood cancers. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential is defined by the presence of clones carrying a mutation associated with a blood neoplasm without obvious hematological malignancies. Unexpectedly, in recent years, it has emerged that clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential carriers also have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms linking clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential to cardiovascular disease are only partially known. Findings in animal models indicate that clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential-related mutations amplify inflammatory responses. Consistently, clinical studies have revealed that clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential carriers display increased levels of inflammatory markers. In this review, we describe progress in our understanding of clonal hematopoiesis in the context of cancer, and we discuss the most recent findings linking clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential and cardiovascular diseases.

10.
Basic Res Cardiol ; 115(3): 31, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274570

RESUMO

From January 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) originated in China has spread around the world. The disease is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The presence of myocarditis, cardiac arrest, and acute heart failure in COVID-19 patients suggests the existence of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiac disease. The Notch signalling is a major regulator of cardiovascular function and it is also implicated in several biological processes mediating viral infections. In this report we discuss the possibility to target Notch signalling to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and interfere with the progression of COVID-19- associated heart and lungs disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ADAM17/antagonistas & inibidores , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19 , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Furina/metabolismo , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/patologia , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/patologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/deficiência , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106619

RESUMO

Ticagrelor is a powerful P2Y12 inhibitor with pleiotropic effects in the cardiovascular system. Consistently, we have reported that in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 1-month treatment with ticagrelor was superior in improving biological markers of endothelial function, compared with clopidogrel. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects of ticagrelor by conducting molecular analyses of RNA isolated from peripheral blood cells of these patients. We determined mRNAs levels of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, such as RORγt (T helper 17 cells marker), FoxP3 (regulatory T cells marker), NLRP3, ICAM1, SIRT1, Notch ligands JAG1 and DLL4, and HES1, a Notch target gene. We found that 1-month treatment with ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel, led to increased levels of SIRT1 and HES1 mRNAs. In patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel, we observed a negative correlation among changes in both SIRT1 and HES1 mRNA and serum levels of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), a marker of endothelial dysfunction found to be reduced by ticagrelor treatment in our previous study. In conclusion, we report that in stable CAD/COPD patients ticagrelor positively regulates HES1 and SIRT1, two genes playing a protective role in the context of inflammation and oxidative stress. Our observations confirm and expand previous studies showing that the beneficial effects of ticagrelor in stable CAD/COPD patients may be, at least in part, mediated by its capacity to reduce systemic inflammation and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Ticagrelor/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/genética , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição HES-1/metabolismo
12.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 534499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537296

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive asbestos-related cancer arising from the mesothelial cells lining the pleural cavity. MPM is characterized by a silent clinical progression and a highly resistance to conventional chemo/radio-therapies. MPM patients die in a few months/years from diagnosis. Notch signaling is a well-conserved cell communication system, which regulates many biological processes. In humans, the dysregulation of Notch pathway potentially contributes to cancer onset/progression, including MPM. Metformin is the first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin is proven to be an effective antitumor drug in preclinical models of different types of cancer. To date, clinical efficacy is being studied in many clinical trials. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of metformin on MPM cells and the putative involvement of Notch1 as a mediator of metformin activities, were investigated. MPM cells showed high levels of Notch1 activation compared to normal pleural mesothelial cells. Furthermore, metformin treatment hampered MPM cell proliferation and enhanced the apoptotic process, accompanied by decreased Notch1 activation.

13.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 8: 610570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537303

RESUMO

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and their derivative enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP)-hBMSCs were employed to evaluate an innovative hybrid scaffold composed of granular hydroxylapatite and collagen hemostat (Coll/HA). The cellular morphology/cytoskeleton organization and cell viability were investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and AlamarBlue metabolic assay, respectively. The expression of osteopontin and osteocalcin proteins was analyzed by IHC and ELISA, whereas osteogenic genes were investigated by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). Cell morphology of eGFP-hBMSCs was indistinguishable from that of parental hBMSCs. The cytoskeleton architecture of hBMSCs grown on the scaffold appeared to be well organized, whereas its integrity remained uninfluenced by the scaffold during the time course. Metabolic activity measured in hBMSCs grown on a biomaterial was increased during the experiments, up to day 21 (p < 0.05). The biomaterial induced the matrix mineralization in hBMSCs. The scaffold favored the expression of osteogenic proteins, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin. In hBMSC cultures, the scaffold induced up-regulation in specific genes that are involved in ossification process (BMP2/3, SPP1, SMAD3, and SP7), whereas they showed an up-regulation of MMP9 and MMP10, which play a central role during the skeletal development. hBMSCs were induced to chondrogenic differentiation through up-regulation of COL2A1 gene. Our experiments suggest that the innovative scaffold tested herein provides a good microenvironment for hBMSC adhesion, viability, and osteoinduction. hBMSCs are an excellent in vitro cellular model to assay scaffolds, which can be employed for bone repair and bone tissue engineering.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590384

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations of the gene encoding Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) are associated with the pathogenesis of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation (CCM), a major cerebrovascular disease characterized by abnormally enlarged and leaky capillaries and affecting 0.5% of the human population. However, growing evidence demonstrates that KRIT1 is implicated in the modulation of major redox-sensitive signaling pathways and mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to oxidative stress and inflammation, suggesting that its loss-of-function mutations may have pathological effects not limited to CCM disease. The aim of this study was to address whether KRIT1 loss-of-function predisposes to the development of pathological conditions associated with enhanced endothelial cell susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation, such as arterial endothelial dysfunction (ED) and atherosclerosis. Silencing of KRIT1 in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) resulted in increased expression of endothelial proinflammatory adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and in enhanced susceptibility to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced apoptosis. These effects were associated with a downregulation of Notch1 activation that could be rescued by antioxidant treatment, suggesting that they are consequent to altered intracellular redox homeostasis induced by KRIT1 loss-of-function. Furthermore, analysis of the aorta of heterozygous KRIT1+/- mice fed a high-fructose diet to induce systemic oxidative stress and inflammation demonstrated a 1.6-fold increased expression of VCAM-1 and an approximately 2-fold enhanced fat accumulation (7.5% vs 3.6%) in atherosclerosis-prone regions, including the aortic arch and aortic root, as compared to corresponding wild-type littermates. In conclusion, we found that KRIT1 deficiency promotes ED, suggesting that, besides CCM, KRIT1 may be implicated in genetic susceptibility to the development of atherosclerotic lesions.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína KRIT1/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Proteína KRIT1/deficiência , Proteína KRIT1/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191522

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease that can cause coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, depending on which arteries are affected. At the beginning of atherosclerosis plasma lipoproteins accumulate in the sub-endothelial space. In response, monocytes migrate from the circulation through the endothelium into the intima where they differentiate into macrophages. These early events trigger a complex immune response that eventually involves many cellular subtypes of both innate and adaptive immunity. The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved cell signaling system that mediates cell-to-cell communication. Recent studies have revealed that Notch modulate atherosclerosis by controlling macrophages polarization into M1 or M2 subtypes. Furthermore, it is known that Notch signaling controls differentiation and activity of T-helper and cytotoxic T-cells in inflammatory diseases. In this review, we will discuss the role of Notch in modulating immunity in the context of atherosclerosis and whether targeting Notch may represent a therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Receptores Notch/imunologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia
16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 189: 87-100, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817989

RESUMO

Estrogen regulates a plethora of biological processes, under physiological and pathological conditions, by affecting key pathways involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, fate, survival and metabolism. The Notch receptors are mediators of communication between adjacent cells and are key determinants of cell fate during development and in postnatal life. Crosstalk between estrogen and the Notch pathway intervenes in many processes underlying the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system. The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between these types of endocrine and juxtacrine signaling are leading to a deeper understanding of physiological conditions regulated by these steroid hormones and, potentially, to novel therapeutic approaches to prevent pathologies linked to reduced levels of estrogen, such as coronary heart disease, and cardiotoxicity caused by hormone therapy for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
17.
Front Physiol ; 10: 217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914970

RESUMO

Background: Red yeast rice supplements are broadly accepted as treatment for dyslipidaemia in subjects without high cardiovascular (CV) risk. Their effect on lipid profile is well known, but few data are available on their effect on endothelial function. Objectives: To study the effect of a novel nutraceutical compound (NC) containing low monacolin K dose, polymethoxyflavones and antioxidants on lipid profile, endothelial function and oxidative stress. Methods: Fifty-two subjects with low-moderate CV risk and dyslipidaemia (according to European guidelines) were enrolled and treated for 8 weeks with the NC. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of treatment to assess changes in lipid profile, endothelial function and oxidative stress. The primary endpoint was the reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Endothelial function was assessed through measurement of rate of apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with subject's serum. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) were markers of oxidative stress. Results: Fifty subjects completed the study. The treatment caused a significant decrease in LDL (-15.6%, p < 0.001), oxLDL (-21.5%, p < 0.001), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, and ApoB. Apoptosis rate of HUVECs significantly decreased (-15.9%, p < 0.001). No changes were noted for NO levels and 4-HNE protein adducts. The reduction of the apoptosis rate was correlated to the reduction of oxLDL. Conclusion: An 8-week treatment based on a novel NC containing low manocolin K dose, polymethoxyflavones and antioxidants improved lipid profile in subjects with dyslipidaemia and low-moderate CV risk. Secondarily, we observed an improvement in surrogate markers of endothelial function that may result from the reduction of oxLDL (Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03216811).

18.
Front Physiol ; 9: 521, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867564

RESUMO

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is an estrogen receptor expressed in the cardiovascular system. G1, a selective GPER ligand, exerts cardiovascular effects through activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway and Notch signaling in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether the G1/GPER interaction is involved in the limitation of infarct size, and improvement of post-ischemic contractile function in female spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) hearts. In this model, we also studied Notch signaling and key components of survival pathway, namely PI3K-Akt, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and mitochondrial K+-ATP (MitoKATP) channels. Rat hearts isolated from female SHR underwent 30 min of global, normothermic ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. G1 (10 nM) alone or specific inhibitors of GPER, PI3K/NOS and MitoKATP channels co-infused with G1, just before I/R, were studied. The involvement of Notch1 was studied by Western blotting. Infarct size and left ventricular pressure were measured. To confirm endothelial-independent G1-induced protection by Notch signaling, H9c2 cells were studied with specific inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5 difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, 5 µM), of this signaling. Using DAPT, we confirmed the involvement of G1/Notch signaling in limiting infarct size in heart of normotensive animals. In the hypertensive model, G1-induced reduction in infarct size and improvement of cardiac function were prevented by the inhibition of GPER, PI3K/NOS, and MitoKATP channels. The involvement of Notch was confirmed by western blot in the hypertensive model and by the specific inhibitor in the normotensive model and cardiac cell line. Our results suggest that GPERs play a pivotal role in mediating preconditioning cardioprotection in normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The G1-induced protection involves Notch1 and is able to activate the survival pathway in the presence of comorbidity. Several pathological conditions, including hypertension, reduce the efficacy of ischemic conditioning strategies. However, G1-induced protection can result in significant reduction of I/R injury also female in hypertensive animals. Further studies may ascertain the clinical translation of the present results.

19.
Front Physiol ; 9: 337, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29686623

RESUMO

Ticagrelor is one of the most powerful P2Y12 inhibitor. We have recently reported that, in patients with concomitant Stable Coronary Artery Disease (SCAD) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), treatment with ticagrelor, as compared to clopidogrel, is associated with an improvement of the endothelial function (Clinical Trial NCT02519608). In the present study, we showed that, in the same population, after 1 month treatment with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel, there is a decrease of the circulating levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and that these changes in circulating levels of EGF correlate with on-treatment platelet reactivity. Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) incubated with sera of the patients treated with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel there is an increase of p-eNOS levels. Finally, analyzing the changes in EGF and p-eNOS levels after treatment, we observed an inverse correlation between p-eNOS and EGF changes only in the ticagrelor group. Causality between EGF and eNOS activation was assessed in vitro in HUVEC where we showed that EGF decreases eNOS activity in a dose dependent manner. Taken together our data indicate that ticagrelor improves endothelial function by lowering circulating EGF that results in the activation of eNOS in the vascular endothelium.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 292(44): 18178-18191, 2017 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28893903

RESUMO

Unlike age-matched men, premenopausal women benefit from cardiovascular protection. Estrogens protect against apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs), one of the hallmarks of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disorders, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The inflammatory cytokine TNFα causes EC apoptosis while dysregulating the Notch pathway, a major contributor to EC survival. We have previously reported that 17ß-estradiol (E2) treatment activates Notch signaling in ECs. Here, we sought to assess whether in TNFα-induced inflammation Notch is involved in E2-mediated protection of the endothelium. We treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with E2, TNFα, or both and found that E2 counteracts TNFα-induced apoptosis. When Notch1 was inhibited, this E2-mediated protection was not observed, whereas ectopic overexpression of Notch1 diminished TNFα-induced apoptosis. Moreover, TNFα reduced the levels of active Notch1 protein, which were partially restored by E2 treatment. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of estrogen receptor ß (ERß), but not ERα, abolished the effect of E2 on apoptosis. Additionally, the E2-mediated regulation of the levels of active Notch1 was abrogated after silencing ERß. In summary, our results indicate that E2 requires active Notch1 through a mechanism involving ERß to protect the endothelium in TNFα-induced inflammation. These findings could be relevant for assessing the efficacy and applicability of menopausal hormone treatment, because they may indicate that in women with impaired Notch signaling, hormone therapy might not effectively protect the endothelium.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/agonistas , Receptor Notch1/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/agonistas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/agonistas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Receptor Notch1/química , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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